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FATS AND OILS HERBS AND SPICES

FATS AND OILS

INTRODUCTION
Vegetable oil is one of the most important primary foods and therefore requires maximum quality.

When they are solid-appearing at a normal room temperature, they are referred to as fats, and when they are liquid at that temperature, they are called oils.

EXAMPLES AND THEIR SOURCES Vegetable Oils


Soybean, palm oil, rapeseed/canola, sunflower, cottonseed, peanut, sesame, corn, olive, coconut,cocoa butter etc.

Animal Fats and Marine Origins


Butter (from milk), lard (from hogs), tallow (from beef), fish oil (cod, whale, etc.)

OILS AND FATS PROCESSING


Food fats and oils are derived from oilseed and animal sources. Vegetable oils are obtained by the extraction or the expression of the oil from the oilseed source. Animal fats are generally heat rendered from animal tissues. Rendering may be accomplished with either dry heat or steam. Crude fats and oils

1.CHEMICAL REFINING

2.PHYSICAL REFINING

3.CLARIFICATION OF PRESS OIL

4.WATER DEGUMMING

5.SIMPLE ACID DEGUMMING

6.SPECIAL DEGUMMING

7.SUPER-/UNI-DEGUMMING

8.TOP DEGUMMING

9.COLD REFINING

10.POLISHING FILTRATION

11.BLEACHING
The term bleaching refers to the process for removing color producing substances and for further purifying the fat or oil. Normally, bleaching is accomplished after the oil has been refined. The usual method of bleaching is by adsorption of the color producing substances on an adsorbent material. Acid-activated bleaching earth or clay, called bentonite; Anhydrous silica gel and activated carbon are used as bleaching adsorbents.

12.DEODORIZATION
Deodorization is a vacuum steam distillation process for the purpose of removing trace constituents that give rise to undesirable flavors, colors and odors in fats and oil Normally this process is accomplished after refining and bleaching. The deodorization of fats and oils is simply a removal of the relatively volatile components from the fat or oil using steam.

13.FRACTIONATION
Fractionation is the removal of solids by controlled crystallization and separation techniques involving the use of solvents or dry processing. Dry fractionation encompasses both winterization and pressing techniques. It relies upon the differences in melting points to separate the oil fractions. WINTERIZATION:-Process whereby material is crystallized and removed from the oil by filtration to avoid clouding of the liquid fraction at cooler temperatures. PRESSING TECHNIQUES:-Pressing is a fractionation process sometimes used to separate liquid oils from solid fat. Hydraulic pressure or vacuum filtration is used. Hard butters and specialty fats from oils such as palm and palm kernel.

14.PARTIAL HYDROGENATION / HYDROGENATION


Hydrogenation is the process by which hydrogen is added to points of unsaturation in the fatty acids. Hydrogenation was developed as a result of the need to (1) convert liquid oils to the semi-solid form for greater utility in certain food uses and (2) increase the oxidative and thermal stability of the fat or oil. Desired stability and functionality. PROCESS:-Hydrogen gas reacts with oil at elevated temperature and pressure in the presence of a catalyst. Nickel is common catalyst. Catalyst is removed from the fat after the hydrogenation processing is completed.

Under these conditions, the gaseous hydrogen reacts with the double bonds of the unsaturated fatty acids as illustrated below:

15.INTERESTERIFICATION
Interesterification causes a redistribution of the fatty acids on the glycerol fragment of the molecule. This rearrangement process does not change the composition of the fatty acids from the starting materials. Interesterification may be accomplished by chemical or enzymatic processes. Chemical interesterification is a process by which fatty acids are randomly distributed across the glycerol backbone of the triglyceride. Enzymatic interesterification is a process rearranges the fatty acids (can be position specific) on the glycerol backbone of the triglyceride through the use of an enzyme.

16.ESTERIFICATION
Fatty acids are usually present in nature in the form of esters and are consumed as such. Triglycerides, the predominant constituents of fats and oils, are examples of esters. When consumed and digested, fats are hydrolyzed initially to diglycerides and monoglycerides which are also esters. In esterification, an alcohol such as glycerol is reacted with an acid such as a fatty acid to form an ester such as mono-, di-, and triglycerides. In an alternative esterification process, called alcoholysis, an alcohol such as glycerol is reacted with fat or oil to produce esters such as mono- and diglycerides.

