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# Power divider, combiner and

coupler
By
Professor Syed Idris Syed Hassan
Sch of Elect. & Electron Eng
Engineering Campus USM
Nibong Tebal 14300
SPS Penang
Power divider and combiner/coupler
divider
combiner
P
1

P
2
= nP
1

P
3
=(1-n)P
1

P
1

P
2

P
3
=P
1
+P
2

Divide into 4 output
Basic
S-parameter for power divider/coupler
| |
(
(
(

=
33 32 31
23 22 21
13 12 11
S S S
S S S
S S S
S
Generally
For reciprocal and lossless network
j i for S S
N
k
kj ki
= =

=
0
1
*
1
1
*
=

=
N
k
ki
ki
S S
1
13 12 11
= + + S S S
1
23 22 21
= + + S S S
1
33 32 31
= + + S S S
0
*
23 13
*
22 12
*
21 11
= + + S S S S S S
0
*
33 23
*
32 22
*
31 21
= + + S S S S S S
0
*
33 13
*
32 12
*
31 11
= + + S S S S S S
Row 1x row 2
Row 2x row 3
Row 1x row 3
Continue
If all ports are matched properly , then S
ii
= 0
| |
(
(
(

=
0
0
0
23 13
23 12
13 12
S S
S S
S S
S
For Reciprocal
network
For lossless network, must satisfy unitary
condition
1
2
13
2
12
= + S S
1
2
23
2
12
= + S S
1
2
23
2
13
= + S S
0
12
*
23
= S S
0
23
*
13
= S S
0
13
*
12
= S S
Two of (S
12
, S
13
, S
23
) must be zero but it is not consistent. If S
12
=S
13
= 0, then
S
23
should equal to 1 and the first equation will not equal to 1. This is invalid.
Another alternative for reciprocal network
| |
(
(
(

=
33 23 13
23 12
13 12
0
0
S S S
S S
S S
S
Only two ports are matched , then for reciprocal network
For lossless network, must satisfy unitary
condition
1
2
13
2
12
= + S S
1
2
23
2
12
= + S S
1
2
33
2
23
2
13
= + + S S S
0
13
*
33 12
*
23
= + S S S S
0
23
*
13
= S S
0
33
*
23 13
*
12
= + S S S S
The two equations show
that |S
13
|=|S
23
|
thus S
13
=S
23
=0
and |S
12
|=|S
33
|=1
These have satisfied all
Reciprocal lossless network of two matched
S
21
=e
j u
S
12
=e
j u
S
33
=e
j
1
3
2
| |
(
(
(
(

u
u
j
j
j
e
e
e
S
0 0
0 0
0 0
For lossless network, must satisfy unitary
condition
1
2
13
2
12
= + S S
1
2
23
2
21
= + S S
1
2
32
2
31
= + S S
0
32
*
31
= S S
0
23
*
21
= S S
0
13
*
12
= S S
Nonreciprocal network (apply for circulator)
| |
(
(
(

=
0
0
0
32 31
23 21
13 12
S S
S S
S S
S
0
31 23 12
= = = S S S
0
13 32 21
= = = S S S
1
13 32 21
= = = S S S
1
31 23 12
= = = S S S
The above equations must satisfy the following either
or
Circulator (nonreciprocal network)
| |
(
(
(

=
0 1 0
0 0 1
1 0 0
S
| |
(
(
(

=
0 0 1
1 0 0
0 1 0
S
1
2
3
1
2
3
Four port network
| |
(
(
(
(
(

=
44 43 42 41
34
24
14
33 32 31
23 22 21
13 12 11
S S S S
S
S
S
S S S
S S S
S S S
S
Generally
For reciprocal and lossless network
j i for S S
N
k
kj ki
= =

