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LIGHTNING PROTECTION USING LFA-M

BY

ANINDITA KAR REG NO:-0811013053 SEC-A,ELECTRICAL

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 3 INTRODUCTION WHAT IS A LIGHTNING STROKE? TYPES OF LIGHTNING STROKES. WHAT IS LFA-M? CONTENTS       BLOCK DIAGRAM DESIGN OF LFA-M HOW LIGHTNING AFFECTS OVERHEAD TRANSMISSION? THE LFA-M PRINCIPLE HOW CAN IT BE PROTECTED? FUTURE EXPANSION AVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES      CONCLUSION .

effective and inexpensive method for lightning protection of medium voltage overhead distribution line is using long flashover arresters (LFA).4 INTRODUCTION • A new simple. The important feature of this modular long flashover arrester (LFA-M) is that it can be applied for lightning protection of overhead distribution line against both induced overvoltage and direct lightning strokes • .

between clouds or between the charge centers of the same cloud.5 WHAT IS LIGHTNING STROKE ?  Lightning is an electrical discharge between cloud and the earth. overhead lines) or neighboring cloud that the dielectric strength of the neighboring medium(air) is destroyed  .g. Lightning is a huge spark and that take place when clouds are charged to at a high potential with respect to earth object (e.

6 TYPES OF LIGHTNING STROKES   DIRECT STROKE INDIRECT STROKE .

From the line. current path may be over the insulators down to the pole to the ground.7 DIRECT STROKE  Lightning discharge is directly from cloud to overhead line. The over voltage set up due to the stroke may be large enough to flashover this path directly to the ground   .

When the potential between the cloud and line exceed the breakdown value of air. the lightning discharge occurs between the cloud and the line. STROKE-B – Lightning discharge occurs on overhead line due to stroke-A. The cloud will induce a charge of opposite sign on the tall object.g. overhead lines).    .8 DIRECT STROKE- TYPES  STROKE-A -The lightning discharge is from the cloud to the subject equipment(e.

 (+ve) ly charged cloud induces (-ve) charge right under the cloud on the line and (+ve) charge away from it. . (-ve) charge rushes along both directions in form of travelling wave.  When cloud discharges to earth.9 INDIRECT STROKE  Results from electro statically induced charges on the conductors.

For the protection of lines against direct lightning strokes. ”M” indicates that LFA-M is for the protection of medium overhead transmission lines.   . the arresters are connected between the poles and all of the phase conductors in parallel with the insulators. The induced over voltages can be counteracted by installing a single arrester on an overhead line support (pole).10 W HAT    IS LFA-M? Long flashover arrestors are those devices which capture the high voltage sparks resulting out of lightning. It can be applied for lightning protection of overhead distribution line against both induced over voltages and direct lightning strokes.

b) electric schematic c) arrester testing .11 BLOCK DIAGRAM  ff a) block diagram.

Semiconductive core of upper piece.  . Each cable piece has a semi conductive core of resistance R. The cable pieces are arranged so as to form three flashover modules 1.2. has a resistance R.12 DESIGN OF LFA-M  An LFA-M arrester consists of two cables like pieces.3 as shown in figure.

the semiconducting core of the upper cable piece. with respective modules flashed over. develop a single long flashover channel LINES ?   . Similarly. the semiconducting core of the lower piece of the same resistance applies the low potential 0 to the surface of the upper piece. whose resistance .H OW DOES LFA-M 13 PROTECT THE OVERHEAD  First. and all the three flashover modules 1. also at its center. carries the high potential to the surface of the lower piece at its middle. Thus the total voltage is applied to each flashover module at the same moment. 2 and 3 are assured conditions for simultaneous initiation of creeping discharges which. a lightning impulse causes a spark over of the spark gaps Next.

length of the flashover path L. the mean gradient of operational voltage along the path is:-  The probability of PAF sharply decreases with a decrease in E  An analysis of available data on spark over discharge transition to PAF concluded that for E=7 to 10 kV/m probability of PAF is practically zero. .14 THE LFA PRINCIPLE  Probability of power arc flow (PAF) depends on many parameters: nominal voltage of the line Unom.

15 LFA LOOP-TYPE .

   Protect electric networks against arc overvoltage. Extend the working life of high voltage circuit breakers. Eliminate the consequences of lightning flashovers without damaging lines and substations equipment.16 ADVANTEGE  LFA-Ms help avoid both conductor burnouts and overhead power lines outages caused by lightning induced overvoltage. .

17  Cannot be destroyed by lightning currents and power follow currents as metal oxide arresters. It protect from 0. Are not stressed by operational voltage and do not require maintenance.4 to 10 kv power distribution   . gapped silicon carbide arresters or expulsion tubes since currents are flowing outside of LFAs.

.18 DISADVANTEGE  We can improve only its efficiency by increasing the number of flashover modules then only it can withstand very high over voltages.

If the number of flashover modules increases by increasing the cable pieces this LFA-M can be used for lightning protection of very high voltage lines. Then it can withstand very high over voltages  .19 FUTURE EXPANSION  The LFA-M described here consists of three flashover modules. When the modules increases the total arrester stressing is distributed these modules also. We can increases the flashover modules.

  . Its resistors assure application of the total arrestor-stressing voltage simultaneously to all the modules. a single arrestor must be mounted on a pole The voltage-time characteristics of this modular arrestor assure reliable protection of medium voltage overhead lines against both induced over voltages and direct lightning strokes.20 C ONCLUSIONS   The LFA-M is a simple. A long flashover arrestor (LFA) comprising three flashover modules using the creeping discharge effect was presented in this report. low weight and convenient apparatus. To protect a line against induced over voltages.

ROHIT MEHTA IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY .VOL.NO 3.JULY 2003 PAGE NO.K.18.21 REFERENCES  PRINCIPLES OF POWER SYSTEM BY V. MEHTA . 781787  .

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