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# Chapter 7

Frequency Response
Amplifier Frequency Response
1-3
Electronic Circuits

Amplifier Frequency Response
In linear amplifier analyses, coupling and bypass
capacitors act as short circuits to the signal voltages
and open circuits to dc voltages.
Capacitors do not change instantaneously from a short
circuit to an open circuit as the frequency approaches
zero.
Internal capacitances in BJT and FET affect the
frequency response.
All amplifier gain factors are functions of signal
frequency.
Includes voltage, current, transconductance, and
transresistance
1-4
Electronic Circuits

Amplifier gain versus frequency
(f < f
L
) (f > f
H
)
Gain decreases as the frequency
decreases because of coupling and
bypass capacitor effects
1-5
Electronic Circuits

(f < f
L
) (f > f
H
)
Gain decreases as the frequency
increases because of stray and
transistor capacitance effects
Amplifier gain versus frequency
1-6
Electronic Circuits

(f < f
L
) (f > f
H
)
Coupling and bypass capacitors act as
short circuits, and stray and transistor
capacitances act as open circuits
Amplifier gain versus frequency
1-7
Electronic Circuits

(f < f
L
) (f > f
H
)
Gain at f = f
L
and at f = f
H
is 3dB
Bandwidth f
BW
= f
H
- f
L
Amplifier gain versus frequency
Gain at f = f
L
and at f = f
H
is 3dB
Bandwidth f
BW
= f
H
- f
L
1-8
Electronic Circuits

System Transfer Functions
The frequency response of a circuit is usually
determined by using the complex frequency s (s = je =
j2tf).
Each capacitor is represented by its complex
impedance, 1/sC.
Each inductor is represented by its complex
impedance, sL.
Name of function Expression
Voltage transfer function T(s) = V
o
(s) / V
i
(s)
Current transfer function I
o
(s) / I
i
(s)
Transresistance function V
o
(s) / I
i
(s)
Transconductance function I
o
(s) / V
i
(s)
1-9
Electronic Circuits

s-Domain Analysis
A transfer function in the s-domain

K = constant
z = zeroes
p = poles
s = z
i
, the transfer function is zero
s = p
i
, the transfer function is infinite
( )
( )( ) ( )
( )( ) ( )
n
m
p s p s p s
z s z s z s
K s T

=
2 1
2 1
1-10
Electronic Circuits

s-Domain Analysis
Simple transfer functions

( )
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
t
t
t
s
s
K s T
s
K s T
1-11
Electronic Circuits

s-Domain Analysis
Series coupling capacitor circuit
+
-
R
s
C
s
V
o
R
p V
i
( )
( )
( )
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
(

+ +
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
+ +
=
+ +
=
t
t
s
s
K
C R R s
C R R s
R R
R
s V
s V
C R R s
C sR
s V
s V
sC
R R
R
s V
s V
s p s
s p s
p s
p
i
o
s p s
s p
i
o
s
p s
p
i
o
1 1 ) (
) (
1 ) (
) (
1
) (
) (
2
1-12
Electronic Circuits

s-Domain Analysis
+
-
R
s
C
p
V
o
R
p
V
i
( )
( )
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
(

+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
(
(
(
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
= + +

t s
K
C R R s R R
R
s V
s V
C
R R
R R
s
R R
R
s V
s V
sC
V
R
V
R
V V
p p s p s
p
i
o
p
p s
p s p s
p
i
o
p
o
p
o
s
i o
1
1
1
1
) (
) (
1
1
) (
) (
0
1
1
KCL at output node
1-13
Electronic Circuits

Bode Plots
+
-
R
s
C
s
V
o
R
p V
i
( )
( )
( ) (
(

+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
(
(

+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
= = =
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
(

+ +
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
2
2 2
2
2 1
2
) (
1
) (
1 ) (
) (
) ( ) (
1 1 ) (
) (
s
s
p s
p
s
s
p s
p
s
s
p s
p
i
o
s p s
s p s
p s
p
i
o
f
f
R R
R
jf T
R R
R
j T
j
j
R R
R
j V
j V
j T s T
s
s
K
C R R s
C R R s
R R
R
s V
s V
t t
t t
t e
et
e
et
et
e
e
e
t
t
1-14
Electronic Circuits

