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**of Direct-Sequence Spread Spectrum
**

System

Speaker ：Teng-Shih Tsai

Synchronization of Direct-Sequence

Spread Spectrum System

Figure1. Illustrating the synchronization of DS-SS system .

Spreading Code Synchronization

System

Figure2. Illustrating the spreading code synchronization system .

Auto-correlation of Pseudo-Noise

Code

-6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12

-2

-1

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

time delay

R

x

(

t

)

Figure3. Illustrating the auto-correlation of PN code.

Direct-Sequence Spread-Spectrum

Parallel Acquisition in a Fading

Mobile Channel

Author ：E. A. SOUROUR

S. C. GUPTA

(SENIOR MEMBER, IEEE)

Speaker ：Teng-Shih Tsai

Adviser ：Ji-Hwei Horng

Chih-Hung Lee

Abstract

Spread-spectrum systems offer high immunity to

interference and hostile environments. However,

this high immunity can be fully exploited only if

precise receiver synchronization is performed.

Some parallel acquisition schemes have been

suggested to reduce the mean acquisition time.

Most of the work done, however, considered

either the effect of additive white Gaussian noise

(AWGN) only or AWGN and narrow-band

jamming.

Abstract

In this paper, a parallel acquisition scheme for

direct-sequence spread-spectrum systems is

proposed, and its mean acquisition time

performance is analyzed in both non-fading and

Rayleigh fading environments.

Abstract

The parallel scheme is compared to the

corresponding serial scheme, and a significant

improvement of performance is shown. The

derived results provide the tool to study the

interaction of many of the design parameters in the

system.

Outline

Introduction

System Description

Mean Acquisition Time

Non-fading Channel

Rayleigh Fading Channel

Numerical Results and Discussion

Conclusions

Outline

Introduction

System Description

Mean Acquisition Time

Non-fading Channel

Rayleigh Fading Channel

Numerical Results and Discussion

Conclusions

Introduction

Most of the techniques that have been proposed

for minimizing the mean acquisition time of DS-

SS systems employ the serial search strategy,

wherein the cells are tested one at a time. In the

last few years, some compound (i.e., partially

parallel) acquisition schemes were proposed in

which a number of cells, less than the number of

uncertainty region cells, is tested simultaneously.

Introduction

In this paper, a DS-SS acquisition scheme that utilizes a

bank of N parallel I-Q noncoherent MF’s is proposed. It

can be looked at as an extension of the schemes described

in [10], which uses one MF only.

An expression for the mean acquisition time is derived for

the new system in terms of the probabilities of detection,

missing, and false alarm.

Introduction

These parameters are first analyzed for a typical

AWGN channel, then the Rayleigh fading channel

encountered in a typical UHF or microwave land

mobile radio channel is studied.

The channel is assumed frequency nonselective, and

the effect of data modulation and code Do-ppler is

not considered in this paper. The per-formance of the

parallel system is compared to the corresponding

serial system, and it is shown that a significant

improvement can be achieved.

Outline

Introduction

System Description

Mean Acquisition Time

Non-fading Channel

Rayleigh Fading Channel

Numerical Results and Discussion

Conclusions

System Description

The system under consideration in this paper has

two modes of operation: the search mode and the

verification mode.

The full period L of the PN code is divided into N

subsequences, each of length M = L/N, and each

I-Q PN-MF is loaded by (and hence matched to)

one of the N subsequences.

System Description

Figure1. Parallel matched filters for the search mode.

System Description

Figure2. (a) I-Q non-coherent matched filter.

System Description

Figure2. (b) Matched filter correlator of Fig. 2(a).

System Description

If the largest of the MN/Δ samples exceeds a

threshold γl, the corresponding phase is assumed,

tentatively, to be the correct phase of the received

signal, and the acquisition system moves to the

verification mode.

System Description

The receiver advances this local phase by the same rate as

the incoming code so that both codes run in parallel, and

a sample is taken each T seconds to ensure independence.

If B out of A samples exceed a threshold γ2, acquisition

is declared and the tracking system is enabled; otherwise,

the system goes back to the search mode.

The two thresholds γl and γ2 are selected numerically to

minimize the mean acquisition time.

Outline

Introduction

System Description

Mean Acquisition Time

Non-fading Channel

Rayleigh Fading Channel

Numerical Results and Discussion

Conclusions

Mean Acquisition Time

Figure3. (a) State transition diagram of the acquisition system.

Mean Acquisition Time

Figure3. (b) Simplified state transition diagram.

Mean Acquisition Time

It can be easily shown that

Mean Acquisition Time

And the generating function is

Keeping in mind that Pm1+PD1+PF1=1, we can see

that the probability of acquisition H(1)=1.

Mean Acquisition Time

The mean acquisition time is given by

Which yields after some algebra

Mean Acquisition Time

Where PD= PD1 PD2 and PF= PF1 PF2 denote the

overall detection probability and false alarm

probability, respectively.

