Bacterial Infections

Enny Suswati

 Micro-organisms can produce a disease:
 Bacteria


Oral mucosa is protected by
1. IgA present in the saliva attacks bacteria 2. IgA forming complexs with epithelium acting as a protective coat of mucosa 3. Washing effect of saliva

 Pathogens can be transferred via:  Air on dust particles  Water droplet.  Hands & objects.  Blood / other body fluids  Opportunistic infection: Normal flora (non-pathogenic) starts to cause infection due to change in environmental conditions (Antibiotics, steroids, AIDS)

For a pathogen to cause a disease:
 It must get access & grow in the body:
 Overcome innate immunity (tears, skin, mucosa).

 Overcome competition of normal flora.
 Overcome inflammatory response.  Overcome immune response.

Bacterial Infection  Stphylococcus  Impetigo  Streptococcus  Tonsillitis & pharyngitis  Fusiform bacillus & Spirochete  (ANUG)  Mycobacterium  Tuberculosis (TB)  Treponema pallidum  Syphilis .

Etiology: Streptococcus pyogenes & Staphylococcus aureus.Bacterial Infection Impetigo Definition: Skin infection affecting face (paraoral) & extremities. Clinical Picture:  Vesicles → amber-colored crusts  Bulla or pustule  Pruritus  Lymphadenopathy Diagnosis: Clinical picture / cultures Treatment:  Topical / systemic antibiotics .

Etiology: Adenovirus Streptococci (strep throat) Clinical Picture:  Sore throat  Fever  Tonsillar hyperplasia & erythema Diagnosis: Clinical picture / Lab test Treatment: systemic antibiotics .Bacterial Infection Tonsillitis & Pharyngitis Definition: Inflammatory condition of tonsils & pharyngeal mucosa.

spirochete & anaerobic rods. malaise & lymphadenitis in some patients  Usually underlying predisposing factor exist . Clinical Picture:  Sore & bleeding gingiva  Crater-like ulcers caused by necrosis of inter-dental papillae  Marked halitosis & metallic taste  Fever.Bacterial Infection ANUG Etiology:  Caused by fusiform bacillus.

Bacterial Infection ANUG Predisposing factors:  Poor oral hygiene  Tobacco smoking  Stress  Immunocompromised Treatment:  Oral Hygiene (gentle debridement)  Metronidazol 200mg tabX3X3  CHX mouthwash  Gentle tooth brushing  Stop smoking Diagnosis:  Clinical picture  Gram-stained gingival smear *if not improved. further investigation for underlying cause (hematological investigations .

Sexual contact with affected person 2. Ways of Transmission 1. Trans-placental from infected mother to fetus → Congenital Syphilis . Blood transfusion of infected blood 3.Bacterial Infection Syphilis Etiology: Caused by spirochete (Treponema pallidum).

Bacterial Infection Syphilis Clinical presentation  3 stages:  Primary (3-12 Wks)  Secondary (2-10Wks)  Tertiary (years) .

Bacterial Infection Syphilis Clinical presentation  Primary (3-12 Wks)  Painless indurated red ulcer  Occurs any where mainly tongue & cheeks  Highly infectious  Non-tender enlargement of lymph nodes (syphilitic collar) Serological tests for syphilis should be performed for all ulcers of unknown origin .

Bacterial Infection Syphilis Clinical presentation  Secondary (2-10Wks)  Skin macular lesions  Mucous patches  Snail track ulcers  Lymphadinopathy .

Bacterial Infection Syphilis Clinical presentation  Tertiary stage  Gumma  Syphilitic leukoplakia  Fibrosing glossitis  Syphilitic glossitis  Wide spread in CNS .

Bacterial Infection Congenital Syphilis Hutchinson Triad  Blindness  Deafness  Dental Anomalies  Hutchinson incisors  Mulberry molars .

Bacterial Infection Syphilis Diagnosis   Isolation and examination in dark-ground microscopy Serological tests 1. Fluorescent Treponema Antibody absorbed test (FTA) 4. Treponema Pallidum immobilization test (TPI) Treatment   Primary syphilis: Penicillin for 1 month Latent syphilis: penicillin for 12 weeks . Treponema Pallidum Haemagglutination Assay (TPHA) 3. Venereal Disease Reference Laboratory (VDRL) 2.

Clinical Picture:  Acute:      Fever. fatigue & malaise. chills. Enlarged submandibular & cervical LN. weight loss. Bacteria might spread to other parts of the body like kidneys & liver→ miliary TB  chronic .Bacterial Infection Tuberculosis Definition: Chronic infection of the lung (granulomatous) Etiology: Caused by (Mycobacterium tuberculosis). Persistent cough.

painful non-healing ulcer usually on tongue & palate 2. gloves. Granulating lesions Diagnosis:  Biopsy & microscopic examination Treatment: Multiple antibiotics for long duration (years) Precautions: – – – Universal precautions (mask. White patches 3. eye protection.…) NO elective treatment for pt with active TB Consult patient’s GP for TB status .Bacterial Infection Tuberculosis Oral Presentation: 1.

