You are on page 1of 61

BAB 2: Pandangan Semesta Islam Chapter 2: Islamic Worldview

Allah says in Surah Al-Ikhlas which means: 1. Say (O Muhammad (Sal-Allaahu 'alayhe Wa Sallam)): "He is Allh, (the) One. 2. He the Self-Sufficient master, whom All creatures need, He neither eats nor drinks. 3. "He begets not, nor was He begotten; 4. "And there is none co-equal or comparable unto him." Allah is: The one and Only; The Eternal, Absolute; He begetteth not, nor is He begotten; There is none like unto Him.

1. The Concept of God, Man and Nature

The purpose for the creation of mankind and mans role as stated in the Quran is that human beings have been placed on the earth as Gods representative or Khalifah. The Quranic doctrine of vicegerent or Khlifah placed man in the role of: i. Amanah or trustee, ii. and custodian of the earth, iii. thus responsible for building the earth and utilizing its resources with a sense of justice to oneself and to fellow mankind. Nature is mans testing ground. Man is instructed to read its signs and Allahs creations in order to understand God. Thus, Muslims developed natural science in order to understand God and fulfil their role as Gods representatives.

1. The Concept of God, Man and Nature (2)

The Concepts of Huquq (Rights/Obligations) and Masuliyyat (Responsibilities)

Allah creates men and genies to solely worship Allah and not to associate anything with Him. Allah says which means: And I (Allh) created not the jinns and humans except they should Worship Me (Alone)." (Az-Zariyat:56) Allah has only created Jinns and men, that they may serve Him alone.

The Prophet (SAW.) asked his friend, Mu'az bin Jabal: O Mu'az, do you know your rights and rights of Allah and the rights of servant on Allah?' Mu'az then said: 'Allah and His Messenger know better. He then said: "Surely the right of His slaves on Him is to worship Him and not associate him with the others. As for the rights of the servant of God is that He will not punish His slaves who do not associate him with the others(Bukhari and Muslim)

The Rights of Man and the Rights of Allah

The Rights of Allah

And the Prophet s.a.w. says which means: "The right of Allah upon His servants is that they worship Him and not associate anything with Him." (Bukhari a nd Muslim)

The Rights of Allah (2)


Provides regulations, rules and guidelines for life. Determination of law of nature - Sunnatullah Provides assurance on the law of nature and the world which have been ordained by God. Provides Laws and regulations for the happiness and well-being in this world and hereafter which derived from revelation.

The Rights of Allah (3)

Provide Freedom of Choice of Good or Bad -Role of Reason and Thinking -Thinking, Review of and Research on things and matters that are allowed in Islam

The Rights of Allah (4)

Provides trust (amanah)that was placed by Allah s.w.t. on man as Khalifah of Allah (vicegerent) on earth and to: i. manage, ii. administer, and iii. develop this world.

The Rights of Man

In a hadith the Prophet said, Verily! For God you have a right, for you yourselves have a right, and for you to your family have a right. Give each of which has a right a right."

The Rights of Man (2)


To worship Allah sincerely. Indeed, we humans have a responsibility to God that must be exercised. What are the responsibilities? Allah explains: Allah has not created the jinns and mankind except to worship Him.

The Rights of Man (3)

Worshipping Allah means to worship Allah, obey the commandments without much question. Worship also means fulfilling the commandments and leave as a whole what is forbidden by Allah SWT.

The Rights of Man (4)


Rights to themselves. After we perform our devotion to Allah, we are ordered to perform our own rights. Allah says in Surah al-Baqarah, 195, which means: "and spend In the Cause of Allh (i.e. Jihd of All kinds, etc.) and do not throw yourselves into destruction (by not spending your wealth In the Cause of Allh), and do good. Truly, Allh loves AlMuhsinn (the good-doers).

The Rights of Man (4a)

Allah asks us to spend our substance in the cause of Allah, and do not contribute destruction. Do good. Allah loves those who do good.

The Rights of Man (5)

Our health and body are entrusted by Allah, so we need to preserve and protect it. Our right to ourselves is to keep our own good name and morality. These are the rights of ourselves that we must keep safeguard.

The Rights of Man to Family


For believers, we need to save ourselves and our families from a Fire whose fuel is men and stones. Allah says in Surah at-Tahrim: 6: O You who believe! Ward off from yourselves and your families a Fire (Hell) whose fuel is men and stones, over which are (appointed) angels stern (and) severe, who disobey not, (from executing) the commands they receive from Allh, but do that which they are commanded.

Our family is a trust of Allah to us. All the problems facing our society today, is cause by the attitude of the heads of families who neglect their responsibilities to their own families. Early religious and academic education to children and family members is very important as we plan the future of their lives.