=
0
1
*
1
1
*
=

=
N
k
ki
ki
S S
1
14 13 12 11
= + + + S S S S
1
24 23 22 21
= + + + S S S S
1
34 33 32 31
= + + + S S S S
0
*
24 14
*
23 13
*
22 12
*
21 11
= + + + S S S S S S S S
0
*
44 24
*
43 23
*
42 22
*
41 21
= + + + S S S S S S S S
0
*
34 14
*
33 13
*
32 12
*
31 11
= + + + S S S S S S S S
R 1x R 2
R 2x R3
R1x R4
1
44 43 42 41
= + + + S S S S
0
*
44 14
*
43 13
*
42 12
*
41 11
= + + + S S S S S S S S
0
*
34 24
*
33 23
*
32 22
*
31 21
= + + + S S S S S S S S
0
*
44 34
*
43 33
*
42 32
*
41 31
= + + + S S S S S S S S
R1x R3
R2x R4
R3x R4
Matched Four port network
| |
(
(
(
(
(

=
0
0
0
0
34 24 14
34
24
14
23 13
23 12
13 12
S S S
S
S
S
S S
S S
S S
S
The unitarity condition become
1
14 13 12
= + + S S S
1
24 23 12
= + + S S S
1
34 23 13
= + + S S S
0
*
24 14
*
23 13
= + S S S S
0
*
34 23
*
14 12
= + S S S S
0
*
34 14
*
23 12
= + S S S S
1
34 24 14
= + + S S S
0
*
34 13
*
24 12
= + S S S S
0
*
34 24
*
13 12
= + S S S S
0
*
24 23
*
14 13
= + S S S S
Say all ports are matched and symmetrical network, then
*
**
@
@@
#
##
To check validity
Multiply eq. * by S
24
*
and eq. ## by S
13
*
, and substract to obtain
0
2
14
2
13
*
14
=
|
.
|

\
|
S S S
Multiply eq. # by S
34
and eq. @@ by S
13
, and substract to obtain
0
2
34
2
12 23
=
|
.
|

\
|
S S S
%
\$
Both equations % and \$ will be satisfy if S
14
= S
23
= 0 . This means
that no coupling between port 1 and 4 , and between port 2 and 3 as
happening in most directional couplers.
Directional coupler
| |
(
(
(
(
(

=
0 0
0
0 0
0 0
0
34 24
34
24
13
12
13 12
S S
S
S
S
S
S S
S
If all ports matched , symmetry and S
14
=S
23
=0 to be satisfied
The equations reduce to 6 equations
1
13 12
= + S S
1
24 12
= + S S
1
34 13
= + S S
1
34 24
= + S S
0
*
34 13
*
24 12
= + S S S S
0
*
34 24
*
13 12
= + S S S S
24 13
S S = By comparing these equations yield
*
*
**
**

By comparing equations * and ** yield

34 12
S S =
Continue
| |
(
(
(
(

=
0 0
0
0 0
0 0
0
o |
o
|
|
o
| o
j
j
j
j
S
Simplified by choosing S
12
= S
34
=o ; S
13
=|e
j u
and S
24
= | e
j

Where u + = t + 2nt
| |
(
(
(
(

=
0 0
0
0 0
0 0
0
o |
o
|
|
o
| o
S
1. Symmetry Coupler u = = t/2
2. Antisymmetry Coupler u =0 , =t
2 cases
Both satisfy o
2
+|
2
=1
Physical interpretation
|S
13
|
2
= coupling factor = |
2

|S
12
|
2
= power deliver to port 2= o
2
=1- |
2

Characterization of coupler
Directivity= D= 10 log
dB
P
P
| log 20
3
1
=
Coupling= C= 10 log
dB
S P
P
14 4
3
log 20
|
=
Isolation = I= 10 log
dB S
P
P
14
4
1
log 20 =
I = D + C dB
1
4 3
2
Input
Through
Coupled Isolated
For ideal case
|S
14
|=0
Practical coupler
Hybrid 3 dB couplers
Magic -T and Rat-race couplers
u = = t/2
| |
(
(
(
(

