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Heat Transfer

Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger

Figure: Diagram of a typical (Fixed Tubesheet) shell and tube heat exchanger.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Shell and shell side nozzles Tube sheets Tube side channel and nozzles Channel covers Baffles Baffle spacers

Fixed Tube Design Simplest and cheapest type. Tube bundle cannot be removed for cleaning. Cannot be used at very high temperatures Floating head Design Suitable for higher temperature differentials.

Bundles can be removed and cleaned. Suitable for fouling


Design of Shell and tube exchagner

KERNS Method
BELLS Method

Heat exchanger Tube - Selection

Birmingham Wire Gauge (BWG). Available in a number of different wall thickness. TABLE-10 Tube diameters in the range of 5/8 to 2 in.

Most commonly used to 1 in diameter tubes.

Small diameter tubes should be preferred, since it gives compact

and cheap exchangers.

Large tubes for heavily fouling fluids

The shortest distance between two adjacent tubes is called clearance. Tube pitch (PT) is the shortest centre to centre distance between two tubes.

Most commonly used tube pitches are: Square layout: I in sq pitch and in Tube OD

1 sq pitch and 1 in Tube OD

Triangular layout:

15/16 in triangular pitch and in Tube OD

Shells are fabricated from steel pipes with nominal IPS diamters 12 to 24 in.

Shell Fabrication

Shell should be close fit to reduce bypassing


Baffles are used to support the tube bundles and to direct the
shell side fluid. The baffle spacing is usually not greater than a distance equal to the inside dia of the shell and closer than a distance equal to the one fifth the inside dia of the shell

Shell side mass velocity

Area for cross flow will be calculated for the hypothetical row of tubes in the shell centre.

ID is shell inside dia, is the clearance between two tubes, B is
Ws Gs As

baffle spacing, PT is the tube pitch

Shell side mass velocity

Shell side Equivalent dia

For square pitch

For Triangular pitch

Relative to the shell fluid, one tube pass is in counter flow and the other in parallel flow.

LMTD has different values for two

different flow patterns.

It is necessary to develop a new equation

for calculation of the effective or true temp difference.

Tm Ft Tlm
Tm is the true temperature difference Ft is the correction factor

Ft is related to two dimensionless ratios:

(T1 T2 ) R (t 2 t1 )
S (t 2 t1 ) (T1 t1 )

Temp Correction Factor, Ft

Shell side Pressure drop

Proportional to the number of times the fluid crosses the bundle b/w baffles. It is also proportional to the distance across the bundle each time

it is crossed. If the tube length is 16 ft and the baffles are spaced 18 in apart,
there will be 11 crosses or 10 baffles.

Shell side Pressure drop

Pressure drop of fluid being heated or cooled and including entrance and exit losses is:

The equivalent diameter used for calculating the pressure drop is same as for heat transfer.

Tube side Pressure drop

The changes of the direction introduces an additional pressure

drop called the return loss and accounted for by allowing four
velocity heads per pass.

Exchangers using Water

Water is corrosive to steel, particularly when the tube wall temperature is

high and dissolved air is present.

Since shells are usually fabricated of steel, water is best handled in the tubes. As a standard practice, the use of cooling water at velocities less than 3 ft/sec should be avoided. Whenever high coefficients exist on both sides of the exchanger, the use of an unnecessarily large fouling factor should be avoided.

Flow arrangement for increased heat recovery

Thank You for Your Attention