=
Which link dictates capacity?
Reverse link (MAC)
Noncoherent reception
Independent fading of all users
Requires power control
Forward link (Broadcast)
Coherent demodulation using pilot carrier.
Synchronous combining of multipath.
Conclusion: reverse link has lower capacity
Thus, reverse link dictates capacity
Other cell interference will tend to equalize
performance in each direction.
In asymmetric traffic, forward link will be bottleneck
8C32810.44Cimini7/98
CDMA User Capacity
SingleCell System
Similar to MAC user capacity
G=W/R is processing gain (W is bandwidth, R is data
rate)
q is interference plus noise (assumed fixed)
 Assumes power control
 Performance improvement through sectorization and
voice activity
) / ( ) 1 (
/
/
0
S N
R W
N E
b
q +
=
S N E
R W
N
b
q
+ =
0
/
/
1
Sectorization
Base station omni antenna is divided into M sectors.
Users in other sectors do not cause interference.
Number of users per sector is N
s
=N/M (reduces
interference by M).
Requires handoff between sectors at the base station
Voice Activity
Suppress signal when voice user not active.
Voice activity o=.35.4 (reduces
interference by 6065%).
Resynchronization for every talk spurt.
Higher probability of dropping users.
New Capacity (per cell)
Capacity increased proportional to the number of sectors
and inversely proportional to the voice activity (M/o
typically around 8).
Claim: CDMA is competitive with TD for a singlecell
Does not include impact of sectorization on outofcell
interference.
) / ( ) 1 (
/
/
0
S N
R W
N E
s
b
q o +
=
S N E
R W M
M MN N
b
s
q
o


.

\

+ = =
0
/
/
Multicell System
Codes reused in every cell.
No power control in forward link
Interference from adjacent cells can be very strong.
Power control in reverse link
All users within a cell have same received signal
strength
Interference from other cells have variable power
Fast fading (interference and signal) neglected (S/I
statistics).
The interferers transmit power depends on distance to his
base station.
Received power at desired base depends on distance to
base, propagation, and the interferers transmit power.
Reverse Link Interference
Total path loss: propagation (d
4
falloff) and lognormal
shadowing ( is Gaussian, 8 dB STD)
Instantaneous interference power
r
m
is distance to interferers base, r
0
is distance to desired base
m
is shadowing to interferer base,
0
is shadowing to desired base
S is received power with power control
Power less than 1 since otherwise would handoff to desired base
1 10
) , (
10 / ) (
4
0
0
0
s


.

\

=
m
r
r
S
r r I
m m
4 ) 10 / (
10
= r L
\

=
}}
Mean and Variance
Numerical integration leads to E(I /S)=.247N
s
Second Moment:
Assumes autocorrelation of shadowing is a delta
function and STD is 8 dB.
Numerical integration leads to Var(I /S)=.078N
s
Total interference distribution
) / ( ) / (
/
/
1
1
0
S S I
R W
N E
s
N
i
i
b
q _ + +
=
=
I Gaussian, _
i
binomial r.v. with probability o
Capacity Calculation
Calculate probability E
b
/N
0
below target (BER
exceeds target) based on N
s
and these statistics.
.
Compute outage probability as a function of N
s.
Assumes target E
b
/N
0
=5 o=30
Results indicate 60 users/sector with 1% outage
S N E
R W
S I P BER P
b
N
i
i
s
q
o
o _
=


.

\

> + = >
0
1
3
/
/
/ ) 10 (
An Alternate Approach
Simulation approach
Includes three rings of interfering cells
Capacity for TDMA and CDMA compared
Similar assumptions about voice activity and
sectorization
TDMA assumes FH with dynamic channel
allocation
Results indicate CD greatly outperforms TD
Not surprising given the authors
Capacity degradation
Voice activity changed from .375 to .5, 30%
change
Pathloss changed from 4 to 3, 20% change
Multipath fading added, 45% change
Handoff margin changed from 0 to 6 dB, 40%
change
Power control error changed from 0 to 1 dB, 35%
change
Summary
Multiple definitions of cellular system capacity
True Shannon capacity unknown
Shannon capacity under given system assumptions still
complicated
Using multiccell capacity formulation allows
comparison of apples to apples
User capacity calculations highly dependent on
system assumptions
Easy to skew results in a given direction