=
0 1 0
1
0
0 0
0 0 1
1 0
2
1
j
j
j
j
S
| |
(
(
(
(

=
0 1 1 0
1
1
0
0 0 1
0 0 1
1 1 0
2
1
S
u =0 , =t
o= | = 1 /
2
o= | = 1 /
2
T-junction power divider
E-plane T
H-plane T
Microstrip T
T-model
j B
Z
1
Z
2
V
o
Y
in
2 1
1 1
Z Z
jB Y
in
+ + =
2 1
1 1
Z Z
Y
in
+ =
Lossy line
Lossless line
If Z
o
= 50,then for equally
divided power, Z
1
= Z
2
=100
Example
If source impedance equal to 50 ohm and the
power to be divided into 2:1 ratio. Determine Z
1

and Z
2

in
o
P
Z
V
P
3
1
2
1
1
2
1
= =
in
o
P
Z
V
P
3
2
2
1
2
2
2
= =
O = = 75
2
3
2
o
Z
Z
O = = 150 3
1 o
Z Z
o
o
in
Z
V
P
2
2
1
=
O = = 50 //
2 1
Z Z Z
o
Resistive divider
V
2
V
3
V
1
Z
o
Z
o
P
1
P
2
P
3
Z
o V
o
o
Z
Z
Z + =
3
Z
o
/3
Z
o
/3
Z
o
/3
o
o o
in
Z
Z Z
Z = + =
3
2
3
V V
Z Z
Z
V
o o
o
3
2
3 / 2 3 /
3 / 2
1
=
+
=
V V V
Z Z
Z
V V
o o
o
2
1
4
3
3 /
3 2
= =
+
= =
o
in
Z
V
P
2
1
2
1
=
( )
in
o
P
Z
V
P P
4
1
2 / 1
2
1
2
1
3 2
= = =
Wilkinson Power Divider
50O
50O
50O
100O
70.7O
70.7O
/4
Z
o
/2 Z
o
/2 Z
o
2Z
o
Z
o
Z
o
/4
2
2
T
e
Z
Z
in
=
o T
Z Z 2 =
For even mode
Therefore
For Z
in
=Z
o
=50 O
O = = 7 . 70 50 2
T
Z
And shunt resistor R =2 Z
o
= 100O
Analysis (even and odd mode)
2
2
1
1
Port 1
Port 2
Port 3
V
g2
V
g3
Z
Z

/
4
+V
2
+V
3
r/2
r/2

/
4
For even mode V
g2
= V
g3
and
for odd mode V
g2
= -V
g3
. Since
the circuit is symmetrical , we
can treat separately two
bisection circuit for even and
odd modes as shown in the next
slide. By superposition of these
two modes , we can find S -
parameter of the circuit. The
excitation is effectively V
g2
=4V
and V
g3
= 0V.
For simplicity all values are
normalized to line characteristic
impedance , I.e Z
o
=

50 O.
Even mode
V
g2
=V
g3
= 2V
Looking at port 2
Z
in
e
= Z
2
/2
Therefore for matching

2 = Z
then V
2
e
= V since Z
in
e
=1 (the circuit acting like voltage divider)
2
1
Port 1
Port 2
2V
Z

/
4
+V
2
e
r/2
+V
1
e
O.C O.C
out in
Z Z Z =
2
Note:
2 = Z If
To determine V
2
e
, using transmission line equation V(x) = V+ (e
-j|x
+

Ie
+j|x
) , thus
V jV V V
e
= I = =
+
) 1 ( )
4
(
2

1
1
) 1 ( ) 0 (
1
I
+ I
= I + = =
+
jV jV V V
e
Reflection at port 1, refer to is
2 2
2 2
+

