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Simple Overview of Synchronization

of Direct-Sequence Spread Spectrum


System

Speaker : Teng-Shih Tsai


Synchronization of Direct-Sequence
Spread Spectrum System

Figure1. Illustrating the synchronization of DS-SS system .


Spreading Code Synchronization
System

Figure2. Illustrating the spreading code synchronization system .


Auto-correlation of Pseudo-Noise
Code
8

4
Rx(t)

-1

-2
-6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12
time delay

Figure3. Illustrating the auto-correlation of PN code.


Direct-Sequence Spread-Spectrum
Parallel Acquisition in a Fading
Mobile Channel
Author : E. A. SOUROUR
S. C. GUPTA
(SENIOR MEMBER, IEEE)

Speaker : Teng-Shih Tsai


Adviser : Ji-Hwei Horng
Chih-Hung Lee
Abstract
 Spread-spectrum systems offer high immunity to
interference and hostile environments. However,
this high immunity can be fully exploited only if
precise receiver synchronization is performed.
 Some parallel acquisition schemes have been
suggested to reduce the mean acquisition time.
Most of the work done, however, considered
either the effect of additive white Gaussian noise
(AWGN) only or AWGN and narrow-band
jamming.
Abstract
 In this paper, a parallel acquisition scheme for
direct-sequence spread-spectrum systems is
proposed, and its mean acquisition time
performance is analyzed in both non-fading and
Rayleigh fading environments.
Abstract
 The parallel scheme is compared to the
corresponding serial scheme, and a significant
improvement of performance is shown. The
derived results provide the tool to study the
interaction of many of the design parameters in the
system.
Outline
 Introduction
 System Description
 Mean Acquisition Time
 Non-fading Channel
 Rayleigh Fading Channel
 Numerical Results and Discussion
 Conclusions
Outline
 Introduction
 System Description
 Mean Acquisition Time
 Non-fading Channel
 Rayleigh Fading Channel
 Numerical Results and Discussion
 Conclusions
Introduction
 Most of the techniques that have been proposed
for minimizing the mean acquisition time of DS-
SS systems employ the serial search strategy,
wherein the cells are tested one at a time. In the
last few years, some compound (i.e., partially
parallel) acquisition schemes were proposed in
which a number of cells, less than the number of
uncertainty region cells, is tested simultaneously.
Introduction
 In this paper, a DS-SS acquisition scheme that utilizes a
bank of N parallel I-Q noncoherent MF’s is proposed. It
can be looked at as an extension of the schemes described
in [10], which uses one MF only.
 An expression for the mean acquisition time is derived for
the new system in terms of the probabilities of detection,
missing, and false alarm.
Introduction
 These parameters are first analyzed for a typical
AWGN channel, then the Rayleigh fading channel
encountered in a typical UHF or microwave land
mobile radio channel is studied.
 The channel is assumed frequency nonselective, and
the effect of data modulation and code Do-ppler is
not considered in this paper. The per-formance of the
parallel system is compared to the corresponding
serial system, and it is shown that a significant
improvement can be achieved.
Outline
 Introduction
 System Description
 Mean Acquisition Time
 Non-fading Channel
 Rayleigh Fading Channel
 Numerical Results and Discussion
 Conclusions
System Description
 The system under consideration in this paper has
two modes of operation: the search mode and the
verification mode.
 The full period L of the PN code is divided into N
subsequences, each of length M = L/N, and each
I-Q PN-MF is loaded by (and hence matched to)
one of the N subsequences.
System Description

Figure1. Parallel matched filters for the search mode.


System Description

Figure2. (a) I-Q non-coherent matched filter.


System Description

Figure2. (b) Matched filter correlator of Fig. 2(a).


System Description
 If the largest of the MN/Δ samples exceeds a
threshold γl, the corresponding phase is assumed,
tentatively, to be the correct phase of the received
signal, and the acquisition system moves to the
verification mode.
System Description
 The receiver advances this local phase by the same rate as
the incoming code so that both codes run in parallel, and
a sample is taken each T seconds to ensure independence.
If B out of A samples exceed a threshold γ2, acquisition
is declared and the tracking system is enabled; otherwise,
the system goes back to the search mode.
 The two thresholds γl and γ2 are selected numerically to
minimize the mean acquisition time.
Outline
 Introduction
 System Description
 Mean Acquisition Time
 Non-fading Channel
 Rayleigh Fading Channel
 Numerical Results and Discussion
 Conclusions
Mean Acquisition Time

Figure3. (a) State transition diagram of the acquisition system.