Bode Plots
+
-
R
s
C
s
V
o
R
p V
i
( )
( ) ( )
2
10 10 10
2
10
2 1 log 20 2 log 20 log 20 ) (
2 1
2
log 20 ) (
s s
p s
p
dB
s
s
p s
p
dB
f f
R R
R
jf T
f
f
R R
R
jf T
t t t t
t t
t t
+ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
1-15
Electronic Circuits

Bode Plots
( ) ( )
2
10 10 10
2 1 log 20 2 log 20 log 20 ) (
s s
p s
p
dB
f f
R R
R
jf T t t t t + +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
1-16
Electronic Circuits

Bode Plots
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
p s
p
R R
R
10
log 20
This term is a constant thus independent of frequency
[R
p
/(R
s
+R
p
)] is less than unity thus dB value is less than
zero
1-17
Electronic Circuits

Bode Plots
( )
s
ft t 2 log 20
10
When f = 1/2tt
s
, 20log
10
(1) = 0
1-18
Electronic Circuits

Bode Plots
The slopes in Bode plot magnitudes are described in
units of either dB/octave or dB/decade
An octave means that frequency is increased by a
factor of two
A decade implies that the frequency is increased by a
factor of 10
The value of the function 20log
10
(2tft
s
) increases by a
factor of 6dB for every factor of 2 increases in
frequency, thus a slope is considered 6dB/octave
The value of the function 20log
10
(2tft
s
) increases by a
factor of 20dB for every factor of 10 increases in
frequency, thus a slope is considered 20dB/decade
1-19
Electronic Circuits

Bode Plots
( )
2
10
2 1 log 20
s
ft t +
For f << 1/2tt
s
, the value of the function is 0dB
For f = 1/2tt
s
, the value of the function is -3dB

For f >> 1/2tt
s
, the slope becomes 6dB/octave or
1-20
Electronic Circuits

Bode Plots
For f >> 1/2tt
s
, the 2
nd
and 3
rd
term cancel

For f << 1/2tt
s
, the large negative dB value dominates
( ) ( )
2
10 10 10
2 1 log 20 2 log 20 log 20 ) (
s s
p s
p
dB
f f
R R
R
jf T t t t t + +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
1-21
Electronic Circuits

Bode Plots
The series capacitor C
s
is a coupling capacitor between the
input and output signals
At a high enough frequency, C
s
acts as a short circuit, and
the output voltage is
V
o
= [R
p
/(R
s
+R
p
)]V
i
For very low frequencies, the impedance of C
s
increases
and approaches as an open circuit, and the output voltage
approaches zero
This circuit is called a high-pass network
The high-frequency signals are passed through to the output
+
-
R
s
C
s
V
o
R
p V
i
1-22
Electronic Circuits

Bode Plot of The Phase Function
u j
Ke jB A = +
K =

.
2 2
B A +
) / ( tan
1
A B

= u
1-23
Electronic Circuits

Bode Plot of The Phase Function
| |
| |
| |
| |
| |
( )
3 2 1
3
2
1
3
2
1
3
2 1
3
2
1
) (
2 1
2
) (
2 1
2
) (
1 ) (
) (
) (
u u u
u
u
u
u
u
u
t t
t t
t t
t t
et
et
e
e
e
+
= =
+
(
(

+
=
(

+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
= =
j
j
j
j
j
s
j
s j
p s
p
s
s
p s
p
s
s
p s
p
i
o
e
K
K K
e K
e K
e K jf T
e f j
e f j
e
R R
R
jf T
f j
f j
R R
R
jf T
j
j
R R
R
j V
j V
j T
1-24
Electronic Circuits