= I
2 = Z
Then
2
1
jV V
e
=
Odd mode
V
g2
= - V
g3
= 2V
2
1
Port 1
Port 2
2V
Z

/
4
+V
2
o
r/2
+V
1
o
At port 2, V
1
o
=0 (short) ,
/4 transformer will be
looking as open circuit ,
thus Z
in
o
= r/2 . We choose
r =2 for matching. Hence
V
2
o
= 1V (looking as a
voltage divider)
S-parameters
S
11
= 0 (matched Z
in
=1 at port 1)
S
22
= S
33
= 0 (matched at ports 2 and 3 both even and odd modes)
S
12
= S
21
=
2 /
2 2
1 1
j
V V
V V
o e
o e
=
+
+
S
13
= S
31
=
2 / j
S
23
= S
32
= 0 ( short or open at bisection , I.e no
coupling)
Example
Design an equal-split Wilkinson power divider for a 50 W system
impedance at frequency fo
The quarterwave-transformer characteristic is
O = = 7 . 70 2
o
Z Z
O = = 100 2
o
Z R
r
o
c

4
=
The quarterwave-transformer length is
Wilkinson splitter/combiner
application
/4
100O
70.7O
50O
matching
networks
/4
100O 50O
70.7O
70.7O
70.7O
Splitter
combiner
Power Amplifier
Unequal power Wilkinson
Divider
3
2
03
1
K
K
Z Z
o
+
=
) 1 (
2
03
2
02
K K Z Z K Z
o
+ = =
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
K
K Z R
o
1
R
2
=Z
o
/K
R
R
3
=Z
o
/K
Z
02
Z
03
Z
o
2
3
2
3
2

= =
port at Power
port at Power
P
P
K
1
2
3
Parad and Moynihan power divider
4 / 1
2
01
1
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
K
K
Z Z
o
2
3
2
3
2

= =
port at Power
port at Power
P
P
K
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
K
K Z R
o
1
( )
4 / 1
2 4 / 3
02
1 K K Z Z
o
+ =
( )
4 / 5
4 / 1
2
03
1
K
K
Z Z
o
+
=
K Z Z
o
=
04
K
Z
Z
o
=
05
Z
o
Z
o
Z
o
Z
05
Z
o4
Z
o2
Z
o3
Z
o1
R 1
2
3
Cohn power divider
/4
98O 241 O
50 O
82 O
61O
82 O
61O
50 O
50 O
/4
VSWR at port 1 = 1.106
VSWR at port 2 and port 3 = 1.021
Isolation between port 2 and 3 = 27.3 dB
Center frequency f
o
= (f
1
+ f
2
)/2
Frequency range (f
2
/f
1
) = 2
1
2
3
Couplers
/4
/4
Y
o
Y
o
Y
o
Y
o
Y
se
Y
sh
Y
sh
Branch line coupler
2
sh
2
se
Y 1 Y + =
2
se
2
sh
sh
2
3
Y Y 1
2Y
E
E
+
=
( ) 20
1
3
10
E
E
x
=
x dB coupling
2
3
2
2
2
1
E E E + =
2
1
3
2
1
2
E
E
E
E
1
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
= or
E
1

E
2

E
3

Couplers
input
isolate
Output
3dB
Output
3dB 90
o
out of phase
3 dB Branch line coupler
/4
/4
Z
o
Z
o
Z
o
Z
o
2 / Z
o
2 / Z
o
Z
o Z
o
3 2
E E =
1 Y
sh
=
2 Y 1 Y
2 2
se
= + =
sh
1.414 Y
se
=
O = 50
o
Z
O = 50
sh
Z
O = 5 . 35
se
Z
Couplers
9 dB Branch line coupler
( )
355 . 0 10
20 9
1
3
= =

E
E
( )
2
2
1
2
355 . 0 1 +
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
E
E
( ) 935 . 0 355 . 0 1
2
1
2
= =
|
|
.
|