The Rights of Man to Family (1)

Give them foods and drinks. Make sure it comes from the truly clean sources and halal. The Prophet said in the Hadith which means: Flesh-meat which grows from an illegitimate source, then the Fire are waiting to burn. Watch your income resources, let it really halal, let us really worthy to receive it."

The Rights of Man to Family (2)

The Rights of Man to Family (3)

Allah S.W.T reminds us in surah Al-Taghabun: 15 which means: Your wealth and your children are only a trial, whereas Allh with Him is a great reward (Paradise).

The Confidence of Muslim on Halal Bounties

Anticedent Stimuli

Belief that Allah will give bounties and barakah (blessings)

Confident that Allah will gives the best rewards

Consistent in taking halal resources abd avoid consuming haram products

Changing of attitude and high performance

The end results of iman and piety, Allah will creates good soul and heart

High culture and quality of working

Belief that Allah will increase the bounties

The Impact of Halal Resources on Man

Halal Resources

Obligation and consistency

Positive impacts Paradise

Halal Consuption: Spiritual Satisfaction Model 1.

Happy working/worship ping Halal Resources

Satisfaction in obeying Allahs commandment and avoiding all the forbidden

The sweetness and beauty of iman /Spiritual Satisfaction

Halal Consumption: Spiritual Satisfaction - Model 2.

Passed Allahs trial Feeling guilty giving priority to materialistic Halal matters until resources / forgotten Intrinsic religious motives responsibility

The feeling of happy in practising good deeds (marufat)

Completing the role as vicegerent of Allah (Khalifah Allah) / Pious Man (Insanul Soleh)

The Rights of Man (6)

Recognize the Creator and Self Knowing oneself truly. Knowing Allah truly and duly. Recognize the unique creation of nature and how this will invite to the understanding of the greatness of Allah and His

The Rights of Man (7)


Develop oneself through learning and knowledge either Fardu Al-Ain or Fardu Al-Kifayah. - Knowing Allah's word of commands -Develop the self, society and religion -To obtain happiness in this world and Hereafter -Combating the negative elements (Al-Munkarat)

The Rights of Man (8)

To prepare ourselves for the Hereafter. The concept of virtue in the world brought good deeds into the afterlife and vice versa All walks of life will be appraised and evaluated in the Hereafter

The Rights of Nature


The ecology of environment works in accordance with the ecosystem and the whole system has been enshrined/determined since the beginning (azali) and follows the law of nature of Allah. There is the beginning and end of this world and nature. The universe will end when the time arrives (the arrival of the Day of Judgment)

The Rights of Nature (1)


Nature and whats covering it are for the benefit of mankind. Utilize nature for the purpose of worship The purpose for the creation of mankind and Mans role as stated in the Quran is that human beings have been placed on the earth as Allahs representative or Khalifah.

The Rights of Nature (2)


The Quranic doctrine of vice-regent or Khlifah placed Man in the role of Amna or trustee and custodian of the earth. Thus, responsible for building the earth and utilizing its resources with a sense of justice to oneself and to fellow mankind. While nature can be said to be mans testing ground, man is instructed to read its signs in order to understand God.

The Rights of Nature (3)

Thus, Muslims developed natural science in order to understand God and fulfill their role as Gods representatives. Nature needs to be protected and preserved. For the sake of mankind, nature and all creations.

The Rights of Nature (4)

The usage of nature: i. is for the sake of wellness of mans life, ii. worship and iii. as a proof of the uniqueness of Allahs creative creation.

Integrated Relations of Allah, Man and Nature


In the view of Islam, man and nature are the creations of Allah. They are equal in terms of creations. But man are placed in the highest rank among all creations because of its potential intellect and uniqueness. Furthermore, man was produced with guidance i.e. AlIslam which is completed and played a vital role in human life. To fulfill mans responsibility on Allah, mankind have to follow guidance of Allah and there is an integration between Allah, man and nature. The whole set of comprehensive role of man is called taabbudiyyah(total worship).

Integrated Relations of Allah, Man and Nature (2)


Islam teaches its adherents that they are the vicegerent on earth, in order to balance the life in the world and life in the hereafter accordingly. In addition, to encourage its followers to gain rewards of Allah in the hereafter, Islam never prohibits its followers from working for a healthier lifestyle in the world. Only the methods recommended by Islam to strive hard to attain the worldly gains are different from other systems of human creations.

Greenhouse effect is a phenomenon in which the world experienced warming due to heat trapped in the earth's atmosphere. This heat is trapped by the presence of several types of gases, especially carbon dioxide gas that acts as if a blanket covering the earth's atmosphere. Blanket of heat allows the gas to penetrate, but blocks out into space.