Bode Plot of The Phase Function
| |
| |
| |
| |
| |
( )
3 2 1
3
2
1
3
2
1
3
2 1
3
2
1
) (
2 1
2
) (
u u u
u
u
u
u
u
u
t t
t t
+
= =
+
(
(

+
=
j
j
j
j
j
s
j
s j
p s
p
e
K
K K
e K
e K
e K jf T
e f j
e f j
e
R R
R
jf T
The first term is a positive real quantity, the phase is u
1

= 0
The second term is purely imaginary, the phase is u
2
=
90
o
The third term is complex, the phase is u
3
= tan
-1

(2tft
s
)
The net phase is u = 90- tan
-1
(2tft
s
)
1-25
Electronic Circuits

Bode Plot of The Phase Function
( )
s
o
ft t u 2 tan 90
1
=
1-26
Electronic Circuits

Bode Plots
( )
( )
(
(

+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
(
(

+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
= = =
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
(

+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
2
2 2
1
2 1
1
) (
1
1
) (
1
1
) (
) (
) ( ) (
1
1
1
1
) (
) (
p
p s
p
p
p s
p
p p s
p
i
o
p p s p s
p
i
o
f
R R
R
jf T
R R
R
j T
j R R
R
j V
j V
j T s T
s
K
C R R s R R
R
s V
s V
t t
t e
e
et e
e
e
t
+
-
R
s
C
p
V
o
R
p
V
i
1-27
Electronic Circuits

Bode Plots
( )
( ) ( )
2
10 10 10
2
10
2 1 log 20 1 log 20 log 20 ) (
2 1
1
log 20 ) (
p
p s
p
dB
p
p s
p
dB
f
R R
R
jf T
f
R R
R
jf T
t t
t t
+ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
+
-
R
s
C
p
V
o
R
p
V
i
1-28
Electronic Circuits

Bode Plots
( ) ( )
2
10 10 10
2 1 log 20 1 log 20 log 20 ) (
p
p s
p
dB
f
R R
R
jf T t t + +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
1-29
Electronic Circuits

Bode Plots
The parallel capacitor C
p
is a load or parasitic capacitance
At low frequency, C
p
acts as an open circuit, and the output
voltage is
V
o
= [R
p
/(R
s
+R
p
)]V
i
At high frequency, the impedance of C
p
decreases and
approaches as a short circuit, and the output voltage is zero
This circuit is called a low-pass network
The low-frequency signals are passed through to the output
+
-
R
s
C
p
V
o
R
p
V
i
1-30
Electronic Circuits

Bode Plot of The Phase Function
| |
| |
| |
| |
| |
( )
3 2 1
3
2
1
3
2
1
3
2 1
3
2
1
) (
2 1
) (
2 1
1
) (
1
1
) (
) (
) (
u u u
u
u
u
u
u
u
t t
t t
et e
e
e
+
= =
+
(
(

+
=
(
(

+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
= =
j
j
j
j
j
p
j
j
p s
p
p p s
p
p p s
p
i
o
e
K
K K
e K
e K
e K jf T
e f j
e
e
R R
R
jf T
f j R R
R
jf T
j R R
R
j V
j V
j T
1-31
Electronic Circuits

Bode Plot of The Phase Function
| |
| |
| |
| |
| |
( )
3 2 1
3
2
1
3
2
1
3
2 1
3
2
1
) (
2 1
) (
u u u
u
u
u
u
u
u
t t
+
= =
+
(
(

+
=
j
j
j
j
j
p
j
j
p s
p
e
K
K K
e K
e K
e K jf T
e f j
e
e
R R
R
jf T
The first term is a positive real quantity, the phase is u
1

= 0
The second term is a positive real quantity, the phase
is u
2
= 0

The third term is complex, the phase is u
3
= tan
-1

(2tft
p
)
The net phase is u = - tan
-1
(2tft
p
)
1-32
Electronic Circuits

Bode Plot of The Phase Function
( )
s
ft t u 2 tan
1
=
1-33
Electronic Circuits

Short-Circuit and Open-Circuit
Time Constant
V
o
+
-
R
s
C
p
R
p
V
i
C
s
(
(

+ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
p
s s
p
p s
p
p s
p
i
o
s
s C
C
R R
R
R R
R
s V
s V
t
t
1
1
1
) (
) (
Both C
S
and C
P
present
KCL at output node
1-34
Electronic Circuits