Mean Acquisition Time

Figure3. (b) Simplified state transition diagram.


Mean Acquisition Time
It can be easily shown that
Mean Acquisition Time
And the generating function is

Keeping in mind that Pm1+PD1+PF1=1, we can see


that the probability of acquisition H(1)=1.
Mean Acquisition Time
 The mean acquisition time is given by

Which yields after some algebra


Mean Acquisition Time
 Where PD= PD1 PD2 and PF= PF1 PF2 denote the
overall detection probability and false alarm
probability, respectively.
 Although we might see that increasing the number
of parallelism N decreases the mean acquisition
time, this is not always true. Increasing N
decreases the MF’s length M, which might affect
PD, PF and PM1 unfavorably.
Outline
 Introduction
 System Description
 Mean Acquisition Time
 Non-fading Channel
 Rayleigh Fading Channel
 Numerical Results and Discussion
 Conclusions
Non-fading Channel
 Assumptions :

1. Only one sample corresponding to the correct


phase (one H1 cell only).
2. All samples are independent.
3. The correlation of the received sequence and
local code yields zero when they are not in
phase (Ho cells), and the uncertainty region is
the full code length L.
Non-fading Channel
 The received signal can be written as

Where β = received code offset, C(t) = PN


sequence, θ = uniformly distributed random phase,
ω = carrier frequency in rad/s, S = received signal
0

power, and n(t) = narrow-band AWGN with zero


mean and one-sided power spectral density of No.
Non-fading Channel
 The probability density function (pdf) of the H1
2
sample is the noncentral x with two degrees of
freedom:
Non-fading Channel
 Io( ) = modified Bessel function of the first kind
and zero order. The pdf of the Ho samples is the
central x 2 with two degrees of freedom:
Non-fading Channel

Figure4. The PDF of dual hypothesis.


Non-fading Channel
 The detection probability of the search mode PD1 is
given by

 And the missing probability of the search mode


PM1 is given by
Non-fading Channel
 Substituting (8)-(11) and (12) and (13), one gets
Non-fading Channel
And

where Q(a,b) is the Marcum’s Q function, v is the


chip energy-to-noise power spectral density
(SNR/chip) defined as
Non-fading Channel
Where

Q ( a, b) = ∫ x exp 
(
− x 2 + a 2 ) I
 0 ( ax ) dx
b
 2 
and γ '1 is the normalized threshold of the search
mode
Non-fading Channel
 The false alarm probability of the search mode can
be obtained from PD1 and PM1 as

 The verification mode function was described earlier,


and the analysis of its detection and false alarm
probabilities is straightforward. It can be shown that
Non-fading Channel

where P1 and P2 are the probabilities that H1 and Ho


cells exceed γ2 , respectively.
Non-fading Channel
Where

where γ '2 is the normalized threshold of the


verification mode and is given by
Outline
 Introduction
 System Description
 Mean Acquisition Time
 Non-fading Channel
 Rayleigh Fading Channel
 Numerical Results and Discussion
 Conclusions
Rayleigh Fading Channel
 Assumptions :

1. The fading process is regarded as a constant


over k successive chips, k << M, and these
successive groups of k chips are correlated.
2. The smaller the value of k and the correlation
coefficients among the chips, the faster the fade
rate.
Rayleigh Fading Channel
 Since the transmitted signal is a carrier biphase
modulated by a PN code, the received signal in the
fading channel described above can be written as
Rayleigh Fading Channel
 Where di = 0 or 1 according to the PN code. xi( t )
and yi( t ) are independent zero-mean stationary
Gaussian processes with variances
Rayleigh Fading Channel
where 1 ≥ ρ1 ≥ ρ2 ≥ .... ≥ 0 are the
autocorrelation coefficients among the fading
processes.
 The outputs of the I and Q branches of the I-Q MF
are, respectively,
Rayleigh Fading Channel
 Where NI , NQ , x, and y are independent zero-
mean Gaussian random variables (r.v.'s). Both NI
σ 2
and NQ have a variance n , and since x and y are
identically distributed, it suffices to define x as
follows.
Rayleigh Fading Channel
 Under hypothesis H1, x is a summation of the
 M / k  + 2 zero-mean Gaussian r.v.'s that constitute
the vector

