Simple Overview of Synchronization

of Direct-Sequence Spread Spectrum
System
Speaker :Teng-Shih Tsai

Synchronization of Direct-Sequence
Spread Spectrum System
Figure1. Illustrating the synchronization of DS-SS system .

Spreading Code Synchronization
System
Figure2. Illustrating the spreading code synchronization system .

Auto-correlation of Pseudo-Noise
Code
-6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
time delay
R
x
(
t
)
Figure3. Illustrating the auto-correlation of PN code.

Direct-Sequence Spread-Spectrum
Parallel Acquisition in a Fading
Mobile Channel
Author :E. A. SOUROUR
S. C. GUPTA
(SENIOR MEMBER, IEEE)
Speaker :Teng-Shih Tsai
Adviser :Ji-Hwei Horng
Chih-Hung Lee

Abstract

Spread-spectrum systems offer high immunity to
interference and hostile environments. However,
this high immunity can be fully exploited only if
precise receiver synchronization is performed.

Some parallel acquisition schemes have been
suggested to reduce the mean acquisition time.
Most of the work done, however, considered
either the effect of additive white Gaussian noise
(AWGN) only or AWGN and narrow-band
jamming.

Abstract

In this paper, a parallel acquisition scheme for
direct-sequence spread-spectrum systems is
proposed, and its mean acquisition time
performance is analyzed in both non-fading and
Rayleigh fading environments.

Abstract

The parallel scheme is compared to the
corresponding serial scheme, and a significant
improvement of performance is shown. The
derived results provide the tool to study the
interaction of many of the design parameters in the
system.

Outline

Introduction

System Description

Mean Acquisition Time

Non-fading Channel

Rayleigh Fading Channel

Numerical Results and Discussion

Conclusions

Outline

Introduction

System Description

Mean Acquisition Time

Non-fading Channel

Rayleigh Fading Channel

Numerical Results and Discussion

Conclusions

Introduction

Most of the techniques that have been proposed
for minimizing the mean acquisition time of DS-
SS systems employ the serial search strategy,
wherein the cells are tested one at a time. In the
last few years, some compound (i.e., partially
parallel) acquisition schemes were proposed in
which a number of cells, less than the number of
uncertainty region cells, is tested simultaneously.

Introduction

In this paper, a DS-SS acquisition scheme that utilizes a
bank of N parallel I-Q noncoherent MF’s is proposed. It
can be looked at as an extension of the schemes described
in [10], which uses one MF only.

An expression for the mean acquisition time is derived for
the new system in terms of the probabilities of detection,
missing, and false alarm.

Introduction

These parameters are first analyzed for a typical
AWGN channel, then the Rayleigh fading channel
encountered in a typical UHF or microwave land
mobile radio channel is studied.

The channel is assumed frequency nonselective, and
the effect of data modulation and code Do-ppler is
not considered in this paper. The per-formance of the
parallel system is compared to the corresponding
serial system, and it is shown that a significant
improvement can be achieved.

Outline

Introduction

System Description

Mean Acquisition Time

Non-fading Channel

Rayleigh Fading Channel

Numerical Results and Discussion

Conclusions

System Description

The system under consideration in this paper has
two modes of operation: the search mode and the
verification mode.

The full period L of the PN code is divided into N
subsequences, each of length M = L/N, and each
I-Q PN-MF is loaded by (and hence matched to)
one of the N subsequences.

System Description
Figure1. Parallel matched filters for the search mode.

System Description
Figure2. (a) I-Q non-coherent matched filter.

System Description
Figure2. (b) Matched filter correlator of Fig. 2(a).

System Description

If the largest of the MN/Δ samples exceeds a
threshold γl, the corresponding phase is assumed,
tentatively, to be the correct phase of the received
signal, and the acquisition system moves to the
verification mode.

System Description

The receiver advances this local phase by the same rate as
the incoming code so that both codes run in parallel, and
a sample is taken each T seconds to ensure independence.
If B out of A samples exceed a threshold γ2, acquisition
is declared and the tracking system is enabled; otherwise,
the system goes back to the search mode.

The two thresholds γl and γ2 are selected numerically to
minimize the mean acquisition time.

Outline

Introduction

System Description

Mean Acquisition Time

Non-fading Channel

Rayleigh Fading Channel

Numerical Results and Discussion

Conclusions

Mean Acquisition Time
Figure3. (a) State transition diagram of the acquisition system.

Mean Acquisition Time
Figure3. (b) Simplified state transition diagram.

Mean Acquisition Time
It can be easily shown that

Mean Acquisition Time
And the generating function is
Keeping in mind that Pm1+PD1+PF1=1, we can see
that the probability of acquisition H(1)=1.

Mean Acquisition Time

The mean acquisition time is given by
Which yields after some algebra

Mean Acquisition Time

Where PD= PD1 PD2 and PF= PF1 PF2 denote the
overall detection probability and false alarm
probability, respectively.

