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DHD (Down hole drill)

Rotation speed

• Rotation speed affects directly the angular index

the bit goes through from one impact to another

• Optimum amount of index depends on blow

energy (pressure), rock hardness, bit dia etc

• Ideal rotation speed produces best penetration

rate, bit life and smoothness of operation.
It generally occurs when the cuttings are their

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DHD (Down hole drill)
Rotation speed

Optimum rotation speed need to be carried out at the actual application

Good rule of thumb is divide 300 bit dia in inches. It is a figure in the ‘Ball park’

Fine tuned rotation speed is co-related with penetration rate

Proper rotation speed results in 3/8 to 5/8’’

(9.5 to16mm) advance of bit per rev of DHD

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DHD (Down hole drill)
Setting the rotation speed

• By scribing a spiral on the drill string

• By measuring wear flat on the insert

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DHD (Down hole drill)
Setting the rotation speed
By scribing a spiral on the drill string

Adjust RPM to give P

3/8 to 5/8’’
9.5 to 16mm

P= distance between
two spirals

If P < 3/8’’ increase RPM

If P > 5/8’’ decrease RPM

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DHD (Down hole drill)
Setting the rotation speed
By measuring wear flat on the insert.

• Witness the wear flat developed on the carbide.

• The wear flat on the carbide is generally on top of
the carbide
• Flat on leading edge of carbide (side facing
direction of rotation) indicates rotation speed is
• Conversely flat on trailing edge of carbide
indicates too high a rotation speed

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DHD (Down hole drill)

View showing wear flat on the leading

edge. Indicates rotation speed is too low.

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DHD (Down hole drill)

Note that the carbide edge failure is

caused by the leading edge wear flat

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DHD (Down hole drill)

• Collaring a drilled hole is a critical stage in drilling


• In blast holes it can determine the quality of the

top of the hole and the ability to load the charge

• In foundation and well drilling, it can determine the

straightness of the completed hole

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DHD (Down hole drill)

• It is suggested that hole can be collared with low

air pressure and feed till the hole has stabilized

Eg :
Just as a twist drill has to be controlled carefully
when drilling with an electric hand drill , the DHD
need to be started with care

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DHD (Down hole drill)
Feed force
Rule of thumb -
Roughly 500 lbs per inch diameter of hammer when
operating at maximum power

In many cases the operators will adjust feed

pressure till the rotation pressure starts to pulse
(rotation is sluggish) and then back off slightly until
rotation becomes smooth

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DHD (Down hole drill)
Feed force
• When hole is first started , if the weight of starter
rod or drill collar is not sufficient to feed the drill,
then pull down will be needed

• As the hole is advanced and more weight is added

to the drill string , the pull down needs to be

• Eventually the weight of drill string may exceed the

proper feed and feed system has to be shifted to
hold back mode

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DHD (Down hole drill)
Feed force
• The drill feed should be proper when drilling in
varying condition such as hard and soft or voided

• A loose running DHD can cause premature

damage to tool & bit

• Feed system of the rig should have a sufficiently

fast response so that the DHD can catch up with
the bit when a void or soft seam is encountered

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DHD (Down hole drill)

Feed force should be reduced when

drilling through voided, unconsolidated or
fractured ground to avoid twisting and
distorting of hammer casing

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DHD (Down hole drill)
Effect of high feed force
• It is equally important to avoid feeding too hard
through voided and fractured material
• The piston in a DHD operates within the casing
with a clearance of 0.003’’(0.076mm) on each
• Even though the casing appears strong and stiff.
It does not take much sideways pressure to distort
the casing. This distortion will cause interference
with piston hen it reciprocates
• If the DHD is overfed through voided ground, it is
likely that deflection of the casing will occur

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DHD (Down hole drill)
Effect of high feed force
• Frictional cracks will develop on the surface of the
piston if the piston rubs hard enough against the
wall of casing while being distorted
• These small frictional cracks can eventually grow
and break the piston

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DHD (Down hole drill)
Hole cleaning
• Importance of good hole cleaning cannot be over

• A hole which is not cleaned effectively will :

1. Cause reduced production (pen rate),
2. Decreased bit and accessory life
3. Ultimately risk of losing the drill string in the hole

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DHD (Down hole drill)
Dry drilling
• Most effective way of hole cleaning is drilling dry

• Cuttings are normally lifted and cleaned from the hole

very efficiently

Imagine blowing or sweeping dust or dirt from a floor

when the floor is dry & wet - - - - - - -

Which is more effective ???

Same principle holds good for cleaning cuttings from

the hole
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DHD (Down hole drill)
Wet drilling
Water injection is required in many applications for

1. Dust suppression

2. Hole cleaning

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DHD (Down hole drill)
Wet drilling
Dust suppression

• WI rates are less than 1gpm is just enough to

moisten the fine dust

• It is usually common to use minimal WI for dust

suppression in shallow blast holes application
where water intrusion is not a problem

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DHD (Down hole drill)
Wet drilling
Heavy volumes of WI are usually required in water
well and deep hole application where number of
factors come into play

• While doing dry drilling and you meet a seam of

water, the dry cuttings stick to the wall of the well
that is moist . This develops into a ‘’mud ring’’

• WI is required to keep the hole wet enough to

prevent those ‘’mud rings’’ from developing

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DHD (Down hole drill)
Wet drilling
• Fluid injection rates can range from 2 - 15 gpm
depending on hole size, pen rate and type of
material being drilled

• Some materials through which drilling is fast or

contain clay can sometimes require very heavy
levels of WI. These applications are unique in that
they can be either drilled totally dry or totally wet.
No in between

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DHD (Down hole drill)
Wet drilling
• Marginal WI results in making a tacky mud which
sticks to drill pipes and hole wall and hinders hole

• Correct level of fluid injection thins the paste, so

it will be cleaned from the hole

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