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ENERGY METHOD

Conservation of Energy
SOLID MECHANICS II
BMCS 3333
Nadlene Razali

Conservation of Energy.
Work and Energy Under Single Load.
Deflection Under a Single Load.
Energy Method (continue...)
A loading is applied slowly to a body, so that kinetic
energy can be neglected.

Physically, the external loads tend to deform the body as
they do external work U
e
as they are displaced.

This external work is transformed into internal work or
strain energy U
i
, which is stored in the body.

Thus, assuming materials elastic limit not exceeded,
conservation of energy for body is stated as,
i e
U U =
Conservation of Energy
Consider a truss subjected
to load P.

When load P is applied gradually,
then U
e
= 1/2PAx, where A is vertical
displacement of the truss.

Assume that P develops an axial internal force F in a particular member,
and strain energy stored , U
i
= F
2
L/2AE.

Summing strain energies for all members of the truss, we write axial strain
energy as,

= A
AE
L F
x P
2
.
2
1
2
Conservation of Energy
Consider a beam subjected to
load P. The External work done,
U
e
= 1/2PA.

Strain energy due to shear in
beam can be neglected.

Beams strain energy determined only by the moment M, thus
}
= A
L
dx
EI
M
P
0
2
2
.
2
1
Conservation of Energy
Consider a beam loaded by
a torsional couple T. A
rotational displacement f is
caused. External work done is
U
e
= 1/2T|.
Thus equilibrium equation becomes



Note that equilibrium equation is only applicable for a single
external force or external couple moment acting on structure or
member.
}
=
L
dx
GJ
T
T
0
2
2 2
1
|
Conservation of Energy
Previously, we found the strain
energy by integrating the energy
density over the volume.
For a uniform rod,
( )
AE
L P
dx A
E
A P
dV
E
dV u U
L
2 2
2
2
1
0
2
1
2
= =
= =
}
} }
o
Strain energy may also be found from
the work of the single load P
1
,
}
=
1
0
x
dx P U
For an elastic deformation,
1 1
2
1
2
1
2
1
0 0
1 1
x P x k dx kx dx P U
x x
= = = =
} }
Knowing the relationship between
force and displacement,
AE
L P
AE
L P
P U
AE
L P
x
2
2
1 1
1
2
1
1
1
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
=
Work and Energy Under a Single Load
Strain energy also may be found from the work of other types of single
concentrated loads.
EI
L P
EI
L P
P
y P dy P U
y
6 3
3 2
1
3
1
1
2
1
1 1
2
1
0
1
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
= =
}
Transverse load
EI
L M
EI
L M
M
M d M U
2
2
1 1
1
2
1
1 1
2
1
0
1
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
= =
}
u u
u
Bending couple
JG
L T
JG
L T
T
T d T U
2
2
1 1
1
2
1
1 1
2
1
0
1
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
= =
}
| |
|
Torsional couple
Maximum deflection, y
1
and slope, u can be obtained from Appendix D (text book)
Work and Energy Under a Single Load
Example:
The three-bar truss is subjected to a horizontal force of 20 kN.
If x-sectional area of each member is 100 mm2, determine the
horizontal displacement at point B. (Given E = 200 GPa.)
Work and Energy Under a Single Load
Since only a single external force acts on the truss and required displacement
is in same direction as the force, we use conservation of energy.

Also, the reactive force on truss do no work since they are not displaced.

Using method of joints (static), force in each member is determined as shown
on free-body diagrams of pins at B and C.
Solution:
Work and Energy Under a Single Load

= A
AE
L F
P
2 2
1
2
( )( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) | | ( )
AE AE AE
h B
2
m 732 . 1 N 10 20
2
m 2 N 10 094 . 23
2
m 1 N 10 547 . 11
N 10 20
2
1
2
3
2
3
2
3
3

+

+

= A
( )
AE
h B
m N 94640
= A
Applying axial strain energy,
Substituting in numerical data for A and E and solving, we get
( )
( )( ) ( )
mm 73 . 4 m 10 73 . 4
N/mm 10 200 mm 1000 / m 1 mm 100
m N 94640
3
2 9
2
2
= =

= A

h B
Work and Energy Under a Single Load
If the strain energy of a structure due to a
single concentrated load is known, then the
equality between the work of the load and
energy may be used to find the deflection.
l L l L
BD BC
8 . 0 6 . 0 = =
From statics,
P F P F
BD BC
8 . 0 6 . 0 = + =
From the given geometry,
Strain energy of the structure,
( ) ( ) | |
AE
l P
AE
l P
AE
L F
AE
L F
U
BD BD BC BC
2 3 3 2
2 2
364 . 0
2
8 . 0 6 . 0
2 2
=
+
=
+ =
Equating work and strain energy,
AE
Pl
y
y P
AE
L P
U
B
B
728 . 0
364 . 0
2
1
2
=
= =
Deflection Under a Single Load
Example:
Members of the truss shown consist of sections of aluminum
pipe with the cross-sectional areas indicated. Using E = 73
GPa, determine the vertical deflection of the point E caused by
the load P.
Deflection Under a Single Load
Solution:

Find the reactions at A and B from a free-body
diagram of the entire truss.
8 21 8 21 P B P A P A
y x
= = =
Apply the method of joints to determine the
axial force in each member.
P F
P F
CE
DE
8
15
8
17
+ =
=
0
8
15
=
+ =
CD
AC
F
P F
P F
P F
BD
AD
8
21
4
5
=
=
0 =
AB
F
Deflection Under a Single Load
Evaluate the strain energy of the
truss due to the load P.
( )
2
2 2
29700
2
1
2
1
2
P
E
A
L F
E E A
L F
U
i
i i
i
i i
=
= =

Equate the strain energy to the work by P
and solve for the displacement.
( )( )
9
3 3
2
2
1
10 73
10 40 10 7 . 29
2
29700 2 2


=
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
=
E
E
E
y
E
P
P P
U
y
U Py
+ = mm 27 . 16
E
y
Deflection Under a Single Load
Example:
Using the method of work and energy, determine the deflection
at point D caused by the load P.
Deflection Under a Single Load
Solution:
Deflection Under a Single Load
______________________________________________________________________________________________________
___________
Kamarul Ariffin, FKM, UTeM BMCS 2333-
2008
Deflection Under a Single Load