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Project overview Block diagram Power supply Microcontroller IR Sensor Photo diode LCD Motor driver Software requirements Schematic & Working of the project Future scope Conclusion

This project is designed so as to understand the technology used in metro train movement which are used in most of the developed countries like Germany, France, and Japan etc.

These train are equipped with the CPU, which control the to and fro movement in a programmed path.
Then the train door is automatically opened so that the passengers enter inside and it closes after the prescribed time set in the controller. It is also equipped with a passenger counting section also which counts the number of passengers leaving and entering inside the train. The counts are displayed on LCD interfaced with microcontroller. The motion of the train is controlled by the Motor driver IC

Block diagram

Power supply

The four diodes labeled D1 to D4 are arranged in "series pairs" with only two diodes conducting current during each half cycle. During the positive half cycle of the supply, diodes D1 and D2 conduct in series while diodes D3 and D4 are reverse biased and the current flows through the load as shown below.

It is a smaller computer Has on-chip RAM, ROM, I/O ports...



A single chip
I/O Port
Serial Timer COM Port


External interrupts Interrup t Control On-chip ROM for program code


On-chip RAM

Timer 1 Timer 0

Counter Inputs



Bus Control

4 I/O Ports

Serial Port

P0 P1 P2 P3



The high-performance, low-power Atmel 8-bit AVR RISC-

based microcontroller combines 16KB of programmable flash

memory, 1KB SRAM, 512B EEPROM, an 8-channel 10-bit A/D converter, and a JTAG interface for on-chip debugging.

By executing instructions in a single clock cycle, the device achieves throughputs approaching 1 MIPS per MHz, balancing power consumption and processing speed.

An IR LED, also known as IR transmitter, is a special purpose LED that transmits infrared rays in the range of 760 nm wavelength. Such LEDs are usually made of gallium arsenide or aluminum gallium arsenide. They, along with IR receivers, are commonly used as sensors. The appearance is same as a common LED. Since the human eye cannot see the infrared radiations, it is not possible for a person to identify whether the IR LED is working or not, unlike a common LED.

A photodiode is a PN junction or PIN structure. When a photon of sufficient energy strikes the diode, it excites an electron, thereby creating a mobile electron and a positively charged electron hole. If the absorption occurs in the junction's depletion region, or one diffusion length away from it, these carriers are swept from the junction by the builtin field of the depletion region. Thus holes move toward the anode, and electrons toward the cathode, and a photocurrent is produced.

Most common LCDs connected to the microcontrollers are 16x2 and 20x2 displays.

This means 16 characters per line by 2 lines and 20

characters per line by 2 lines, respectively. The standard is referred to as HD44780U, which refers to the controller chip which receives data from an external source

(and communicates directly with the LCD.

If an 8-bit data bus is used the LCD will require 11 data lines(3 control lines plus the 8 lines for the data bus) The three control lines are referred to as EN, RS, and RW EN=Enable (used to tell the LCD that you are sending it data)

RS=Register Select. When RS=0; data is treated as a command & When RS=1; data being sent is text data.
R/W=Read/Write . When RW=0; the data written to the LCD & When RW=0; the data reading to the LCD.

L293D is a dual H-bridge motor driver integrated circuit (IC). Motor drivers act as current amplifiers since they take a low-current control signal and provide a higher-current signal. This higher current signal is used to drive the motors.

There are several ways that you can write, compile, and download a program to the ATmega16 microcontroller. There are many different text editors, compilers, and utilities available for many different languages (C, BASIC, assembly language, etc.).

In this work, we have used a freeware package of software tools named WinAVR (pronounced, whenever).

Code VisionAVR (CVAVR) is the C-program language compiler that shall be used to program the MCU. CVAVR is a highly versatile software which offers High Performance ANSI C Compiler, Integrated Development Environment, Automatic Program Generator and In-System Programmer for the Atmel AVR family of microcontrollers. After installing and setting up CVAVR, a typical screen with a program open looks like this:

Burn the attached demo.hex file into our ATMega16 microcontroller using the necessary programmer and software. Step 2: Connect the LCD module and IR sensor pair to the Board. Note that TX pin of modem is connected to RX pin of the microcontroller and RX pin of modem to the TX pin of the controller. Step 3: Now Well need Serial Communication software to communicate with the ATmega16 through IR Sensors. Step 4: The IR Sensor will follow the single track which is given to them and it will stop at the desired station. Step 5: It will show the station name in the LCD.

Step6: The motor driver IC will drive the motor and the gate will open .

The project detailed in this document will provide many benefits for the implementation of automation for metro train. Among these benefits are significant for automation, increased reliability and much more all resulting in superior consumer end products and therefore, achieving much higher end-user satisfaction.

We can use our system as an wireless device also.