Protection and Preservation of Nature

How Does the Greenhouse Happened?


This greenhouse effect occurs when ultraviolet rays penetrate the ozone layer and the earth's atmosphere as well as land. It is capable of heating the earth's surface. Some of the heat input with ultra-violet radiation is reflected back by the earth just as infrared radiation. Heat energy from infrared radiation is however not pass the earth's atmosphere due to gas trapped by the blanket of gases such as carbon dioxide (in particular), nitrogen monoxide, methane and water vapor. Trapped heat raises the temperature above the earth. Pollutant gases such as nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide also increase heat trapping.

The Effects of Green House


A. Sea Level Rise/Sea Level Increased Increased temperature can result in dilution of chunks of ice in the Arctic and Antarctica. This ice melt causing sea level rise in the area. This caused flooding in coastal areas in other places such as in coastal cities in Bangladesh. Sea level rise will also cause sea water overflowing into agricultural land by the beach and cause salinity (saltiness) of the land occurs. This makes the land unsuitable for agriculture again.

The Effects of Green House (2) B. Climate Change


The Increase of the heat also causes changes in the wind and currents. This can cause natural disasters such as storms and hurricanes occur more frequently than normal and occur in places that previously never experienced. The increase of too much heat can also cause extreme climatic events in which the drought too dry or too frequent flooding and high. This can resulted in damage to crops and forests. Increase heat also can change rainfall and water resources in any area of the world. It is also a problem for agriculture and reforestation.

The Effects of Green House (3) C. Human Health Affected


Extreme temperature changes can cause symptoms of the heat wave in certain areas. It may cause people in the area, particularly the elderly experiencing heatstroke which can lead to death. Sea level rise and flooding can lead to lack of fresh water resources and water pollution also can cause some diseases occur such as diarrhea, cholera and others.

The Effects of Green House (4)


d. Daily activities of humans and human settlements also affected.
Increase in temperature also affect marine ecosystems. Changes in climate zones as well as current changes affecting the habitat of marine life. This undermines efforts of fishery enhancement activities and aquatic animals life are endangered. Droughts and storms could disrupt electricity supply in an area. Disruption to the electricity supply will affect activities such as industrial, manufacturing and others that will affect the economy of an area. Coastal areas which will affect by flood and would cause them to move to another area for a better and safer life.

Definition of Epistemology
A branch of Western philosophy, is the study of human knowledge. In Western philosophy, epistemology asks the following questions: i. What do we know? ii. On what can we base certainty? iii. How do we know things? iv. How do we manage with uncertain knowledge?

Definition of Epistemology

Although most cultures deal with these questions in some form or another, the Western philosophical tradition is more or less unique in its insistence on abstracting these questions into a separate line of inquiry.

Islamic Epistemology

The meaning of epistemology Theory of knowledge and discussion on: truth, content, sources, and the learning and teaching process as well as the usage of knowledge.

The Theory of Knowledge in Islam


What can we be known? How can we discover something? Sources or tools that can make us know about something? Hierarchy of knowledge (science). Hierarchy of source of knowledge (science).

What can we be known?

Everything with Allah permission. Everything that is allowed. We cannot know something which is beyond our life and nature i.e. ghaibiyyat (supernatural)

How can we discover things?


Through Al-Quran Al-Sunnah Inspiration from Allah (Ilham) - stimulation for the human mind to creative thought or to the making of art with Allahs permission. Intuition (sixth sense) - the state of being aware of or knowing something without having to discover or perceive it, or the ability to do this with Allahs permission. Intellect/Mind (Al-Aql) Five senses

Through AL-QURAN and AL-SUNNAH With these two major sources we can discover faith (aqidah), syariah, ethics and morality (akhlaq) and all matters regarding public dealings (muamalat). We also can discover all matters regarding Allah and theology. Unseen matters (Ghaibiyyat)

Sources or tools that can make us know about something?

Hierarchy of knowledge (science).

Religious knowledge (Through Al-Quran) Worldly knowledge (Through learning and observation) Empirical knowledge (through empirical studies)

Empirical knowledge (through empirical studies)


SOURCE OF KNOWLEDGE ACQUISITION Of THE WEST: A. Mind/Intellect (Primary) B. Sensory C. Empirical Knowledge, experimental. Lab testing and observation. Can the existence of God be traced solely by these three sources of knowledge? No..!! These are the problems of Western epistemology!!!

Hierarchy of Knowledge Achievers

1. Prophets (RASUL and NABI) 2. Selected peoples (WALI) 3. People of Wisdom (HUKAMA) 4. The Publics (Normal Person)

Hierarchy of source of knowledge (science).