USES OF FATS AND OILS


Textural qualities (body and mouthfeel) Emulsions Shortening or tenderizers Medium for transferring heat Aeration and leavening Spray oils Producing satiety (fullness after eating) Adding flavor Decreasing temperature shock in frozen desserts Foaming Solubilizing flavors and colors.

GHEE

INTRODUCTION
Ghee is obtained by clarification of milk fat at high temperature. Being a rich source of energy, fat soluble vitamins and essential fatty acids, and due to long shelf life at room temperature (20 to 40C). 80% of ghee produced is used for culinary purposes. The remaining 20% is used for confectionery, including small amounts consumed on auspicious occasions like religious ceremonies.

PROCESSING OF GHEE
Ghee making in India is mostly a home industry. Substantial amounts come from villages where it is usually prepared by the desi method. Recently, industry has manufactured improved ghee of more uniform quality. Basically, the high heat applied to butter or cream removes moisture. Both are usually clarified at 110 to 120 C. In general, ghee is prepared by four methods, 1.Desi 2.Creamery butter 3.Direct cream 4.Pre-stratification methods.

1.DESI METHOD

2.CREAMERY BUTTER METHOD

3.DIRECT CREAM METHOD

4.PRE-STRATIFICATION METHOD

Desi method accounts for more than 97% of ghee manufactured. However, with industrial interest, the creamery butter and direct cream methods are increasing. Recently, continuous ghee making equipment has been fabricated at the National Dairy Research Institute at Karnal. The equipment is a three-stage pressurized, swept surface separator.

QUALITY OF GHEE
The quality of ghee depends on 1.milk, 2.cream, 3.dahi or butter, 4.methods of preparation, 5.Temperature of clarification, 6.storage conditions, 7.type of animal feed. The principal measurements of ghee quality are: 1.Peroxide value, 2.Acidity, 3.Flavor.

CHANGES ON STORAGE
Ghee undergoes physicochemieal changes, dependent primarily on the temperature of Storage. Crystallization occurs with the formation of solid, semi-solid and liquid layers. Above 20 C and below 30 C, solidification is a loose structure. Ghee stored at high temperature is also susceptible to oxidative deterioration, rancidity, and off flavor.

USES OF GHEE
1.Snacks and Appetizers 2. Main courses and Soup 3.Vegetable, Potato, and Grain Dishes 4.Desserts 5.Sauces 6.Out of the ordinary 7.Substitutions

MARGARINE

INTRODUCTION
Margarine and related products contain a water phase and a fat phase and can thus be characterized as water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions in which the water phase is finely dispersed as droplets in the continuous fat phase.

INGREDIENTS
Margarine is formulated to contain 80% fat and 16% water. The formars are 1.skim milk 2.salt 3. preservatives such as Lactic acid,Citric acid, Tartaric acid, Phosphoric acid 4.Natural coloring compounds like Beta carotene, Palm carotene 5.Flavors(butter aroma) 6.Lecithin 7.Vitamins 8.Antioxidants 9.Emulsifier 10.Stabilizers

PROCESSING
The oils fats in the required proportions are melted, mixed and emulsified with the aqueous phase. The resulting emulsion is partly crystalized, plasticized or textured. There are some processing steps:-

HERBS

INTRODUCTION
An herb is "a flowering plant whose stem above ground does not become woody." In our diets, we eat not only grains, bread, vegetables and pulses but also different types of herbs. Herbs make food more tasty and can also help digestion, and act as medicines. Examples are basil, oregano, marjoram, and sage.

1.BASIL

Scientific Name: Ocimum basilicum Part of Plant Used: Leaves Origin: India, Asia, and Africa Flavor: There are a huge number of varieties of basil. Thai basil, lemon basil, cinna-mon basil, Holy basil. Plain ol' regular basil has a slightly peppery, sweet flavor with an aroma kinda like a mixture of cloves and anise.

2.THYME

Scientific Name: Thymus vulgaris Part of Plant Used: Leaves Origin: Asia, Southern Europe, Mediterranean Flavor: It has tiny little leaves and stem having minty, lemony flavor and smell .

3.CILANTRO

Scientific Name: Coriandrum sativum Part of Plant Used: Leaves (cilantro), seeds (coriander) Origin: Mediterranean, Middle East Flavor: it tastes like hand lotion or soap, it's citrusy with a nice tang.

