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Marketing 334 Consumer Behavior

Chapter 9 Learning, Memory and product Positioning

From: Consumer Behavior by Hawkins, Mothersbaugh and Best

Positioning Strategy
Product Position
The perception consumers have about the product relative to competing products

Reinforce existing positive perceptions Reduce any negative perceptions Create new positive associations

A change in content or organization of long term memory or behavior
the result of information processing

Memorys Role in Learning

Memory consists of two interrelated components:
1. Short-term Memory (STM) a.k.a. working memory


is that portion of total memory that is currently activated or in use. is that portion of total memory devoted to permanent information storage.

Long-term Memory (LTM)

Semantic memory
Episodic memory

Memorys Role in Learning

Short-Term Memory
STM is Short Lived STM has Limited Capacity Elaborative Activities Occur in STM


Fisher Price

Courtesy Fisher-Price

Memorys Role in Learning

Long-Term Memory
Schemas (a.k.a. schematic memory) Scripts Retrieval from LTM


Memorys Role in Learning

A Partial Schematic Memory for Mountain Dew

Learning Under High and Low Involvement

High Involvement Learning
The consumer is motivated to process or learn the material

Low Involvement Learning

The consumer has little or no motivation to process or learn the material

Nature's Way

1996 Natures Way Products, Inc.

Jell-O Pudding

1996 Kraft Foods, Inc.

Learning Under High and Low Involvement

Classical conditioning is the process of using an established relationship between one stimulus (music) and response (pleasant feelings) to bring about the learning of the same response (pleasant feelings) to a different stimulus (the brand).

Learning Under High and Low Involvement

Operant conditioning (or instrumental learning) involves rewarding desirable behaviors such as brand purchases with a positive outcome that serves to reinforce the behavior.

Learning Under High and Low Involvement

Shaping Can Be Used in Operant Conditioning

Learning Under High and Low Involvement

Cognitive Learning
1. Iconic Rote Learning

2. Vicarious Learning/Modeling 3. Analytical Reasoning


American Egg Board

1996 American Egg Board

Learning to Generalize and Differentiate

Stimulus Discrimination
Stimulus Generalization

Hershey Tastetations

Hershey Corporation

Learning, Memory, and Retrieval

Marketers want consumers to learn and remember positive features, feelings, and behaviors associated with their brands.

Learning, Memory, and Retrieval

Strength of Learning

Memory Interference

Response Environment


Learning, Memory, and Retrieval

Strength of Learning
Strength of learning is enhanced by six factors: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Importance Message Involvement Mood Reinforcement Repetition


Dual Coding

Learning, Memory, and Retrieval

Memory interference occurs when consumers have difficulty retrieving a specific piece of information because other related information in memory gets in the way. Avoid competing ads

Strengthen initial learning

Reduce similarity to competing ads Provide external retrieval cues

Brand Image and Product Positioning

Brand image refers to the schematic memory of a brand.

Brand Image and Product Positioning

Product positioning strategy is a decision by a marketer to try to achieve a defined brand image relative to competition within a market segment. An important component of brand image is the appropriate usage situations for the product or brand.

Perceptual mapping offers marketing managers a useful technique for measuring and developing a products position.

Brand Image and Product Positioning

Perceptual Map for Automobiles

Brand Image and Product Positioning

Product repositioning refers to a deliberate decision to significantly alter the way the market views a product. This can involve level of performance the feelings it evokes the situations in which it should be used, or who uses the product

Brand Equity and Brand Leverage

Brand equity is the value consumers assign to a brand above and beyond the functional characteristics of the product. Brand leverage, often termed family branding, brand extensions, or umbrella branding, refers to marketers capitalizing on brand equity by using an existing brand name for new products.