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SCIENCE FORM 4 CHAPTER 5: ENERGY AND CHEMICAL CHANGES

5.1 PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES

Many things undergo changes in our lives. There of two types of changes: (i) Physical changes - Affects the physical properties of a substance, such as its size, shape and state. - Usually reversible. - No new substance is formed.

5.1 PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES

- Examples involving physical changes: (a) Melting of ice (b) Evaporation of water (c) Dissolving sugar in water (d) Crystallisation of sodium chloride from its saturated solution (e) Heating of iodine crystals (f) Heating of wax

5.1 PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES

Melting of ice

Evaporation of water

5.1 PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES

Dissolving of sugar in water

Heating iodine crystals

5.1 PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES

(ii) Chemical change - Produces new substances that have properties different from those of the original substance. - Usually irreversible. - Examples involving chemical changes: (a) Burning of a paper (b) Colour of a peeled apple changes when it is exposed to air (c) Frying an egg

5.1 PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES

(d) Combustion of fuel (e) When iron filings are heated with sulphur powder, the mixture glows brightly. A black solid, iron sulphide is formed. Iron + Sulphur Iron sulphide (f) When magnesium ribbon is heated, it burns with a bright flame. A white solid, magnesium oxide is formed. Magnesium + Oxygen Magnesium oxide

5.1 PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES

(g) Zinc reacts with blue copper sulphate solution to form a colourless zinc sulphate solution and brown copper. Zinc + Copper sulphate Zinc sulphate + Copper (h) Iron nail rust when water and oxygen are present. Rust is brown. Iron + Oxygen + Water Rust

5.1 PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES

(i) Heating green copper carbonate produces black copper oxide and releases carbon dioxide. Copper carbonate Copper oxide + Carbon dioxide (j) Mixing potassium iodide and lead nitrate solution forms lead iodide, a yellow precipitate. Potassium + Lead Potassium + Lead iodide nitrate nitrate iodide

5.1 PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES

Frying an egg

Browning of an apple

5.1 PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES

Heating a mixture of iron filings and sulphur powder

Reaction of zinc with copper sulphate solution

5.1 PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES


Aspect Reversibility Energy needed Physical changes Reversible Less energy needed Chemical changes Yes Difficult to reverse More energy needed Formation of new substance No

5.2 HEAT CHANGE IN CHEMICAL REACTIONS

There are two types of chemical reactions: (i) Exothermic reactions - Reactions which release heat to the surroundings are called exothermic reactions. - Temperature of the surroundings increases.

5.2 HEAT CHANGE IN CHEMICAL REACTIONS

(ii) Endothermic reactions - Reactions which absorb heat from the surroundings. - Temperature of the surroundings decreases. During chemical reactions, old bonds in the reactants are broken and new bonds in the products are formed. The breaking down of old bonds absorbs heat energy whereas the formation of new bonds releases heat energy.

5.2 HEAT CHANGE IN CHEMICAL REACTIONS

Breaking an old bond absorbs heat energy

Forming a new bond releases heat energy

5.2 HEAT CHANGE IN CHEMICAL REACTIONS

In exothermic reactions, the heat energy absorbed to break the old bonds in the reactants is less than the heat energy released when new bonds are formed in the products. There is a net of heat energy loss. The temperature of the surroundings increases due to the heat energy that is released.

5.2 HEAT CHANGE IN CHEMICAL REACTIONS

In endothermic reactions, the heat energy absorbed to break the old bonds in the reactants is greater than the heat energy released when the new bonds are formed in the products. There is a net of heat energy gain. The temperature of the surroundings decreases due to heat energy is absorbed from the surroundings.

5.2 HEAT CHANGE IN CHEMICAL REACTIONS

In exothermic reactions, the heat energy absorbed to break the old bonds in the reactants is less than the heat energy released when the new bonds are formed in the products

5.2 HEAT CHANGE IN CHEMICAL REACTIONS

In endothermic reactions, the heat energy absorbed to break the old bonds in the reactants is greater than the heat energy released when the new bonds are formed in the products

5.2 HEAT CHANGE IN CHEMICAL REACTIONS

Haber process is used to manufacture ammonia in the industry. Ammonia is an important material for making nitrogenous fertilisers. In the Haber process, nitrogen and hydrogen gases are mixed together. The mixture is passed over an iron catalyst.
Iron catalyst Nitrogen + Hydrogen 450 C 200 atm Ammonia

5.2 HEAT CHANGE IN CHEMICAL REACTIONS


Leftover H2 + N2

Coolant out

H2 + N2

Condenser

Reactor Liquid ammonia

Coolant in

Iron catalyst Haber process

5.2 HEAT CHANGE IN CHEMICAL REACTIONS

Contact process is used to manufacture sulphuric acid in the industry. Step 1: Sulphur is burnt in air to produce sulphur dioxide. Sulphur + Oxygen Sulphur dioxide Step 2: A mixture of sulphur dioxide and air are passed over vanadium(V) oxide catalyst at 450 C to produce sulphur trioxide.

