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THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

Introduction
The circulatory system is comprised of:

-the heart,
- veins, -capillaries,

-arteries,
which work together to supply the body tissues with nourishment and collect waste materials.

What is the cardiovascular system?


The cardiovascular system carries blood and dissolved substances to and from different places in the body. The Heart has the job of pumping these things around the body.

The Heart pumps blood and substances around the


body in tubes called blood vessels.

The Heart and blood vessels together make up the cardiovascular System.

Functions of the cardiovascular system: Distribute nutrients, Transport and exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide,

Remove waste materials,


Distribute secretions of endocrine glands,

Prevent excessive bleeding,


Prevent infection, and Regulate body temperature.

How does this system work?


pulmonary vein lungs
head & arms aorta

pulmonary artery

main vein

Right
liver

Left

digestive system

kidneys
legs

Cardiovascular System

Our cardiovascular system is a double circulatory system. This means it has two parts parts.
Lungs

the right side of the system deals with deoxygenated blood.

the left side of the system deals with

oxygenated
blood.

Body cells

Anatomy of the Heart


The heart is a funnel-shaped, hollow, muscular organ that is responsible for pumping blood to all parts of the body.

The heart is located near the center of the thoracic cavity between the lungs and is contained in the pericardial sac.
The pericardial sac supports the heart and contains some fluid for lubrication.

HEART LOCATION
Heart is located in the mediastinum
area from the sternum to the vertebral column and between the lungs

HEART LOCATION

The heart wall is made up of three layers.

Epicardium outer layer of heart wall, which is also the inner layer of epicardial sac; consists of

Endocardium inner layer that endothelial cells, which heart

line the heart, covers the

valves, and lines the blood vessels.

Myocardium middle layer composed of cardiac muscle.

The cardiac muscle is an involuntary, striated muscle


with fibers that intertwine.

The atrioventricular valves (AV valve) separate the atrium and ventricle on each side of the heart.
The AV valves have flaps of tissues, called leaflets or cusps, which open and close to ensure that the blood flows only in one direction and does not backflow into the atriums. The AV valve on the right side of the heart is called the tricuspid valve because it has three leaflets (cusps). The AV valve on the left side of the heart is called the bicuspid valve (or mitral valve) because it has two leaflets. The pulmonary valve and the aortic valve prevent blood from back-flowing into their respective ventricles.

The pulmonary valve is located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery.

The aortic valve is located between the left ventricle and the aortic artery.

How does the heart beat? A group of cells called the sinoatrial node (SA node) control the beat of the heart by sending out electrical signals to make the heart pump.

Heart Innervation
Heart receives visceral motor innervation
Sympathetic (speeds up) Parasympathetic (slows down) p. 534

Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.,Human Anatomy

The Heart
This is a vein. It brings blood from the body, except the lungs. These are arteries. They carry blood away from the heart.

2 atria 2 ventricles

Coronary arteries, the hearts own blood supply

The heart has four chambers

now lets look inside the heart

Blood supply to heart wall


Rt and Lft Coronary Arteries
Branch from Ascending Aorta Have multiple branches along heart Sit in Coronary Sulcus Coronary Heart Disease

Cardiac Veins
Coronary Sinus (largest) Many branches feed into sinus Sit in Coronary Sulcus

A heart attack often involves a clot in the coronary arteries or their branches.

In this illustration, a clot is shown in the location of #1. Area #2 shows the portion of the damaged heart that is affected by the

The Heart
Artery to Lungs
Vein from Head and Body

Artery to Head and Body


Vein from Lungs

Right Atrium valve

Left Atrium valve

Right Ventricle

Left Ventricle

How does the Heart work? STEP ONE


blood from the body

blood from the lungs


The heart beat begins when the heart muscles relax and blood flows into the atria.

How does the Heart work? STEP TWO

The atria then contract and the valves open to allow blood into the ventricles.

How does the Heart work? STEP THREE

The valves close to stop blood flowing backwards. The ventricles contract forcing the blood to leave the heart. At the same time, the atria are relaxing and once again filling with blood.

The cycle then repeats itself.

blood from the heart gets around the body through blood vessels There are 3 types of blood vessels

a. b.

ARTERY VEIN

c.

CAPILLARY

Walls of Arteries and Veins


Tunica externa
Outermost layer CT w/elastin and collagen Strengthens, Anchors

Tunica media
Middle layer Circular Smooth Muscle Vaso-constriction/dilation

Tunica intima
Innermost layer Endothelium Minimize friction

Lumen

ARTERI :

1. ARTERI BESAR (ELASTIC ARTERY): 2. ARTERI SEDANG (MUSCULAR ARTERY): 3. ARTERI KECIL (ARTERIOLE):

The VEIN
Veins carry blood towards from the heart. veins have valves which act to stop the blood from going in the wrong direction. thin muscle and elastic fibres

body muscles surround the veins so that when they contract to move the body, they also squeeze the veins and push the blood along the vessel.