1. Al-Quran 2. Al-Sunnah 3. Inspiration from Allah (Ilham) stimulation for the human mind to creative thought or to the making of art with Allahs permission.
4. Intuition (sixth sense) the state of being aware of or knowing something without having to discover or perceive it, or the ability to do this with Allahs permission. 5. Intellect/Mind (Al-Aql) 6. Five senses 7. Empirical Studies

Hierarchy of source of knowledge (science). A Comparison Between and Western Perspectives


Islamic Perspectives 1. Al-Quran 2. Al-Sunnah 3. Inspiration from Allah (Ilham) 4. Intuition (sixth sense) 5. Intellect/Mind (Al-Aql) 6. Five senses 7. Empirical Studies Western Perspectives

1. Empirical Studies 2. Intellect/Mind (Al-Aql) 3. Rationale 4. Five senses

The concept of knowledge in Islam is very different from the concepts of Western science. The word knowledge as used in the West comes from the Latin scientia. As Western science focuses on the knowledge gained from a rational mind, it implies the rational knowledge of the West. From the Western point of view, the acquisition of knowledge is objective and free from value judgments. By contrast, Islamic Science is controlled by Islamic values, which is "a science whose processes and methodologies incorporate the spirit of Islamic values.

The Concept of Knowledge in Islam

The concept of knowledge (ilm) in Islam is divided into two types: A. Absolute truth that can be trusted with full confidence (YAQIN) as found in the Qur'an and B. Rational knowledge is confirmed by means of the empirical process of moving from ZANN (expectations, uncertainty) to YAQIN (certainty)

The Concept of Knowledge in Islam (2)

The Concept of Knowledge in Islam (3)

In general, the first type of knowledge is an absolute revelation knowledge and the second type corresponds to rational knowledge.

The Concept of Knowledge in Islam (4)


VALUE OF SCIENCE (SCIENCE AND KNOWLEDGE) In ISLAM Science as a human activity is also subject to the moral philosophy of Islam. There are 10 basic practice of Islamic values in Islamic Science: 1. tawhid, 2. caliphate (the same as caliph), 3. worship, 4. ilm, 5. halal, 6. haram, 7. adl, 8. cruel, 9. istislah, and 10. Dhiya

The Concept of Knowledge in Islam (5)


All knowledge that is destructive, physically, materially, emotionally, culturally, environmentally and spiritually, is
Thus scientific activity that promotes social justice and considers public interest to be important is halal, while that science and technology which promotes alienation and dehumanization, consumerism and concentration of wealth in fewer and fewer hands, unemployment and environmental destruction is zalim and therefore haram.

haram;

while all that promotes these societal parameters is

halal.

A major characteristic of zalim science is that it destroys human, environmental and spiritual resources and generates waste. Such science is therefore categorized as dhiya (wasteful). Scientific activity that promotes adl draws its legitimacy from istislah or public interest, which is the chief supplementary source of Islamic law.

The Concept of Knowledge in Islam (6)

The Concept of Values in Islam


Value means the accepted principles or standards of a religion, person or a group. In this sense, Islamic values mean the accepted principles or standards of Islam which was revealed by Allah through the prophet Muhammad SAW.

The Concept of Values in Islam (1)


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Obligatory (WAJIB) Encouraged (SUNAT) Neutral (HARUS) Hated (MAKRUH) Not Permissible (HARAM)

The Concept of Values in Islam (2)


Islam recognizes that scientific knowledge is not necessarily neutral and objective, but instead carries values and concepts that are explicit to modern Western culture. Therefore this has resulted in a concerted effort by contemporary Islamic scholars to call for an Islamic science or the Islamization of knowledge.

References
Amini Amir Abdullah, The Concept of Islamic Morality According to Imam Al-Ghazali (Konsep Akhlak Islamiah Menurut Imam AlGhazali), Bachelor of Islamic Theology Dissertation, Faculty of Islamic Theology, Islamic Academy, University of Malaya, Pantai Valley, Kuala Lumpur, 1990 (In Malay language). Amini Amir Abdullah, Islamic Thoughts: The Role of The Reformists and The Challenges of Contemporary School of Thoughts, (Pemikiran Islam: Peranan Tokoh-tokoh Reformis dan Cabaran Aliran Pemikiran Semasa), M.A. Thesis, University Science of Malaysia, Minden, Penang, Malaysia, 1995 (In Malay Language). Amini Amir Abdullah, Islamic Revivalism in Malaysia: The Response of the Non-Muslims in the Lembah Pantai Constituency, Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom, 2000. Ball, C., and Haque, A. (2003) Diversity in Religious Practice: Implications of Islamic Values in the Public Workplace. Public