4.DILL

Scientific Name: Anethum graveolens Part of Plant Used: Leaves and seeds Origin: Southern Russia, Western Africa, Mediterranean Flavor: It's extremely versatile and adds a nice earthy, somewhat lemony flavor to everything you add it to.

5.PARSLEY

Scientific Name: Petroselinum crispum Part of Plant Used: Leaves Origin: Mediterranean Flavor:

6.ROSEMARY

Scientific Name: Rosmarinus officinalis Part of Plant Used: Leaves Origin: Mediterranean Flavor: the flavor is kind of sharp and piney.

7.MINT

Scientific Name: Mentha piperita Part of Plant Used: Leaves Origin: Europe, Asia, Mediterranean Flavor: Mint is another one with about 25 different varieties. There's peppermint, spearmint, choco-late mint, apple mint, and basil mint, chocolate mint has a chocolatey flavor.

8.OREGANO

Scientific Name: Origanum vulgare Part of Plant Used: Leaves Origin: Northern Europe Flavor: Oregano has a warming, pungent, sharp flavor.

9.SAGE

Scientific Name: Salvia officinallis Part of Plant Used: Leaves Origin: Mediterranean Flavor: It's somewhat savory, somewhat sweet, a little bit minty, and a tad earthy.

DRYING OF HERBS
The most commonly used methods for curing herbs are:1.Air drying 2.Silica sand drying 3.Drying with heat

OTHER METHODS OF PRESERVING HERBS


1.Freezing 2.Herb vinegars 3.Herb butter

STORING OF HERBS

SPICES

INTRODUCTION
A spice is "any of a class of pungent or aromatic substances of vegetable origin, as pepper, cinnamon, or cloves, used as seasoning, preservatives, etc." Spices come from the bark, root, buds, seeds, ber-ry, or fruit of tropical plants and seeds. Examples of each are cinnamon, ginger, cloves, mustard, black pepper, and allspice, respectively.

1.PEPPER

Scientific Name: Piper nigrum Part of Plant Used: Berries Origin: India Flavor: Pepper is spicy and pungent

2.CINNAMON

Scientific Name: Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume Part of Plant Used: Bark Origin: Eqypt Flavor: Cinnamon has a warm, sweet flavor.

3.GARLIC

Scientific Name: allium vineale Part of Plant Used: Entire vegetable Origin: Central Asia Flavor: It has a spicy, pungent flavor when raw and a sweeter, mellower pungency when cooked.

4.CUMIN

Scientific Name: Cuminum cyminum Part of Plant Used: Seeds Origin: Egypt Flavor: It has an earthy flavor and aroma.

5.PAPRIKA

Scientific Name: Capsicum annuum var. angulosum mill. Part of Plant Used: Fruit, dehydrated and ground Origin: Mexico Flavor: It tastes like the bell peppers that it is made from. Paprika doesnt have an exceptionally strong flavor.

6.TURMERIC

Scientific Name: Curcuma domestica Loir. Part of Plant Used: Root Origin: Indonesia, Southern India Flavor: Turmeric has a slightly bitter taste with some pepperiness and is pretty strong.

7.GINGER

Scientific Name: Zingiber officinale Rosc. Part of Plant Used: Root Origin: Southeastern Asia Flavor: It has a pungent spicy flavor that adds zing to anything.

8.NUTMEG

Scientific Name: Myristica fragrans Houtt. Part of Plant Used: Seed Origin: Spice Islands, New Guinea Flavor: Nutmeg is spicy and sweet.

9.CAYENNE PEPPER

Scientific Name: Capsicum annuum Part of Plant Used: Fruit Origin: South America Flavor: It's really spicy hot.

10.CLOVES

Scientific Name: Syzygium aromaticum Part of Plant Used: Unopened flower buds Origin: Spice Islands Flavor: It has a strong, sweet flavor.

11.MUSTARD SEEDS

Scientific Name: Sinapis alba Part of Plant Used: Seeds Origin: Europe, Asia, Mediterranean Flavor: Mustard is a great spice to keep around for its spicy and aromatic qualities.

FIVE IMPORTANT SPICE BLENDS


1.Berbere (Ethiopian) 2.Five Spice (Chinese) 3.Curry Powder (Indian) 4.Garam masala (Indian) 5.Jamaican Jerk (Jamaica)