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notes on yeild criteria

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-Failure Analysis -

SOLID MECHANICS II

BMCS 3333

Nadlene Razali

Failures overview

There are various type mode of failures :

Fracture mechanic

Fatigue

Structure instability (buckling)

Introduction

Introduction

Few example of failures:

Structural failure

Introduction

Structural failure

Tacoma Narrows Bridge collapsed

Introduction

Structural support for spherical storage tank collapse

Introduction

Coal stacking belt failure, in Pennsylvania.

Introduction

Hydrogen embrittlement fracture surface of a bolt showing multiple

initiation sites. The fastener was one of eight body bolts in a high

pressure pump that failed after years in atmospheric service.

Introduction

A natural gas pipeline in Venezuela ruptured next to a major highway in

September, 1993. The subsequent gas jet ignition resulted in an inferno

that killed at least 50 people.

Introduction

The Heverill Fire Department aerial ladder failure. Structural failure of

a ladder is not at all an uncommon event. Failure can result from poor

design, use of inferior material, fabrication methods, or from a

phenomenon called fatigue.

Introduction

During a violent storm on the evening

of 28 December 1879, the centre

section of the bridge, known as the

"High Girders", collapsed, taking with

it a train that was running on its single

track. More than 75 lives were lost.

Tay Bridge disaster (1879), in

Scotland.

Introduction

SS AMERICA - Queen of the American Merchant Marine. Designed

and constructed at the zenith of transatlantic passenger ship service

in the late 1930s.

Introduction

Due to hurricane-strength winds and mountainous waves continued

to pound the hapless. Over 55 years since first being riveted together

- suffered a total fracture (1994); the result of metal fatigue.

Introduction

Loading Types:

Static load

Dynamic load

Thermal

Cyclic Load

Introduction

Static or static load : sometimes a load is assumed to be

static when it is known that some variation is to be

expected.

Introduction

Mode of Failure

Introduction

Ductile Material Brittle Material

Failure Analysis

Yield Criteria Failure Analysis

Ductile Material Brittle Material

Fail after yield point which

are cause by slipping

Suddenly fracture with no

apparent yielding

Maximum Shear Stress

Theory Tresca yield criterion

Maximum Distortion Energy

Theory von-Mises

Maximum Normal Stress

Theory - Rankine

Mohrs Failure Criterion

Ductile material gives large tensile strain before

fracture. Failure is specified by the initiation of

yielding.

Ductile failure can be defined when slipping occurs

between the crystals that compose material. This

slipping is due to the shear stress.

The edges of the planes of slipping appear at the

surface of the strip referred to as Luders lines.

Example of ductile material: steels and aluminum

Theories of Failure for Ductile Material

Luders lines - 45

0

to the strip axis

Yield Criteria for Ductile Materials Under Plane Stress

Failure of a machine component subjected to

uniaxial stress is directly predicted from an

equivalent tensile test.

Failure of a machine component subjected to

plane stress cannot be directly predicted

from the uniaxial state of stress in a tensile

test specimen.

It is convenient to determine the principal

stresses and to base the failure criteria on

the corresponding biaxial stress state.

Failure criteria are based on the mechanism

of failure. Allows comparison of the failure

conditions for a uniaxial stress test and

biaxial component loading.

Yield Criteria for Ductile Materials Under Plane Stress

Maximum shearing stress criteria:

Structural component is safe as long as the

maximum shearing stress is less than the

maximum shearing stress in a tensile test

specimen at yield, i.e.,

2

max

Y

Y

o

t t = <

For o

a

and o

b

with the same sign,

2 2

or

2

max

Y b a

o o o

t < =

For o

a

and o

b

with opposite signs,

2 2

max

Y b a

o o o

t <

=

Tresca Yield Criterion

Maximum-Distortion-Energy Theory

Energy per unit volume of material is called the strain-energy density.

Material subjected to a uniaxial stress , the strain-energy density is

written as,

oc

2

1

= u

3 3 2 2 1 1

2

1

2

1

2

1

c o c o c o + + = u

Yield Criteria for Ductile Materials Under Plane Stress

For linear-elastic behavior, applying Hookes law into above equation:

Maximum-distortion-energy theory is defined as the yielding of a

ductile material occurs when the distortion energy per unit volume of

the material equals or exceeds the distortion energy per unit volume of

the same material when subjected to yielding in a simple tension test.

( )

(

(

+ +

+ +

=

2 3 3 1 2 1

2

3

2

2

2

1

2

2

1

o o o o o o u

o o o

E

u

Yield Criteria for Ductile Materials Under Plane Stress

Distortion energy per unit volume in anisotropic material under plane

stress,

For uniaxial tension test, o

1

= o

Y

, o

2

= o

3

= 0. Therefore,

( )

2

2 2 1

2

1

6

1

o o o o + =

G

u

d

( )

2

6

1

Y

Y

d

G

u o =

Yield Criteria for Ductile Materials Under Plane Stress

Since maximum-distortion energy theory requires ud = (ud)

Y

,

then for the case of plane or biaxial stress, we have:

2 2

2 2 1

2

1 Y

o o o o o = +

Yield Criteria for Ductile Materials Under Plane Stress

Y Mises von

Y d

u u

o o s

s

Structural component is safe as long as the

distortion energy per unit volume is less than

that occurring in a tensile test specimen at

yield.