\
|
E
E
38 . 0
935 . 0
355 . 0
2
3
= =
|
|
.
|

\
|
E
E
8 . 0 =
sh
Y
Let say we choose
38 . 0
8 . 0 1
8 . 0 2
1
2
2 2 2 2
=
+

=
+
se se sh
sh
Y Y Y
Y
962 . 1 36 . 0
38 . 0
6 . 1
= =
se
Y
O = 50
0
Z
O = O = 5 . 62 8 . 0 / 50
sh
Z
O = O = 5 . 25 962 . 1 / 50
se
Z
Note: Practically upto 9dB coupling
Couplers
/4
/4
/4
3/4
Input
Output in-phase
Output in-phase
isolated
1
2
3
4
Can be used as splitter , 1 as input and 2 and 3
as two output. Port is match with 50 ohm.
Can be used as combiner , 2 and 3 as input
and 1 as output.Port 4 is matched with 50 ohm.
Hybrid-ring coupler
OC
1
2 1
2
OC
1/2
1/2
2
2
2
2
2
2
/8
/8
/4
/4
3/8
3/8
T
e
T
o
I
e
I
o
Analysis
The amplitude of scattered wave
o e
B I + I =
2
1
2
1
1
o e
T T B
2
1
2
1
4
+ =
o e
T T B
2
1
2
1
2
+ =
o e
B I I =
2
1
2
1
3
Couple lines analysis
Planar Stacked
Coupled microstrip
b
w
w
s
w
s
w
w
s
b
d
c
r
c
r
c
r
The coupled lines are usually assumed to operate in TEM mode.
The electrical characteristics can be determined from effective
capacitances between lines and velocity of propagation.
Equivalent circuits
+V +V
H-wall
+V
-V
E-wall
C
11
C
22
C
11
C
22
2C
12
2C
12
Even mode
Odd mode
C
11
and C
22
are the capacitances between conductors and the ground
respectively. For symmetrical coupled line C
11
=C
22
. C
12
is the
capacitance between two strip of conductors in the absence of ground. In
even mode , there is no current flows between two strip conductors , thus
C
12
is effectively open-circuited.
Continue
Even mode
The resulting capacitance C
e
= C
11
= C
22

e e
e
e
oe
C C
LC
C
L
Z
u
1
= = =
Therefore, the line characteristic impedance
Odd mode
The resulting capacitance C
o
= C
11
+ 2 C
12
= C
22
+ 2 C
12

Therefore, the line characteristic impedance
o
oo
C
Z
u
1
=
Planar coupled stripline
Refer to Fig 7.29 in Pozar , Microwave Engineering
Stacked coupled stripline
( ) ( )
m F
s b
b
s b s b
C
oW r oW r oW r
/
4
2 / 2 /
2 2
11

=
+
+

=
c c c c c c
w >> s and w >> b
m F
s
C
oW r
/
12
c c
=
m F
s b
b
C C
oW r
e
/
4
2 2
11

= =
c c
m F
s
s b
b
w C C C
o r o
/
1 2
2 2
2 2
12 11
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

= + = c c
o o r
c c u 1 =
r
o
e
oe
bw
s b
Z
C
Z
c
u
4
1
2 2

= =
( ) | | s s b b w
Z
C
Z
r
o
o
oo
/ 1 / 2 2
1 1
2 2
+
= =
c
u
Coupled microstripline
Refer to Fig 7.30 in Pozar , Microwave Engineering
Design of Coupled line Couplers
input
output
Isolated
(can be matched)
Coupling
w
w
s
2
3 4
1
w
c
/4
3 4
1 2
Z
o
Z
o
Z
o
Z
o
Z
oo
Z
oe
2V
+V
3
+V
2
+V
4
+V
1
u
I
1
I
4
I
3
I
2
Schematic circuit
Layout
Even and odd modes analysis
3 4
1 2
Z
o
Z
o
Z
o
Z
o
Z
oo
V
+V
3
o
+V
2
o
+V
4
o
+V
1
o
I
1
o
I
4
o
I
3
o
I
2
o
V
_
+
+
_
3 4
1 2
Z
o
Z
o
Z
o
Z
o
Z
oe
V
+V
3
e
+V
2
e
+V
4
e
+V
1
e
I
1
e
I
4
e
I
3
e
I
2
e
V
_
+
+
_
I
1
e
= I
3
e

