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# -Y Transformation (2.7); Circuits with Dependent Sources (2.

8)
Dr. Holbert February 13, 2006

ECE201 Lect-8

-Y Transformation
A particular configuration of resistors (or impedances) that does not lend itself to the using series and parallel combination techniques is that of a delta () connection In such cases the delta () connection is converted to a wye (Y) configuration The reverse transformation can also be performed
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-Y Transformation
a
a

R1

R2
Rc

Ra Rb b

R3

ECE201 Lect-8

-Y Transformation
To compute the new Y resistance values
RY node

R
k 1

R
i 1

node #i

## For the balanced case (RY= Ra= Rb= Rc) R = 3 RY

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Class Example
Learning Extension 2.17 Learning Extension 2.18

ECE201 Lect-8

## Circuits with Dependent Sources

Strategy: Apply KVL and KCL, treating dependent source(s) as independent sources. Determine the relationship between dependent source values and controlling parameters. Solve equations for unknowns.
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## Example: Inverting Amplifier

The following circuit is a (simplified) model for an inverting amplifier created from an operational amplifier (op-amp). It is an example of negative feedback.

ECE201 Lect-8

Inverting Amplifier
I + 1kW 4kW 10kW

10V

Vf
+

Vs=100Vf

## Apply KVL around loop: -10V + 1kW I + 4kW I + 10kW I + 100 Vf = 0

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Inverting Amplifier
Applying KVL yielded: -10V + 1kW I + 4kW I + 10kW I + 100 Vf = 0
Get Vf in terms of I: Vf + 10kW I + 100Vf = 0 Vf = -(10kW/101) I
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Inverting Amplifier
Solve for I:
I = 1.961 mA Solve for Vf : Vf = -0.194 V Solve for source voltage: Vs = -19.4 V
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Amplifier Gain
Repeat the previous example for a gain of 1000 Answer: Vs = -19.94V

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Another Amplifier
I 1kW 4kW 100nF

10V0

Vf
+

Vs=100Vf

Find the output voltage Vs for this circuit, assuming a frequency of w=5000
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Find Impedances
I 1kW 4kW -j2kW +

10V0

Vf
+

Vs=100Vf

## Apply KVL around loop: -10V0 + 1kW I + 4kW I - j2kW I + 100 Vf = 0

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Another Amplifier
KVL provided:
-10V0 + 1kW I + 4kW I - j2kW I + 100 Vf = 0

## Get Vf in terms of I: Vf - j2kW I + 100 Vf = 0 Vf = (j2kW/101) I

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Another Amplifier
Solve for I:
I = 2mA 0.2 Solve for Vf : Vf = 39.6mV90.2 Solve for source voltage: Vs = 3.96V90.2
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Transistor Amplifier
A small-signal linear equivalent circuit for a transistor amplifier is the following:
510-4VX

+
3kW VX

5mA

6kW

Find VX
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## Apply KCL at the Top Node

5mA = VX/6kW + 510-4VX + VX/3kW
5mA = 1.6710-4VX + 510-4VX + 3.3310-4VX VX=5mA/(1.6710-4 + 510-4 + 3.3310-4) VX=5V
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Class Examples
Learning Extension E2.19 Learning Extension E2.20

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