Where
Rayleigh Fading Channel
 The two r.v.'s X1 and Xl+2 are due to the incomplete
groups of k chips with constant fading envelope at
the two edges of the tapped delay line. Their
variances are andqσ s2 (k, '−
respectively.
q )σ s2

 The r.v.'s X2,X3, . . and Xl+1 are due to the groups in


the interior of the tapped delay line. They all have
the same variance . k 2σ 2
s
Rayleigh Fading Channel
 The covariance matrix of the vector X t is given by
Rayleigh Fading Channel
Where

 And q = 0, 1, 2,. , . , k' is a uniformly distributed


discrete r.v, that represents the number of chips
belonging to an incomplete group of constant
fading amplitude of the received PN sequence at
one edge of the tapped delay line.
Rayleigh Fading Channel
 From the covariance matrix, one can get the
conditional variance of x to be
Rayleigh Fading Channel
 Averaging (36) over the uniform r.v. q, one can
get
Rayleigh Fading Channel
 Under hypothesis Ho, the MF coefficients (not
matched to the incoming PN sequence) can be
considered approximately independent, +1-1
valued random variables. Thus, x is a summation
of M independent identically distributed (i.i.d.)
Gaussian random variables with variances σ s2 .
The variance of x is given by
Rayleigh Fading Channel
 From (32)-(38), under hypothesis Hi, eI and eQ
follow the Gaussian distribution
Rayleigh Fading Channel
 Where G (u, σ 2 ) is a Gaussian distribution of mean
u and variance . σ 2

 Referring to Fig. 2(a), under Hi, i = 0, 1, the


sample R follows the x 2distribution with two
degrees of freedom:
Rayleigh Fading Channel
And
Rayleigh Fading Channel
From which
Rayleigh Fading Channel
Rayleigh Fading Channel
 Finally, from (22), (23), and (43), we get P1 and P2
for the fading channel:
Rayleigh Fading Channel
 From (20), (21), (48), and (49), we can get PD2
and PF2 the fading channel.
 In the above analysis, we assumed that the output
samples of the I-Q MF of Fig. 2(a) are
independent. This assumption is approximately
true when k << M and the correlation coefficients
are small. The same assumptions also enable us to
assume that the Markovian nature of the
acquisition process still exists.
Outline
 Introduction
 System Description
 Mean Acquisition Time
 Non-fading Channel
 Rayleigh Fading Channel
 Numerical Results and Discussion
 Conclusions
Numerical Results and Discussion
Assumption and set parameters :

PN code length L = 1023


Code rate = 1M chip / s


Penalty factor = 1000
N = 8, 11, 16


M = 128 , 93, 64
Numerical Results and Discussion

Figure5. Mean acquisition time/minimum mean acquisition time for a non-fading channel.
Numerical Results and Discussion

Figure8. Mean acquisition time for non-fading and Rayleigh fading channels.
Numerical Results and Discussion

Figure9. Mean acquisition time for Rayleigh fading channel, p=0.4.


Numerical Results and Discussion

Figure10. Mean acquisition time for Rayleigh fading channel, k=5.


Numerical Results and Discussion

Figure11. Mean acquisition time for parallel acquisition and serial acquisition systems for a non-
fading channel.
Numerical Results and Discussion

Figure12. Mean acquisition time for parallel acquisition and serial acquisition systems for a
Rayleigh fading channel, p=0.4.
Outline
 Introduction
 System Description
 Mean Acquisition Time
 Non-fading Channel
 Rayleigh Fading Channel
 Numerical Results and Discussion
 Conclusions
Conclusions
 It is shown that in a non-fading channel, the
designer should choose the MF length as big as
practically possible, and then cover the rest of the
uncertainty region with parallel MF’s. In fading
channels, the contrary is the right choice; for
better performance, the designer needs to increase
parallelism at the cost of the MF’s length.
Conclusions
 The degradation in mean acquisition times due to
fading conditions seems to be great, which raises
some doubts about the ability of DS-SS systems to
work in such channels when frequency selectivity
and code Doppler are taken into account in low
SNR values and high fade rates.
Conclusions
 Comparing the performance of the parallel
acquisition system and the serial acquisition
system, although the performance and mean
acquisition time of the parallel system is much
better than the serial system , but the system
complexity of the parallel system is higher than
the serial system.
Reference
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Reference
 [6]. A. K. El-Hakeem and S. A. M. Liebrecht, “A multiprocessing
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