Although we might see that increasing the number
of parallelism N decreases the mean acquisition
time, this is not always true. Increasing N
decreases the MF’s length M, which might affect
PD, PF and PM1 unfavorably.

Outline

Introduction

System Description

Mean Acquisition Time

Non-fading Channel

Rayleigh Fading Channel

Numerical Results and Discussion

Conclusions

Non-fading Channel

Assumptions :
1. Only one sample corresponding to the correct
phase (one H1 cell only).
2. All samples are independent.
3. The correlation of the received sequence and
local code yields zero when they are not in
phase (Ho cells), and the uncertainty region is
the full code length L.

Non-fading Channel

The received signal can be written as
Where β = received code offset, C(t) = PN
sequence, θ = uniformly distributed random phase,
ω0 = carrier frequency in rad/s, S = received signal
power, and n(t) = narrow-band AWGN with zero
mean and one-sided power spectral density of No.

Non-fading Channel

The probability density function (pdf) of the H1
sample is the noncentral with two degrees of
freedom:
2
x

Non-fading Channel

Io( ) = modified Bessel function of the first kind
and zero order. The pdf of the Ho samples is the
central with two degrees of freedom:
2
x

Non-fading Channel
Figure4. The PDF of dual hypothesis.

Non-fading Channel

The detection probability of the search mode PD1 is
given by

And the missing probability of the search mode
PM1 is given by

Non-fading Channel

Substituting (8)-(11) and (12) and (13), one gets

Non-fading Channel
And
where Q(a,b) is the Marcum’s Q function, v is the
chip energy-to-noise power spectral density
(SNR/chip) defined as

Non-fading Channel
Where
and is the normalized threshold of the search
mode
( )
dx ax I
a x
x b a Q
b
) (
2
exp ) , (
0
2 2


]
]
]

+ −
·
1
' γ

Non-fading Channel

The false alarm probability of the search mode can
be obtained from PD1 and PM1 as

The verification mode function was described earlier,
and the analysis of its detection and false alarm
probabilities is straightforward. It can be shown that

Non-fading Channel
where P1 and P2 are the probabilities that H1 and Ho
cells exceed , respectively.
2
γ

Non-fading Channel
Where
where is the normalized threshold of the
verification mode and is given by
2
' γ

Outline

Introduction

System Description

Mean Acquisition Time

Non-fading Channel

Rayleigh Fading Channel

Numerical Results and Discussion

Conclusions

Rayleigh Fading Channel

Assumptions :
1. The fading process is regarded as a constant
over k successive chips, k << M, and these
successive groups of k chips are correlated.
2. The smaller the value of k and the correlation
coefficients among the chips, the faster the fade
rate.

Rayleigh Fading Channel

Since the transmitted signal is a carrier biphase
modulated by a PN code, the received signal in the
fading channel described above can be written as

Rayleigh Fading Channel

Where di = 0 or 1 according to the PN code. xi( t )
and yi( t ) are independent zero-mean stationary
Gaussian processes with variances

Rayleigh Fading Channel
where are the
autocorrelation coefficients among the fading
processes.

The outputs of the I and Q branches of the I-Q MF
are, respectively,
0 .... 1
2 1
≥ ≥ ≥ ≥ ρ ρ

Rayleigh Fading Channel

Where NI , NQ , x, and y are independent zero-
mean Gaussian random variables (r.v.'s). Both NI
and NQ have a variance , and since x and y are
identically distributed, it suffices to define x as
follows.
2
n
σ

Rayleigh Fading Channel

Under hypothesis H1, x is a summation of the
zero-mean Gaussian r.v.'s that constitute
the vector
Where
]
2 / + k M

Rayleigh Fading Channel

The two r.v.'s X1 and Xl+2 are due to the incomplete
groups of k chips with constant fading envelope at
the two edges of the tapped delay line. Their
variances are and , respectively.

The r.v.'s X2,X3, . . and Xl+1 are due to the groups in
the interior of the tapped delay line. They all have
the same variance .
2
s

2
) ' (
s
q k σ −
2 2
s
k σ

Rayleigh Fading Channel

The covariance matrix of the vector is given by
t
X

Rayleigh Fading Channel
Where

And q = 0, 1, 2,. , . , k' is a uniformly distributed
discrete r.v, that represents the number of chips
belonging to an incomplete group of constant
fading amplitude of the received PN sequence at
one edge of the tapped delay line.

Rayleigh Fading Channel

From the covariance matrix, one can get the
conditional variance of x to be

Rayleigh Fading Channel

Averaging (36) over the uniform r.v. q, one can
get

Rayleigh Fading Channel

Under hypothesis Ho, the MF coefficients (not
matched to the incoming PN sequence) can be
considered approximately independent, +1-1
valued random variables. Thus, x is a summation
of M independent identically distributed (i.i.d.)
Gaussian random variables with variances .
The variance of x is given by
2
s
σ

Rayleigh Fading Channel

From (32)-(38), under hypothesis Hi, eI and eQ
follow the Gaussian distribution

Rayleigh Fading Channel

Where is a Gaussian distribution of mean
u and variance .