Although we might see that increasing the number

of parallelism N decreases the mean acquisition

time, this is not always true. Increasing N

decreases the MF’s length M, which might affect

PD, PF and PM1 unfavorably.

Outline

Introduction

System Description

Mean Acquisition Time

Non-fading Channel

Rayleigh Fading Channel

Numerical Results and Discussion

Conclusions

Non-fading Channel

Assumptions ：

1. Only one sample corresponding to the correct

phase (one H1 cell only).

2. All samples are independent.

3. The correlation of the received sequence and

local code yields zero when they are not in

phase (Ho cells), and the uncertainty region is

the full code length L.

Non-fading Channel

The received signal can be written as

Where β = received code offset, C(t) = PN

sequence, θ = uniformly distributed random phase,

ω0 = carrier frequency in rad/s, S = received signal

power, and n(t) = narrow-band AWGN with zero

mean and one-sided power spectral density of No.

Non-fading Channel

The probability density function (pdf) of the H1

sample is the noncentral with two degrees of

freedom:

2

x

Non-fading Channel

Io( ) = modified Bessel function of the first kind

and zero order. The pdf of the Ho samples is the

central with two degrees of freedom:

2

x

Non-fading Channel

Figure4. The PDF of dual hypothesis.

Non-fading Channel

The detection probability of the search mode PD1 is

given by

And the missing probability of the search mode

PM1 is given by

Non-fading Channel

Substituting (8)-(11) and (12) and (13), one gets

Non-fading Channel

And

where Q(a,b) is the Marcum’s Q function, v is the

chip energy-to-noise power spectral density

(SNR/chip) defined as

Non-fading Channel

Where

and is the normalized threshold of the search

mode

( )

dx ax I

a x

x b a Q

b

) (

2

exp ) , (

0

2 2

∫

∞

]

]

]

+ −

·

1

' γ

Non-fading Channel

The false alarm probability of the search mode can

be obtained from PD1 and PM1 as

The verification mode function was described earlier,

and the analysis of its detection and false alarm

probabilities is straightforward. It can be shown that

Non-fading Channel

where P1 and P2 are the probabilities that H1 and Ho

cells exceed , respectively.

2

γ

Non-fading Channel

Where

where is the normalized threshold of the

verification mode and is given by

2

' γ

Outline

Introduction

System Description

Mean Acquisition Time

Non-fading Channel

Rayleigh Fading Channel

Numerical Results and Discussion

Conclusions

Rayleigh Fading Channel

Assumptions ：

1. The fading process is regarded as a constant

over k successive chips, k << M, and these

successive groups of k chips are correlated.

2. The smaller the value of k and the correlation

coefficients among the chips, the faster the fade

rate.

Rayleigh Fading Channel

Since the transmitted signal is a carrier biphase

modulated by a PN code, the received signal in the

fading channel described above can be written as

Rayleigh Fading Channel

Where di = 0 or 1 according to the PN code. xi( t )

and yi( t ) are independent zero-mean stationary

Gaussian processes with variances

Rayleigh Fading Channel

where are the

autocorrelation coefficients among the fading

processes.

The outputs of the I and Q branches of the I-Q MF

are, respectively,

0 .... 1

2 1

≥ ≥ ≥ ≥ ρ ρ

Rayleigh Fading Channel

Where NI , NQ , x, and y are independent zero-

mean Gaussian random variables (r.v.'s). Both NI

and NQ have a variance , and since x and y are

identically distributed, it suffices to define x as

follows.

2

n

σ

Rayleigh Fading Channel

Under hypothesis H1, x is a summation of the

zero-mean Gaussian r.v.'s that constitute

the vector

Where

]

2 / + k M

Rayleigh Fading Channel

The two r.v.'s X1 and Xl+2 are due to the incomplete

groups of k chips with constant fading envelope at

the two edges of the tapped delay line. Their

variances are and , respectively.

The r.v.'s X2,X3, . . and Xl+1 are due to the groups in

the interior of the tapped delay line. They all have

the same variance .

2

s

qσ

2

) ' (

s

q k σ −

2 2

s

k σ

Rayleigh Fading Channel

The covariance matrix of the vector is given by

t

X

Rayleigh Fading Channel

Where

And q = 0, 1, 2,. , . , k' is a uniformly distributed

discrete r.v, that represents the number of chips

belonging to an incomplete group of constant

fading amplitude of the received PN sequence at

one edge of the tapped delay line.

Rayleigh Fading Channel

From the covariance matrix, one can get the

conditional variance of x to be

Rayleigh Fading Channel

Averaging (36) over the uniform r.v. q, one can

get

Rayleigh Fading Channel

Under hypothesis Ho, the MF coefficients (not

matched to the incoming PN sequence) can be

considered approximately independent, +1-1

valued random variables. Thus, x is a summation

of M independent identically distributed (i.i.d.)

Gaussian random variables with variances .

