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Self Concept & Self Esteem

By Prof dr. Nehad Helmy

It is your duty to find yourself.

John Maxwell

Lecture Outlines

Self-concept What shaped these personality traits? Description of self concept: Formation of self concept Factors affecting self concept Components of self concept High risk factors of self concept disturbance Self Esteem and Self Worth Components of self esteem Self esteem and behavior Consequences of having low self esteem:

Self-concept is your self-appraisal. Included within it is everything you think and feel about yourself. The self-concept is normally viewed as being composed of relatively permanent self-assessments
I am lazy vs. I am tired

What do you want? Where do you want to go? What are your goals? What are your likes/dislikes?


These are the elements that make up who you are.

What shaped these personality traits?


makes you the way you are?

Family Friends Beliefs

Description of self concept:

1) Self knowledge.. Who am I? We will usually answer this question " who am I" using these classifications.. Our gender. Our age. Our family relationship or roles. Our marital status. Our occupation. Our nationality. Our culture.

Formation of self concept:

Two types of others are critical in the development of the self A) The significant others: refers to people who are important to an individual, whose opinions matter. B) The generalized other : refers to a conception of the community, group, or any organized system of roles (e.g., a baseball team) that are used as a point of reference from which to view the self.

Factors affecting self concept:

1-Developmental consideration. 2-History of success and failure. 3-Cultural factors. Different people have different customs and different way of thinking. These influences affect the way we think and called cultural influences.

Factors affecting self concept:

4-Stressors. 5-Aging . (Table) Self concept changes as well as we get older. 6-Illness or trauma.

Factors affecting self concept:

Young children Older children Limited to descriptions of themselves, like boy/girl. Provide much more detailed

descriptions, hair, eye color,

address Adolescent Adults Elderly Self concept can be as form of beliefs, like/dislike. Can explain themselves as quality of life and personality. May have developed more self knowledge and wisdom.

Components of self concept:


Personal identity. Questions about how an individual at one time is the same individual at another time 2- Self image (The view you have of yourself) This does not necessarily have to reflect reality. Indeed a person with anorexia who is thin may have a self image in which the person believes they are fat. A person's self image is affected by many factors, such as parental influences, friends, the media etc.

Components of self concept:


Role performance. This concept relates to how successfully you play your prescribed role. 4- Self esteem or self worth (How much value you place on yourself ).

High risk factors of self concept disturbance:

1-Lack of good relationships. Includes relationship with friends, peer, siblings, etc. 2-Have a low grade position and less money in the community. The things the person's own, are reflecting who they are. 3-Suffering from poor health and care. Current level of health and fitness reflect how do the person's value his self.

High risk factors of self concept disturbance:


Lack of confidence about own abilities in work. Are you confident about your abilities? Or do you doubt your ability to complete a certain task? 5- Unsatisfactory self image. Do you make an effort to look good? Are you happy with the way you look? Do you dislike a certain part of your body?

Characteristics of low self concept:

Signs of grieving, anger, despairs. Refusal to participate in own care or take responsibility for self neglect. Self destructive behavior( alcohol, drug abuse) Displaying hostility toward healthy people. Withdrawal from social contacts. Changing usual patterns of responsibility.

*Intrapersonal communication: communication with yourself

able to communicate with yourself is the first and most crucial step in communication. You must be able to communicate with yourself before you can communicate with others.


How do we communicate with ourselves?


dreaming talking to yourself writing sense-making e.g. interpreting maps, problem solving

you think of any more??

Why is intrapersonal communication helpful? It often helps us make sense of our


For example, think back to the first day of school.

Knowing these things about ourselves gives us insight.

For example, a love of soccer could show a competitive nature or interest in music could show an artistic side.

Self Esteem and Self Worth (the extent to which you value yourself)


esteem refers to the extent to which we like accept or approve of ourselves or how much we value ourselves.

Components of self esteem:

1- Self efficacy.

It has been defined as the belief that one is capable of performing in a certain manner to attain certain goals.

2- Self respect.

It is the proper esteem or regard for the dignity of one's character.

Development of self esteem:


Early childhood:

five years old. Self esteem forming is not measurable in this time. Because competence and worthiness, operate independently of each other

Development of self esteem:


Middle childhood:

five to eight years old. Self esteem id increasingly defined. They begin to make judgments about their self worth and competence, eg..physical appearance.

Development of self esteem:



As adults we are confronted by many situations that affect our levels of selfesteem. These are success-failure experiences where individuals either deal successfully or unsuccessfully with a situation. Example, Romantic relationships, peer relationships.


THE REACTION OF OTHERS. If people seek out our company, listen attentively and agree with us we tend to develop a positive self-image. If they avoid us, neglect us, tell us things about ourselves that we dont want to hear we develop a negative self-image.

Sources of self esteem:

Sources of self esteem:


COMPARISON WITH OTHERS. If the people we compare ourselves with (our reference group) appear to be more successful, happier, richer, better looking than ourselves we tend to develop a negative self image. BUT if they are less successful than us our image will be positive.

Sources of self esteem:

3- SOCIAL ROLES. Some social roles carry prestige e.g. doctor, airline pilot, TV. presenter, premiership footballer and this promotes self-esteem.

Other roles carry stigma. E.g. prisoner, mental hospital patient, refuse collector or unemployed person.

Sources of self esteem:


IDENTIFICATION. We identity with the positions we occupy, the roles we play and the groups we belong to.

Self esteem and behavior:


Esteem behavior is based on the belief that person's need is important, but not more than the needs of others. It is an alternative to.. Aggressive behavior: Which stems from the belief that the person's needs override those of others

Self esteem and behavior:

Submissive behavior: Which arises from the belief that the person's needs are less important than those of other people.

Characteristics of people with HIGH, LOW self esteem:


)HIGH SELF ESTEEM i.e. we have a positive view of ourselves. This tends to lead to: Confidence in our own abilities Self acceptance Not worrying about what others think Optimism

Characteristics of people with HIGH, LOW self esteem:


LOW SELF ESTEEM i.e. we have a negative view of ourselves. This tends to lead to: Lack of confidence Want to be/look like someone else Always worrying what others might think Pessimism

Consequences of having low self esteem:

1 The


person with low self esteem tend to feel that he is inadequate and incapable of doing things others can do easily. Feel that he is un-liked. As a result, would choose to stay away from the places where activities are happening.

Consequences of having low self esteem: 2- Eating disorder:


common in girls. Like, anorexia nervosa.

3 This

Lack of self confidence:

person would turn out to be lacking with the ability to confidently prove to others that he can do certain things.

Consequences of having low self esteem: 4- Poor performance:


poorly in the tasks in front of him.

5 Lack

Poor social life:

the capability to interact normally with others. Can not join groups due to the feel of failure.


3. 4. 5.

7. 8. 9.

11. 12.

Tell yourself that you are a wonderful person who DESRVE to be happy. Start with the simple, small things to gain confidence. Dont always try to please others. Be your own person. Avoid negative people. Face your fears and learn from your failure. Stop the negative thoughts. Do something to impress yourself. Improve your self confidence. Dont worry about being perfect. Learn to appreciate yourself. Reward yourself when you succeed.

How to build self esteem:


Thank you