I
4
e
= I
2
e

Same
excitation
voltage
V
1
e
= V
3
e

V
4
e
= V
2
e

Even
I
1
o
= -I
3
o

I
4
o
=- I
2
o

V
1
o
= -V
3
o

V
4
o
= -V
2
o

Odd
Reverse
excitation
voltage
(100)
(99)
Analysis
o
o
in
o
in o
Z Z
Z
V V
+
=
1
u
u
tan
tan
o oe
oe o
oe
e
in
jZ Z
jZ Z
Z Z
+
+
=
o e
o e
in
I I
V V
I
V
Z
1 1
1 1
1
1
+
+
= =
Z
o
= load for transmission line
u = electrical length of the line
Z
oe
or Z
oo
= characteristic impedance of
the line
u
u
tan
tan
o oo
oo o
oo
o
in
jZ Z
jZ Z
Z Z
+
+
=
By voltage division
o
e
in
e
in e
Z Z
Z
V V
+
=
1
o
o
in
o
Z Z
V
I
+
=
1
o
e
in
e
Z Z
V
I
+
=
1
From transmission line equation , we have
where
(101)
(102)
(103)
(104)
(105)
(106)
(107)
continue
Substituting eqs. (104) - (107) into eq. (101) yeilds
( ) ( ) ( )
o
o
in
e
in
o
e
in
o
in
o
o
o
in
e
in
o
o
in
e
in o
e
in
o
in
in
Z Z Z
Z Z Z
Z
Z Z Z
Z Z Z Z Z Z
Z
2
2
2
2
+ +

+ =
+ +
+ + +
=
For matching we may consider the second term of eq. (108) will be zero , I.e
0
2
=
o
e
in
o
in
Z Z Z
or
2
o oe oo
e
in
o
in
Z Z Z Z Z = =
(108)
Let
oe oo o
Z Z Z =
Therefore eqs. (102) and (103) become
u
u
tan
tan
oo oe
oe oo
oe
e
in
Z j Z
Z j Z
Z Z
+
+
=
u
u
tan
tan
oe oo
oo oe
oo
o
in
Z j Z
Z j Z
Z Z
+
+
=
and (108) reduces to Z
in
=Z
o

(110)
(109)
continue
Since Z
in
= Z
o
, then by voltage division V
1
= V. The voltage at port 3, by
substitute (99), (100) , (104) and (105) is then
(
(

+
= = + =
o
o
in
o
in
o
e
in
e
in o e o e
Z Z
Z
Z Z
Z
V V V V V V
1 1 3 3
3
(111)
Substitute (109) and (110) into (111)
( ) u
u
tan 2
tan
oo oe o
oo o
o
o
in
o
in
Z Z j Z
jZ Z
Z Z
Z
+ +
+
=
+
( ) u
u
tan 2
tan
oo oe o
oe o
o
e
in
e
in
Z Z j Z
jZ Z
Z Z
Z
+ +
+
=
+
Then (111) reduces to
( )
( ) u
u
tan 2
tan
3
oo oe o
oo oe
Z Z j Z
Z Z j
V V
+ +

=
(112)
continue
We define coupling as
oo oe
oo oe
Z Z
Z Z
C
+

=
Then V
3
/ V , from ( 112) will become
oo oe
o
Z Z
Z
C
+
=
2
1
2
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
u
u
u
u
tan 1
tan
tan
2
tan
2
3
j C
jC
V
Z Z
Z Z
j
Z Z
Z
Z Z
Z Z
j
V V
oo oe
oo oe
oo oe
o
oo oe
oo oe
+
=
+
+
+
+
+

=
and
u u sin cos 1
1
2
2
2 2
2
j C
C
V V V V
o e
+

= + =
0
2 2 4 4
4
= = + =
o e o e
V V V V V
Similarly
V
1
=V
Practical couple line coupler
V
3
is maximum when u = t/2 , 3t/2, ...
Thus for quarterwave length coupler u = t/2 , the eqs V
2
and V
3
reduce to
V
1
=V
0
4
= V
VC
j
C
jC
V
j C
jC
V
j C
jC
V V =
+