The variance of x is given by

2

s

σ

Rayleigh Fading Channel

From (32)-(38), under hypothesis Hi, eI and eQ

follow the Gaussian distribution

Rayleigh Fading Channel

Where is a Gaussian distribution of mean

u and variance .

Referring to Fig. 2(a), under Hi, i = 0, 1, the

sample R follows the distribution with two

degrees of freedom:

) , (

2

σ u G

2

σ

2

x

Rayleigh Fading Channel

And

Rayleigh Fading Channel

From which

Rayleigh Fading Channel

Rayleigh Fading Channel

Finally, from (22), (23), and (43), we get P1 and P2

for the fading channel:

Rayleigh Fading Channel

From (20), (21), (48), and (49), we can get PD2

and PF2 the fading channel.

In the above analysis, we assumed that the output

samples of the I-Q MF of Fig. 2(a) are

independent. This assumption is approximately

true when k << M and the correlation coefficients

are small. The same assumptions also enable us to

assume that the Markovian nature of the

acquisition process still exists.

Outline

Introduction

System Description

Mean Acquisition Time

Non-fading Channel

Rayleigh Fading Channel

Numerical Results and Discussion

Conclusions

Numerical Results and Discussion

Assumption and set parameters ：

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

'

¹

·

·

·

·

·

64 , 93 , 128

16 , 11 , 8

1000

/ 1

1023

M

N

factor Penalty

s chip M rate Code

L length code PN

Numerical Results and Discussion

Figure5. Mean acquisition time/minimum mean acquisition time for a non-fading channel.

Numerical Results and Discussion

Figure8. Mean acquisition time for non-fading and Rayleigh fading channels.

Numerical Results and Discussion

Figure9. Mean acquisition time for Rayleigh fading channel, p=0.4.

Numerical Results and Discussion

Figure10. Mean acquisition time for Rayleigh fading channel, k=5.

Numerical Results and Discussion

Figure11. Mean acquisition time for parallel acquisition and serial acquisition systems for a non-

fading channel.

Numerical Results and Discussion

Figure12. Mean acquisition time for parallel acquisition and serial acquisition systems for a

Rayleigh fading channel, p=0.4.

Outline

Introduction

System Description

Mean Acquisition Time

Non-fading Channel

Rayleigh Fading Channel

Numerical Results and Discussion

Conclusions

Conclusions

It is shown that in a non-fading channel, the

designer should choose the MF length as big as

practically possible, and then cover the rest of the

uncertainty region with parallel MF’s. In fading

channels, the contrary is the right choice; for

better performance, the designer needs to increase

parallelism at the cost of the MF’s length.

Conclusions

The degradation in mean acquisition times due to

fading conditions seems to be great, which raises

some doubts about the ability of DS-SS systems to

work in such channels when frequency selectivity

and code Doppler are taken into account in low

SNR values and high fade rates.

Conclusions

Comparing the performance of the parallel

acquisition system and the serial acquisition

system, although the performance and mean

acquisition time of the parallel system is much

better than the serial system , but the system

complexity of the parallel system is higher than

the serial system.

Reference

[1].Special Issue on Mobile Spread-Spectrum Communication, IEEE

Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. VT-30, Rb. 1981.

[2]. R. P. Eckert and P. M. Kelly, “Implementing spread spectrum

technology in the land mobile radio services,” IEEE Trans. Commun.,

[3]. M. Mizuno, E. Moriyama, and Y. Kadokawa, “Spread spectrum

communication systems for land mobile radio,” Rev. Radio Res. Lab.,

Ministry of Posts and Telecommun., Japan, 1983.

[4]. G. R. Cooper and R. W. Nettleton, “A spread spectrum technique

for high-capacity mobile communications,” IEEE Tmns. Veh.

Technol.,

[5]. N. D. Wilson, S. S. Rappaport, and M. M. Vasudevan, “Rapid

acquisition scheme for spread-spectrum radio in a fading

environment,” Proc. IEE, vol. 135, part F, Feb. 1988.

Reference

[6]. A. K. El-Hakeem and S. A. M. Liebrecht, “A multiprocessing

approach to spread spectrum code acquisition,” in Proc. IEEE

MILCOM’ 85, Boston MA, Oct. 1985.

[7]. L. B. Milstein, J. Gevargiz, and P. K. Das, “Rapid acquisition for

direct sequence spread spectrum communications using parallel SAW

convolvers,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. COM-33, July 1985.

[8]. Y. T. Su, “Rapid code acquisition algorithms employing PN

matched filters,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 36, June 1988.

[9]. A. Polydoros and C. Weber, “A unified approach to serial search

spread spectrum code acquisition-hrt I: General theory,” IEEE

Trans. Commun., vol. COM-32, May 1984.

[10]. - , “A unified approach to serial search spread spectrum

acquisition-Part 11: A matched filter receiver,” IEEE Trans. Commun.,

vol. COM-32, May 1984.

Thanks for your attention

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