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SEMINAR ON GIS AND ITS APPLICATIONS

by Sumanth kashyap t.v

What is GIS?
A GIS is a computer system capable of capturing, storing, analyzing, and displaying geographically referenced information that is, data identified according to location.

FUNDAMETALS OF GIS

GEOGRAPHICAL DATA
ATTRIBUTE DATA

SPATIAL DATA

Mapping Concept,Feature and Properties


A map represents geographic features or other spatial phenomena by graphically conveying information about locations and attributes.
Thus the basic objective of mapping is to provide 1.Descriptions of geographic phenomenon 2.Spatial and non spatial information 3.Map features like Point, Line, & Polygon.

Map Features
Locational information is usually represented by points for features such as wells and telephone pole locations, lines for features such as streams, pipelines and contour lines and areas for features such as lakes, counties and census tracts.

1.Line Feature 2.Point Feature 3.Area Feature

How Does GIS Work?

NETWORK DIGITIZER CD-ROM

COMPUTER SCANNER PRINTER

1.Data Capture

MAPS

AERIAL SENSORS PHOTOGRAPH

FIELD OBSERVATION

KEYBOARD DIGITIZER PLOTTER SCANNER

COMPUTER

2.Data Integration
A GIS makes it possible to link, or integrate, information that is difficult to associate through any other means. Thus, a GIS can use combinations of mapped variables to build and analyze new variables .

3.Projection and Registration


Projection is a fundamental component of mapmaking. A projection is a mathematical means of transferring information from the Earth's three-dimensional, curved surface to a two-dimensional mediumpaper or a computer screen.

4.Data Output
DATA OUTPUT DISPLAY AND REPORTING

PRINTER SCANNER PLOTTER

MAGNETIC MEDIUM

MAPS TABLES

GRAPHS VIDEOS

APPLICATIONS OF GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM


Over the years, new application have been found by integrating GIS with other technologies. Among the examples are precision farming,interactive mapping on the internet, and local based services.Interactive mapping lets internet users to select map layers for display and make their own. The following are the some of the main application of Geographic Information System.

GIS In Military Operations


1. Selection of Sites for Launching Bridges

2.Terrain Evaluation
3.Naval Operation 4.Weather information Topographical map of study area

5. Identification of Tactically Important Roads


In order to provide fast and safe movement of troops and equipment, identification of tactically important roads is essential. Roads and tracks that lead up to the likely bridge are tactically important and need to be identified and suitably constructed so that these may be used as the axis of maintenance. Ideally these roads should not pass through any obstacles like the minefields Thematic layer of road network

5.Selection of sites for Helipads


During the movement of the troops and equipment, sufficient air cover essential in todays warfare, as these are easy targets from air by the enemy. The location of a helipad depends upon the tree cover, soil conditions and slope of the ground.
Thematic layer of slopes

Development of Geo Info Systems for Bangalore, BGS

Objectives
The objective of this having in the city is to disseminate information to the publiclocal as well as tourists. It acts a guide and base for future applications development Its a comprehensive value addition for the existing resources or data

Methodology

ADVANCE MINERAL RESOURCES INFORMATION SYSTEM USING REMOTE SENSING


1. MRIS is designed such a way that all basic information related to a mineral deposits is accessible on click of a mouse . 2.It is independent of any expensive GIS packages. 3.The non-spatial and spatial data can be edited and saved with latest information and thereby provides opportunity for continuous data updating.

Point Data with pass ward option & Grids with zoom tool in MRIS v 2.0

Information Content

1.It provides information on geology, mining, production, chemical analysis of ore and rock sample, and environmental data (air, water, land, Noise).

2.User friendly, information available on point click or through pull down menu

The use of GIS for the Emergency Medical Care System, EMCS

USE OF GIS IN CASE OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES


The latest adaptation of the GPS mobile phone is the mobile heart phone. This technology incorporates a central emergency call function with an integrated ECG recording and a positioning and search function.

Application of Remote Sensing and GIS for the study of Surfacial and Subsurfacial changes

On 26th January 2001 a massive earthquake rocked the entire state of Gujarat. According to U.S.G.S. the intensity of the earthquake was 7.9 on the Richter Scale. The earthquake has resulted in enormous surfacial and subsurfacial changes in the form of faults, cracks, liquefaction, temporary water surges, lateral spreading etc. The high resolution IRS WiFS images have shown significant changes on the surface and along the coasts.

Manfara Fault

Mapping and monitoring suburban crimes using high resolution data


1 In order to handle the suburban crimes, sample data of unknown area covering the suburban type houses have been used to replicate the scenario. From the orthophoto, roads, individual houses and other relevant features have been captured in AutoCAD. 2. It helps the police to have a regular monitoring of houses in the given area which remains as a base camp of criminals for discussion, exchange of illegal goods, etc. This high-resolution mapping and analysis in GIS environment can greatly help nab the criminals before they carry out some disastrous work.

Figure showing the independent houses with lock duration more than 4 hours (vulnerable under suburbs of Chennai)

A GIS application for weather analysis and forecasting


1.Analysis of this data, for visualization and interpretation of weather systems over wide geographic areas become possible with less effort and error.
2.This helps to develop an application, for plotting, analysis, visualization, and interpretation of weather data.

The GIS used for the application development is the ArcView GIS of ESRI with extensions of Spatial analyst,and Image analyst.

Geopotential height analysis

CONCLUSION
The conclusion that i would like to draw is

GIS and related technology will help analyze large datasets, allowing a better understanding of terrestrial processes and human activities to improve economic vitality and environmental quality An active GIS market has resulted in lower costs and continual improvements in GIS hardware, software, and data. These developments will lead to a much wider application of the technology throughout government, business, and industry.