Referring to Fig. 2(a), under Hi, i = 0, 1, the
sample R follows the distribution with two
degrees of freedom:
) , (
2
σ u G
2
σ
2
x

Rayleigh Fading Channel
And

Rayleigh Fading Channel
From which

Rayleigh Fading Channel

Rayleigh Fading Channel

Finally, from (22), (23), and (43), we get P1 and P2
for the fading channel:

Rayleigh Fading Channel

From (20), (21), (48), and (49), we can get PD2
and PF2 the fading channel.

In the above analysis, we assumed that the output
samples of the I-Q MF of Fig. 2(a) are
independent. This assumption is approximately
true when k << M and the correlation coefficients
are small. The same assumptions also enable us to
assume that the Markovian nature of the
acquisition process still exists.

Outline

Introduction

System Description

Mean Acquisition Time

Non-fading Channel

Rayleigh Fading Channel

Numerical Results and Discussion

Conclusions

Numerical Results and Discussion
Assumption and set parameters :
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
·
·
·
·
·
64 , 93 , 128
16 , 11 , 8
1000
/ 1
1023





M
N
factor Penalty
s chip M rate Code
L length code PN

Numerical Results and Discussion
Figure5. Mean acquisition time/minimum mean acquisition time for a non-fading channel.

Numerical Results and Discussion
Figure8. Mean acquisition time for non-fading and Rayleigh fading channels.

Numerical Results and Discussion
Figure9. Mean acquisition time for Rayleigh fading channel, p=0.4.

Numerical Results and Discussion
Figure10. Mean acquisition time for Rayleigh fading channel, k=5.

Numerical Results and Discussion
Figure11. Mean acquisition time for parallel acquisition and serial acquisition systems for a non-
fading channel.

Numerical Results and Discussion
Figure12. Mean acquisition time for parallel acquisition and serial acquisition systems for a
Rayleigh fading channel, p=0.4.

Outline

Introduction

System Description

Mean Acquisition Time

Non-fading Channel

Rayleigh Fading Channel

Numerical Results and Discussion

Conclusions

Conclusions

It is shown that in a non-fading channel, the
designer should choose the MF length as big as
practically possible, and then cover the rest of the
uncertainty region with parallel MF’s. In fading
channels, the contrary is the right choice; for
better performance, the designer needs to increase
parallelism at the cost of the MF’s length.

Conclusions

The degradation in mean acquisition times due to
fading conditions seems to be great, which raises
some doubts about the ability of DS-SS systems to
work in such channels when frequency selectivity
and code Doppler are taken into account in low
SNR values and high fade rates.

Conclusions

Comparing the performance of the parallel
acquisition system and the serial acquisition
system, although the performance and mean
acquisition time of the parallel system is much
better than the serial system , but the system
complexity of the parallel system is higher than
the serial system.

Reference

[1].Special Issue on Mobile Spread-Spectrum Communication, IEEE
Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. VT-30, Rb. 1981.

[2]. R. P. Eckert and P. M. Kelly, “Implementing spread spectrum
technology in the land mobile radio services,” IEEE Trans. Commun.,

[3]. M. Mizuno, E. Moriyama, and Y. Kadokawa, “Spread spectrum
communication systems for land mobile radio,” Rev. Radio Res. Lab.,
Ministry of Posts and Telecommun., Japan, 1983.

[4]. G. R. Cooper and R. W. Nettleton, “A spread spectrum technique
for high-capacity mobile communications,” IEEE Tmns. Veh.
Technol.,

[5]. N. D. Wilson, S. S. Rappaport, and M. M. Vasudevan, “Rapid
acquisition scheme for spread-spectrum radio in a fading
environment,” Proc. IEE, vol. 135, part F, Feb. 1988.

Reference

[6]. A. K. El-Hakeem and S. A. M. Liebrecht, “A multiprocessing
approach to spread spectrum code acquisition,” in Proc. IEEE
MILCOM’ 85, Boston MA, Oct. 1985.

[7]. L. B. Milstein, J. Gevargiz, and P. K. Das, “Rapid acquisition for
direct sequence spread spectrum communications using parallel SAW
convolvers,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. COM-33, July 1985.

[8]. Y. T. Su, “Rapid code acquisition algorithms employing PN
matched filters,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 36, June 1988.

[9]. A. Polydoros and C. Weber, “A unified approach to serial search
spread spectrum code acquisition-hrt I: General theory,” IEEE
Trans. Commun., vol. COM-32, May 1984.

[10]. - , “A unified approach to serial search spread spectrum
acquisition-Part 11: A matched filter receiver,” IEEE Trans. Commun.,
vol. COM-32, May 1984.

Thanks for your attention