2 2

b b a a Mises von

o o o o o + =

Where

Yield Criteria for Ductile Materials Under Plane Stress

( )

( )

15 1

2

3

.

Y

Y

Tresca

Y

Mises _ von

Y

= =

o

o

t

t

Comparison between maximum-shear stress and maximum-distortion

energy criteria.

Actual torsion test result show

t

Y

/o

Y

range from 0.55 to 0.60.

Thus, the maximum-distortion-

energy theory appears more

accurate.

Y

Y

. o

o

577 0

3

=

Yield Criteria for Ductile Materials Under Plane Stress

Maximum normal stress criteria:

Structural component is safe as long as the

maximum normal stress is less than the

ultimate strength of a tensile test specimen.

U b

U a

o o

o o

<

<

Brittle materials fail suddenly through

rupture or fracture in a tensile test.

The failure condition is characterized by the

ultimate strength o

U

.

Yield Criteria for Brittle Materials Under Plane Stress

stress allowable

stress yield

S F = .

Be aware some F.S. based on ultimate tensile stress

The factor reduces the failure stress level to a value called working

stress which, under foreseen operating condition, the material in

component part of a design will have to withstand.

Factor of safety

It is needed due to:

Mathematical models only approximation.

Material property vary from batch to batch.

Type of loading produce unknown stresses.

Residual stresses from manufacturing processes.

Effect of environment, heat, ageing, corrosion etc.

General guidelines of F.S.

1.2 1.5 :Reliable materials under controllable condition.

1.5 2.0 :Well known materials under reasonably

constant environmental conditions and loads

and stresses easily determined.

2.0 2.5 :Average material. Also known Service Factors.

2.0 4.0 :For less tried material.

5.0 7.0 :Impact loading, to prevent failure.

Factor of safety

Example:

For the state of stress shown, determine the maximum

shearing stress when:

a) oy = 20 MPa

b) oy = 140 MPa

Yield Criteria Failure Analysis

Solution:

Yield Criteria Failure Analysis

Yield Criteria Failure Analysis

If the material yields in uniaxial simple tension at a stress o

y

= 210 MPa,

investigate whether it will yield according to the maximum shear stress

criteria (tresca criteria) for both cases (a) and (b)?

Tresca criteria,

Yielding when

2

max

Y

Y

or

o

t t <

Thus,

For case (a), t

max

= 100 MPa < 210 /2 . Not yielding.

For case (b), t

max

= 110 MPa > 210 /2 . Yielding occurs.

Example

Yield Criteria Failure Analysis

Example:

A steel pipe has inner diameter of 60 mm and outer diameter of 80 mm. It is

subjected to a torsional moment of 8 kNm and a bending moment of 3.5

kNm.

By using maximum-distortion-energy theory, determine whether the steel

pipe will fail or not? (Given that o

Y

= 250 MPa).

Yield Criteria Failure Analysis

Solution:

Torsional and bending moments are uniform throughout the pipes

length.

At arbitrary section a-a, loadings produce the stress distributions

shown.

Yield Criteria Failure Analysis

By inspection, points A and B subjected to same state of critical stress.

( )( )

( ) ( ) ( ) | |

( )( )

( ) ( ) ( ) | |

MPa 9 . 101

m 03 . 0 m 04 . 0 4

m 04 . 0 m N 3500

MPa 4 . 116

m 03 . 0 m 04 . 0 2

m 04 . 0 m N 8000

4 4

A

4 4

=

= =

=

= =

t

o

t

t

I

Mc

J

Tc

A

Yield Criteria Failure Analysis

MPa 9 . 50

2

9 . 101 0

=

=

avg

o

= 127.1

MPa 0 . 178 1 . 127 9 . 50

MPa 2 . 76 1 . 127 9 . 50

2

1

= =

= + =

o

o

Yield Criteria Failure Analysis

Using maximum distortion energy criterion (von mises),

( )

2

2 2 1

2

1

o o o o + ( ) ( )( ) ( )

2 2

0 . 178 0 . 178 2 . 76 2 . 76 + =

= 226 MPa < o

y

Since criterion is met, material

within the pipe will not yield (fail)

according to the maximum-

distortion-energy theory.

______________________________________________________________________________________________________

___________

Kamarul Ariffin, FKM, UTeM BMCS 2333-

2008

Yield Criteria Failure Analysis

Example:

The state of plane stress shown occurs in a machine component made of

a steel with o

y

= 210. Using the maximum distortion energy criterion

(Von mises criterion) determine whether yield occurs when:

(a) t

xy

= 42 MPa

(b) t

xy

= 84 MPa

(c) t

xy

= 98 MPa

If yields does not occur, determine the corresponding factor of safety.

Yield Criteria Failure Analysis

Solution:

Yield Criteria Failure Analysis

Yield Criteria Failure Analysis

Yield Criteria Failure Analysis

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