5.2 HEAT CHANGE IN CHEMICAL REACTIONS


Vanadium(V) oxide catalyst Sulphur dioxide + Oxygen Sulphur trioxide

450 C

Step 3: Sulphur trioxide is dissolved in concentrated sulphuric acid to produce oleum. Sulphur + Concentrated Oleum trioxide sulphuric acid

5.2 HEAT CHANGE IN CHEMICAL REACTIONS

Step 4: The oleum is diluted with water to produce concentrated sulphuric acid. Oleum + Water Concentrated sulphuric acid

5.2 HEAT CHANGE IN CHEMICAL REACTIONS


Concentrated sulphuric acid

Sulphur SO2 + O2 Dry air

Vanadium(V) oxide catalyst SO3

Waste gas

Oleum Furnace Converter Absorber

Water
Concentrated sulphuric acid Contact process

5.3 THE REACTIVITY SERIES OF METALS

Why do gold, silver and platinum exist as elements in the Earths crust and whereas metals such as sodium and potassium do not exist as elements in the Earths crust? Some metals are more reactive than others. Different metals show different reactivity with water, acids and oxygen.

5.3 THE REACTIVITY SERIES OF METALS

The reactions involving metals: (i) Reaction of reactive metal with water to produce alkali and hydrogen. Metal + Water Alkali + Hydrogen (ii) Reaction of reactive metal with dilute acid to produce a salt and hydrogen. Metal + Dilute acid Salt + Hydrogen (iii) Reaction of metal with oxygen to form metal oxide Metal + Oxygen Metal oxide

5.3 THE REACTIVITY SERIES OF METALS

Based on their reactivity with oxygen, metals and carbon (non-metal) can be arranged in a reactivity series as follows:
Potassium Sodium Calcium Magnesium Aluminium Carbon Zinc Iron Tin Lead Copper Silver Gold

Potato Soup Can Make All Cruel Zoos In The Land Change So Good

5.3 THE REACTIVITY SERIES OF METALS

The position of carbon in the reactivity series is determined by comparing its attraction for oxygen with other metals. When carbon is heated with a metal oxide, carbon can remove oxygen from the metal oxide if carbon is more reactive than the metal. When zinc oxide and iron oxide are heated with carbon, the oxygen in the metal oxides are removed by carbon. Therefore, carbon is more reactive than zinc and iron.

5.3 THE REACTIVITY SERIES OF METALS

When carbon is heated with aluminium oxide, the carbon cannot remove oxygen from aluminium oxide. This means that carbon is more reactive than zinc and iron but less reactive than aluminium. Therefore, carbon is positioned between aluminium and zinc in the reactivity series.

5.4 APPLICATION OF REACTIVITY SERIES OF METALS

Most metals in the Earths crust are reactive. They react readily with other elements to form compounds such as oxides, sulphides and carbonates. These compounds are called ores.

5.4 APPLICATION OF REACTIVITY SERIES OF METALS


Ore Composition

Bauxite
Cassiterite Haematite Sphaletite

Aluminium oxide
Tin(IV) oxide Iron(III) oxide Zinc sulphide

Sedimentary rock

Calcium carbonate

5.4 APPLICATION OF REACTIVITY SERIES OF METALS

The method of extracting a metal from its ore depends on its position in the reactivity series. Metals below carbon in the reactivity series can be extracted from their oxides with using carbon because they are less reactive than carbon. Carbon is used for extraction because it is cheap and readily available.

5.4 APPLICATION OF REACTIVITY SERIES OF METALS

Metals above carbon in the reactivity series cannot be extracted using carbon because they are more reactive than carbon. They are extracted using electrolysis. Tin ore or cassiterite is tin(IV) oxide. Tin is extracted by heating cassiterite with carbon (coke) and limestone at high temperature in a blast furnace.

5.4 APPLICATION OF REACTIVITY SERIES OF METALS

Carbon removes the oxygen from tin(IV) oxide because it is more reactive than tin. Tin(IV) oxide + Carbon Tin + Carbon dioxide Limestone is added to react with the impurities in the tin ore. Slag is formed. Two products are collected at the bottom of the blast furnace. Molten slag floats on the molten tin. This allow the two products to flow separately.