Artery/Vein differences
Arteries (aa.) Direction Blood Away from of flow Heart Pressure Higher Walls THICKER: Tunica media thicker than tunica externa Smaller No valves Veins (vv.) Blood to Heart Lower THINNER: Tunica externa thicker than tunica media Larger Valves (see next)

Lumen Valves

ry M. Frolich, Ph.D.,Human Anatomy

The CAPILLARY
Capillaries link Arteries with Veins

they exchange materials between the blood and other body cells.

the wall of a capillary is only one cell thick

The exchange of materials between the blood and the body can only occur through capillaries.

The CAPILLARY
A collection of capillaries is known as a capillary bed.
artery vein

body cell

capillaries

AORTA
I. II. III. A. B.

AORTA ASCENDENS : A. CORONARIA DEXTRA ET SINISTRA ARCUS AORTA AORTA DESCENDENS : AORTA THORACALIS AORTA ABDOMINALIS

II. ARCUS AORTA :


1. A. BRACHIOCEPHALICA: a. A. SUBCLAVIA DEXTRA b. A. CAROTIS COMMUNIS DEXTRA: - A. CAROTIS INT. DEXTR. - A. CAROTIS EXT. DEXTR. 2. A. CAROTIS COMMUNIS SINISTRA: - A. CAROTIS INT. SIN. - A. CAROTIS EXT. SIN. 3. A. SUBCLAVIA SINISTRA.

III. A. AORTA THORACALIS:

1. Aa. INTERCOSTALIS 2. Aa. BRONCHIALIS 3. Aa. ESOPHAGEALIS

III.B. AORTA ABDOMINALIS


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Aa. PHRENICA ABD. DEXTRA ET SINISTRA A. COELIACA Aa. SUPRARENALIS MEDIA DEXTRA ET SINISTRA Aa. RENALIS DEXTRA ET SINISTRA Aa. TESTICULARIS / OVARICA DEXT. ET SIN. A. MESENTERICA SUP. A. MESENTERICA INF. Aa. LUMBALIS Aa. ILIACA COMMUNIS: Aa. ILIACA EXTERNA Aa. ILIACA INTERNA

III.B. AORTA ABDOMINALIS


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Aa. PHRENICA ABD. DEXTRA ET SINISTRA A. COELIACA Aa. SUPRARENALIS MEDIA DEXTRA ET SINISTRA Aa. RENALIS DEXTRA ET SINISTRA Aa. TESTICULARIS / OVARICA DEXT. ET SIN. A. MESENTERICA SUP. A. MESENTERICA INF. Aa. LUMBALIS Aa. ILIACA COMMUNIS: Aa. ILIACA EXTERNA Aa. ILIACA INTERNA

ARTERI UNTUK LEHER DAN KEPALA

1. 2. 3. 4.

A. CAROTIS EXTERNA A. CAROTIS INTERNA A. VERTEBRALIS A. MENINGICA MEDIA

ARTERI UNTUK EXTREMITAS SUPERIOR

A. AXILLARIS A. BRACHIALIS A. RADIALIS A. ULNARIS

ARTERI UNTUK EXTREMITAS INFERIOR

A. FEMORALIS A. POPLITEA A. TIBIALIS ANTERIOR A. TIBIALIS POSTERIOR A. DORSALIS PEDIS Aa. PLANTARIS MEDIALIS ET LATERALIS

TEMPAT-TEMPAT UNTUK PALPASI ARTERI (NADI)

VENNAE BESAR

ATRIUM DEXTRM I. V. CAVA SUPERIOR V. AZYGOS Vv. BRACHIOCEPHALICA DEXTRA ET SINISTRA

Vv. JUG INT. Vv. SUBCLAVIA DEXT/SIN DEXT/SIN

II. V. CAVA INFERIOR: 1. Vv. PHRENICA INFERIOR 2. Vv. HEPATICA 3. Vv. SUPRARENALIS 4. Vv. RENALIS 5. V. TESTICULARIS/ OVARICA DEXTRA 6. Vv. LUMBALIS 7. Vv. ILIACA COMMUNIS DEXTRA ET SINISTRA

VENNAE LEHER DAN KEPALA

V. JUGULARIS EXTERNA V. JUGULARIS INTERNA

VENNAE EXTREMITAS SUPERIOR


V. SUBCLAVIA V. AXILLARIS
V. CEPHALICA--------- V. BASILICA

VENNAE MANUS

------ V. MEDIANA CUBITI

VENNAE EXTREMITAS INFERIOR

V. ILIACA EXTERNA V. FEMORALIS V. POPLITEA V. SAPHENA PARVA V.SAPHENA MAGNA

VENNAE PEDIS

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