Short-Circuit and Open-Circuit
Time Constant
C
s
affects the low frequency response and C
p
affects the
high frequency response
At low frequencies, load capacitor is treated as an open
circuit
Equivalent resistor seen by C
s
is found by setting all
independent sources equal to zero. Thus the effective
resistance is (R
s
+R
p
)

The time constant associated with C
s
is t
s
= (R
s
+R
p
)C
s
Since C
p
was made an open circuit, thus t
s
is called an
open-circuit time constant
V
o
+
-
R
s
C
p
R
p
V
i
C
s
1-35
Electronic Circuits

Short-Circuit and Open-Circuit
Time Constant
At high frequencies, coupling capacitor is treated as a
short circuit
Effective resistance seen by C
p
is (R
s
||R
p
)

The time constant associated with C
p
is t
p
= (R
s
||R
p
)C
p
Since C
s
was made a short circuit, thus t
p
is called a
short-circuit time constant
V
o
+
-
R
s
C
p
R
p
V
i
C
s
1-36
Electronic Circuits

Short-Circuit and Open-Circuit
Time Constant
The lower corner or 3dB frequency is at the low end of
the frequency scale, is a function of the open-circuit
time constant
f
L
= 1/2tt
s
The upper corner or 3dB frequency is at the high end
of the frequency scale, is a function of the short-circuit
time constant
f
H
= 1/2tt
p

Midband range or bandwidth
f
BW
= f
H
- f
L

1-37
Electronic Circuits

Short-Circuit and Open-Circuit
Time Constant
Frequency Response:
Transistor Amplifiers with
Circuit Capacitors
1-39
Electronic Circuits

(a) Common-emitter circuit with coupling capacitor and
(b) small-signal equivalent circuit
Coupling Capacitor Effects
Small signal output
resistance r
o
is infinite
r
o
>> R
C
, r
o
>> R
E
This circuit is a high-
pass network
At high frequencies, C
C

acts as a short circuit
and the input signal is
coupled through the
transistor to the output
At low frequencies, the
impedance of C
C

becomes large and the
output is zero
1-40
Electronic Circuits

Current-Voltage Analysis
Coupling Capacitor
Effects
( )
( )
( )
t
t
t t
t t
t t
|
|
r g
R r
I
V
R
r I V
R r I g I r I
R V g I r I V
m
E
b
in
ib
b
E b m b b
E m b b in
=
+ + = =
=
+ + =
+ + =

1
1-41
Electronic Circuits

Coupling Capacitor
Effects
1-42
Electronic Circuits

(a) Common-source circuit with output coupling and
(b) small-signal equivalent circuit
Coupling Capacitor Effects
Resistance of the
signal generator
<< R
G
, thus
neglected

Output signal is
connected to the
coupling
capacitor
r
o
is infinite
C
C
is a short
circuit
1-43
Electronic Circuits

Coupling Capacitor
Effects
(

= =
i
gs
gs
o
i
o
v
V
V
V
V
V
V
A
Set all independent source 0, thus V
i
=0, V
gs
=0, g
m
V
gs
=0.
Resistance seen by C
C
is (R
D
+R
L
)
Corner frequency f
L
=1/2tt
s
1-44
Electronic Circuits

(a) Emitter-follower circuit with output coupling capacitor and
(b) small-signal equivalent circuit
Coupling Capacitor Effects
C
C1
is very large and acts as a short circuit to the input signal

The equivalent resistance seen by C
C2
is [R
o
+R
L
]
1-45
Electronic Circuits

Coupling Capacitor
Effects
1-46
Electronic Circuits

Review: Output
Impedance
1-47
Electronic Circuits

Problem-Solving Technique