Bacterial Infection Gonorrhoea Etiology: Diagnosis Gram-stained smear showing Gm – ve diplococci Neisseria gonorrhoea Ways of Transmission Direct mucosal contact Management  Pt should be referred to genitourinary specialist Clinical presentation     Oral presentation are very rare Oral Erythema & ulcers Tonsillitis Infective arthritis (TMJ)  Antibiotics .

Bacterial Infection Non-specific urethritis Etiology: Chlamydia species Ways of Transmission Sexually transmitted disease by direct mucosal contact Clinical presentation   Burning sensation on micturition but can be asymptomatic Predispose patients to Reiter’s syndrome     Reactive polyarthritis Uveitis Urethritis Macular lesions on palm & soles  Oral lesions resemble erythema migrans (Circinate stomatitis) Diagnosis  Microbiological tests .

rod-like organism  Bacterial disease caused by a secreted exotoxin. fibrous membrane compose of fibrin.  Spread via airborne respiratory droplets  Exotoxin destroys underlying tissue. . white blood cells and dead respiratory cells  Also responsible for systemic manifestations. forming a tough.Diphtheria (Corynebacterium diphtheriae)  Gram positive.

 Choking layer of bacteria and dead cells in the respiratory system. liver. accompanied by an unworldly stench  Difficulty swallowing and breathing  Pus and blood discharge through nostrils following death from asphyxiation . kidneys and nervous system.Symptoms of Diphtheria  Damage to different organs such as the heart.

The binding chain interacts with ganglioside receptors on susceptible cells.More info on diphtheria……  The exotoxin is encoded by the tox gene carried by phage B (beta)  Some strains can exist in the state of lysogeny.  Exotoxin has two disulfide linked chains.  Inhibitory effect of toxin chain on protein synthesis leads to toxicity. . facilitating internalization of the exotoxin. a binding chain and a toxin chain.  Removal of the binding chain prevents exotoxin from entering the cell.

. resulting in loss of toxicity and enhancement in its antigenicity.How We Treat This Bad Boy….  Usually administered with tetanus toxoid and inactivated Bordetelal pertussis in a combined vaccine that is given to children 6-8 weeks of age.  Toxoid prepared by treating diphtheria toxin with formaldehyde.  Reaction with formaldehyde cross-links the toxin.  Immunization with toxoid induces production of antibodies which bind to the toxin and neutralize its activity.

Leprae .Causes and Meaning of Scientific Name • Causes Leprosy also known as Hanson’s disease • Scientific name means that it is in the family Mycobacteriaceae its genus is mycobacterium and the family is M.

it needs oxygen to live .Morphology. Gram Staining. and Oxygen Requirements  An aerobic rod  Gram staining does not work  It is aerobic.

knees. elbows. muscle weakness • Loss of fingers or toes • Skin lesions • Symmetrical skin rash mostly found on face. ears. wrists.Symptoms • Symptoms usually take 3 to 5 years to show up after a person has been infected. or butt • More severe forms of leprosy can include the collapsing of the nose . • Severe pain.



Clofazamine. but now the bacteria are becoming resistant to the treatment.Treatment  Dapsome has been successfully used for over 50 years. and Dapsome .  Now they have started using multidrug therapy of Rifampicin.

Meningitidis .Penyebab penyakit gonorhoe . Gonorrhoeae .Penyakit kelamin yang klasik  N. Pertama kali didiskripsikan oleh Neisser tahun 1879  N.Penyebab meningitis •3/19/201 •31 .

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PENULARAN  Kontak seksual  Genital  Anal  Oral  Kontak langsung  Pada bayi •3/19/201 •38 .

DIAGNOSIS LAB  Hapusan. cat gram  Didapatkan bakteri diplococcus gram (-) didalam sel PMN  Kultur pada media Thayer Martin  Tes reaksi biokimia : oksidase. katalase. uji pada media gula-gula •3/19/201 •39 .

ofloksasin  Sephalosporin : seftriakson.TERAPI  Dulu menggunakan Antibiotika : Sulfonamid. cefotaxime  Macrolide : azithromisine •3/19/2014 •40 . Tetrasiklin. Penisilin  Banyak resistensi terhadap AB  Strain PPNG resisten penisilin  AB:  Fluoroquinolon : ciprofloksasin. cefixime.

Chlamydia  Caused by bacteria called Chlamydia Trachomatis.  Chlamydia is curable.  Your healthcare provider will give you antibiotics for treatment.  Chlamydia is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections.  Anyone with whom you’ve had sex will also need to be treated .

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