5.4 APPLICATION OF REACTIVITY SERIES OF METALS


Tin(IV) oxide, coke and limestone

Blast furnace

Blast of hot air


Molten iron Slag

Extraction of tin in a blast furnace

5.5 ELECTROLYSIS

Electrolysis is the decomposition of an electrolyte by electricity. An electrolyte is a liquid or solution which contains free-moving ions that can conduct electricity. The electrodes are conductors which carry electricity into or out of an electrolyte. The electrode joined to the positive terminal of the dry cell is called the anode whereas the electrode joined to the negative terminal is called the cathode.

5.5 ELECTROLYSIS

During electrolysis, the positivelycharged ions (cations) are attracted to the cathode and receive electrons. The negatively-charged ions (anions) are attracted to the anode and release electrons.

5.5 ELECTROLYSIS

Bromine gas

Lead metal

Molten lead bromide

Electrolysis

5.5 ELECTROLYSIS

Refer to the diagram above: In the complete circuit, the bulb lights up. This is because molten lead bromide conducts electricity. At the anode, the bromide ions release electrons to become bromine atoms. The bromine atoms combine together to form bromine gas (brown colour). At the cathode, lead ions receive electrons to become lead atoms. Lead metal is formed (grey solid).

5.5 ELECTROLYSIS

Uses of electrolysis in industry: (i) Electroplating - To prevent iron objects from corrosion, they are electroplated with a thin layer of unreactive metals such as copper, silver and chromium. - Electroplating make these objects resistant to corrosion and more attractive.

5.5 ELECTROLYSIS
Rheostat

Copper as anode

Rules for electroplating: (i) Anode : Plating metal (ii) Cathode: Object to be electroplated (i) Electrolyte: Solution of the plating metal Copper ions

Iron spoon as cathode

Copper sulphate solution Electroplating an iron spoon with copper

5.5 ELECTROLYSIS

- At the anode, the copper dissolves to form positively-charged copper ions. - At the cathode, the copper ions receive electrons to form a coat of copper on the iron spoon.

5.5 ELECTROLYSIS

- A rheostat is used to control the current flow in the circuit so that a small current is used and the object to be electroplated must be cleaned with a sandpaper before electrolysis. These steps are to obtain good results.

5.5 ELECTROLYSIS

Iron spoon electroplated with copper

5.5 ELECTROLYSIS

(ii) Extraction of reactive metals - Metals which are more reactive than carbon are extracted from their ores by electrolysis. - For example, aluminium can be extracted from its ore, bauxite (aluminium oxide). - Bauxite is first purified and then dissolved in cryolite. This is to lower the melting point of aluminium oxide.

5.5 ELECTROLYSIS

- When aluminium oxide melts, aluminium ions and oxide ions are free to move. - When electricity is passed through the electrolyte, the positively-charged aluminium ions are attracted to the cathode. They receive electrons and become aluminium atoms. - The molten aluminium formed is channelled into moulds.

5.5 ELECTROLYSIS

- At the anode, the oxide ions lose electrons to become oxygen atoms. The oxygen atoms combine together to form oxygen gas.

Aluminium is extracted from bauxite by electrolysis

5.5 ELECTROLYSIS

(iii) Purification of metals - When electricity is passed through the electrolyte, the copper anode dissolves to form copper ions. At the same, the impurities settle to the bottom. - These positively-charged ions are attracted to the cathode. They receive electrons and form copper atoms and causes copper to be deposited on the pure copper.

5.5 ELECTROLYSIS

Purifying copper by electrolysis

5.6 THE PRODUCTION OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY FROM CHEMICAL REACTIONS

A simple cell consists of two electrodes and an electrolyte. The more reactive metal is the negative terminal which releases electrons whereas the less reactive metal acts as a positive terminal which receives electrons.

5.6 THE PRODUCTION OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY FROM CHEMICAL REACTIONS

Copper Magnesium

Copper sulphate solution

A simple cell

5.6 THE PRODUCTION OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY FROM CHEMICAL REACTIONS

Refer to the diagram above: Magnesium and copper strips are used as electrodes with copper sulphate solution as the electrolyte. Magnesium (negative terminal) is more reactive than copper (positive terminal). Therefore, magnesium atoms release electrons to form magnesium ions which move into the electrolyte. As a result, the magnesium strip becomes thinner.