=
+

=
+
=
2 2 2
3
1 1
) (
2 / tan 1
2 / tan
t
t
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
2 / sin 2 / cos 1
1
C jV
j
C
V
j C
C
V V =

=
+

=
t t
C
C
Z Z
o oe

+
=
1
1
C
C
Z Z
o oo
+

=
1
1
Example
Design a 20 dB single-section coupled line coupler in stripline with a 0.158 cm
ground plane spacing , dielectric constant of 2. 56, a characteristic impedance
of 50 O , and a center frequency of 3 GHz.
Coupling factor is C = 10
-20/20
= 0.1
Characteristic impedance of even
and odd mode are
O =

+
= 28 . 55
1 . 0 1
1 . 0 1
50
oe
Z
23 . 45
1 . 0 1
1 . 0 1
50 =
+

=
oo
Z
4 . 88 =
oe r
Z c
4 . 72 =
oo r
Z c
From fig 7.29 , we have
w/b=0.72 , s/b =0.34. These
give us
w=0.72b=0.114cm
s= 0.34b = 0.054cm
Then multiplied by
r
c
Multisection Coupled line coupler (broadband)
V
1
V
3
V
4
V
2
input
Through
Isolated
Coupled
u
u
u
u
u
u u
C
1
C
N-2
C
3
C
2
C
N
C
N-1
....
u
u
u
u
u
u
j
e jC
j
jC
j C
jC
V
V

=
+
~
+
= sin
tan 1
tan
tan 1
tan
2
1
3
0
u u
j
e
j C
C
V
V

~
+

=
sin cos 1
1
2
2
1
2
For single section , whence C<<1 , then
V
4
=0
and
For u = t / 2 then V
3
/V
1
= C
and V
2
/V
1
= -j
Analysis
Result for cascading the couplers to form a multi section coupler is
( ) ( )
( )
u u
u u u
u
u u
) 1 ( 2
1
2
1 2 1 1 3
sin ...
sin sin

+
+ + =
N j j
N
j j j
e V e jC
e V e jC V e jC V
( ) | ( )
|
u
u u u u
u
) 1 (
) 2 ( 2 2
2
) 1 ( 2
1 1 3
...
1 sin

+
+ + + =
N j
M
N j j N j j
e C
e e C e C e jV V
( ) | ( )
|
M
jN
C
N C N C e jV
2
1
...
3 cos 1 cos sin 2
2 1 1
+
+ =

u u u
u
Where M= (N+1)/2
For symmetry C
1
=C
N
, C
2
= C
N-1
,
etc
At center frequency
2 /
1
3
t u =
=
V
V
C
o
(200)
Example
Design a three-section 20 dB coupler with binomial response (maximally
flat), a system impedance 50 O , and a center frequency of 3 GHz .
Solution
For maximally flat response for three section (N=3) coupler, we require
2 , 1 0 ) (
2 /
= =
=
n for C
d
d
n
n
t u
u
u
From eq (200) and M= (N+1)/2 =( 3+1)/2=2 , we have
(

+ = =
2 1
1
3
2
1
2 cos sin 2 C C
V
V
C u u
( ) u u u u u sin ) ( 3 sin sin sin 3 sin
1 2 1 2 1
C C C C C + = + =
(201)
(202)
Continue
Apply (201)
| | 0 cos ) ( 3 cos 3
2 /
1 2 1
= + =
=t
u u
u
C C C
d
dC
| | 0 10 sin ) ( 3 sin 9
2 1
2 /
1 2 1
2
2
= = =
=
C C C C C
d
C d
t
u u
u
Midband C
o
= 20 dB at u =t/2. Thus C= 10
-20/20
=0.1
From (202), we C= C
2
- 2C
1
= 0.1

Solving and gives us C
1
= C
3
= 0.0125 (symmetry) and C
2
= 0.125
continue
Using even and odd mode analysis, we have
O =

