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Differential Scanning Calorimetry

RAMEES HASSANAR

Definitions
A calorimeter measures the heat into or out of a sample. A differential calorimeter measures the heat of a sample relative to a reference. A differential scanning calorimeter does all of the above and heats the sample with a linear temperature ramp. Endothermic heat flows into the sample. Exothermic heat flows out of the sample.

DSC: The Technique


Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) measures the temperatures and heat flows associated with transitions in materials as a function of time and temperature in a controlled atmosphere. These measurements provide quantitative and qualitative information about physical and chemical changes that involve endothermic or exothermic processes, or changes in heat capacity .

Conventional DSC
Sample
Metal 1 Metal Metal 2 1

Empty
Metal 2

Sample Temperature

Reference Temperature

Temperature Difference = Heat Flow

A linear heating profile even for isothermal methods

What can DSC measure?


Glass transitions Melting and boiling points Crystallisation time and temperature Percent crystallinity

Heats of fusion and reactions


Specific heat capacity Oxidative/thermal stability Rate and degree of cure Reaction kinetics Purity

DSC Thermogram

Heat Flow -> exothermic

Crystallisation

Cross-Linking (Cure)

Oxidation

Glass Transition

Melting

Temperature
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Example DSC - PET


Sample: PET80PC20_MM1 1min Size: 23.4300 mg Method: standard dsc heat -cool-heat Comment : 5/4/06 1.5

DSC

File: C:...\DSC\Melt Mixed1\PET80PC20_MM1.001 Operator : SAC Run Date : 05-Apr-2006 15:34 Instrument : DSC Q1000 V9.4 Build 287

Tm

245.24C

1.0

Tg
Heat Flow(W/g)
0.5
79.70C(I) 75.41C 81.80C

Tc
137.58C 20.30J/g 228.80C 22.48J/g

Cycle 1

0.0

144.72C

-0.5
Exo Down

50

100

150

200

250

300
Universal V 4.2E TA Instruments

Temperature (C)

DSC: Main Sources of Errors


Calibration Contamination Sample preparation how sample is loaded into a pan

Residual solvents and moisture.


Thermal lag Heating/Cooling rates

Sample mass
Processing errors

Sample Preparation : Shape


Keep sample as thin as possible (to minimise thermal gradients) Cover as much of the pan bottom as possible Samples should be cut rather than crushed to obtain a thin sample (better and more uniform thermal contact with pan)

99

Other DSC Techniques


Hyper-DSC
Based on principle that high heating rates give large broad transitions. Heating rates typically 400-500oC/min Need very small sample sizes (~nanograms)

Good for:

A quick overview of new sample


Picking out minute transition

Poor for: Accuracy: transitions can be shifted by as much as 40oC Repeatabiliy: Very sensitive to thermal lag.