+
=

+
= = 63 . 50
0125 . 0 1
0125 . 0 1
50
1
1
3 1
C
C
Z Z Z
o oe oe
O =
+

= = 38 . 49
0125 . 0 1
0125 . 0 1
3 1 o oo oo
Z Z Z
O =

+
=

+
= 69 . 56
125 . 0 1
125 . 0 1
50
1
1
2
C
C
Z Z
o oe
O =
+

= 1 . 44
125 . 0 1
125 . 0 1
2 o oo
Z Z
continue
Let say , c
r
= 10 and d =0.7878mm
O = = 63 . 50
3 1 oe oe
Z Z O = = 38 . 49
3 1 oo oo
Z Z
O = 69 . 56
2 oe
Z O = 1 . 44
2 oo
Z
Plot points on graph Fig. 7.30
We have , w/d = 1.0 and s/d = 2.5 , thus
w = d = 0.7878mm and s = 2.5d = 1.9695mm
Similarly we plot points
We have , w/d = 0.95 and s/d = 1.1 , thus
w = 0.95d = 0.748mm and s =1.1d = 0.8666mm
For section 1 and 3
For section 2
Couplers
Lange Coupler
Evolution of Lange
coupler
1= input
2=output
3=coupling
4=isolated
w
w
w
w
w
s
s
s
s
1
4
3
2
1
3
4
2
1
2
3
4
2
4
1
3
Analysis
1
4
3
2
1
3
4
2
C
C
90
o
Z
e4
Z
o4
Z
o4
Z
e4
1
4 3
2 1
2
C
m
C
ex
C
ex
C
C
ex
C
ex
C
in
C
in
C
m C
m
C
m
Simplified circuit
Equivalent circuit
m ex
m ex
ex in
C C
C C
C C
+
=
where
Continue/ 4 wire coupler
Even mode
All C
m
capacitance will be at same potential, thus the total capacitance is
in ex e
C C C + =
4
m in ex o
C C C C 6
4
+ + =
Odd mode
All C
m
capacitance will be considered, thus the total capacitance is
Even and Odd mode characteristic impedance
4
4
1
e
e
C
Z
u
=
4
4
1
o
o
C
Z
u
=
line on transmissi in velocity = u
(300)
(301)
(302)
continue
Now consider isolated pairs. Its equivalent circuit is same as two wire line ,
thus its even and odd mode capacitance is
ex e
C C =
m ex o
C C C 2 + =
Substitute these into (300) and (301) ,
we have
( )
o e
o e e
e
C C
C C C
C
+
+
=
3
4
m ex
m ex
ex in
C C
C C
C C
+
=
( )
o e
e o o
o
C C
C C C
C
+
+
=
3
4
And in terms of impedance refer
to (302)
oe
oe oo
oe oo
e
Z
Z Z
Z Z
Z
+
+
=
3
4
oo
oo oe
oe oo
o
Z
Z Z
Z Z
Z
+
+
=
3
4
continue
( )
( )( )
oo oe oe oo
oe oo oo oe
o e o
Z Z Z Z
Z Z Z Z
Z Z Z
+ +
+
= =
3 3
2
4 4
Characteristic impedance of the line is
( )
( )
oo oe oo oe
oo oe
o e
o e
Z Z Z Z
Z Z
Z Z
Z Z
C
2 3
3
2 2
2 2
4 4
4 4
+ +
+
=
+

=
Coupling
The desired characteristic impedance in terms of coupling is
( ) ( )
o oe
Z
C C C
C C
Z
+
+
=
1 / 1 2
8 9 3 4
2
( ) ( )
o oo
Z
C C C
C C
Z
+
+
=
1 / 1 2
8 9 3 4
2
VHF/UHF Hybrid power splitter
50O
input
50O
output
50O
output
100O
C
T1
T2
1
5
6
7
8
2
3
4
Guanella power divider
(VHF/UHF)
R
L
V
2
I
2
I
1
V
1
R
g
V
g
I
1
V
2
I
2