5.6 THE PRODUCTION OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY FROM CHEMICAL REACTIONS

The electrons flow to the copper strip through the wire and this produces electricity. Positively-charged copper ions from the electrolyte receive the electrons and form copper atoms. This causes copper to be deposited on the copper strip. Therefore, the copper strip becomes thicker. At the same time, the blue colour of the copper sulphate solution fades.

5.6 THE PRODUCTION OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY FROM CHEMICAL REACTIONS


Type of cell Dry cells Uses Used in portable devices such as radios, cassette players, cameras and toys Advantages Light Small Portable Cheap Disadvantages Non-rechargeable Not long-lasting Leakage may happen when the zinc case becomes thinner

Lead-acid accumulators

Used in vehicles

High voltage Rechargeable Long-lasting if well taken care of

Heavy Expensive Acid might spill Distilled water needs to be added

5.6 THE PRODUCTION OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY FROM CHEMICAL REACTIONS


Type of cell Alkaline batteries Uses Used in radios, torch lights and toys which need large electric current for longlasting periods Advantages Long-lasting Large current Constant voltage Disadvantages Non-rechargeable

Mercury cell

Used in watches, calculators, hearing aides and measuring instruments

Small Portable Steady voltage Constant current Long-lasting

Expensive Non-rechargeable

5.6 THE PRODUCTION OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY FROM CHEMICAL REACTIONS


Type of cell Nickelcadmium batteries Uses Advantages Disadvantages Expensive Used in electronic Rechargeable devices such as Long-lasting digital cameras

5.7 CHEMICAL REACTIONS THAT OCCUR IN THE PRESENCE OF LIGHT

During photosynthesis, chlorophyll absorbs light energy to split water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen. The oxygen is released into the atmosphere whereas the hydrogen atoms react with carbon dioxide to form glucose. Light Carbon + Water Glucose + Oxygen Chlorophyll dioxide

5.7 CHEMICAL REACTIONS THAT OCCUR IN THE PRESENCE OF LIGHT

Photosynthesis requires light

5.8 INNOVATIVE EFFORTS IN THE DESIGN OF EQUIPMENT USING CHEMICAL REACTIONS AS SOURCES OF ENERGY

We should use electric cells efficiently to prevent wastage. Turn off all the electrical devices when they are not in use. After using, we should dispose them wisely to reduce environmental pollution. Electric cells contain corrosive chemicals and should not be thrown into dustbins. They should be collected and buried underground.

5.8 INNOVATIVE EFFORTS IN THE DESIGN OF EQUIPMENT USING CHEMICAL REACTIONS AS SOURCES OF ENERGY

Fuel cells are electric cells which does not run down or require recharging. A hydrogen fuel cell uses hydrogen as fuel to react with oxygen to produce energy. The product is water which will not pollute the environment.

CHAPTER 5: ENERGY AND CHEMICAL CHANGES QUIZ

1. Which of the following involve chemical changes? I. Lighting a match II. Hard-boiling an egg III. Melting tin to cast tin bars A. I and II B. I and III C. II and III D. I, II and III

CHAPTER 5: ENERGY AND CHEMICAL CHANGES QUIZ

2. Which of the following statements about a chemical which undergoes physical changes is not true? A. Its size is changed B. Its state is changed C. Its shape is changed D. Its chemical properties are changed

CHAPTER 5: ENERGY AND CHEMICAL CHANGES QUIZ

3. Why does the temperature rise in a chemical reaction? A. The reaction is fast B. The reaction is slow C. The reaction absorbs heat energy D. The reaction releases heat energy

CHAPTER 5: ENERGY AND CHEMICAL CHANGES QUIZ

4. The table below shows the result of an experiment to study the reactivity of metals X, Y and Z with water and steam.
Metal Water Reaction with Steam

X
Y

No
No

Yes
No

Yes

Yes

Based on the observation, put these metals in order of reactivity. Start with the most reactive metal.

CHAPTER 5: ENERGY AND CHEMICAL CHANGES QUIZ

A. X, Y, Z B. Y, X, Z C. Z, X, Y D. Y, Z, X

CHAPTER 5: ENERGY AND CHEMICAL CHANGES QUIZ

5. Which of the following metals can be extracted from their ores by heating their oxides with carbon? I. Tin II. Iron III. Zinc A. I and II only B. I and III only C. II and III only D. I, II and III

CHAPTER 5: ENERGY AND CHEMICAL CHANGES QUIZ

6. Lead can be obtained by heating a mixture of lead oxide and carbon. This reaction takes place because carbon A. is a fuel B. acts as a catalyst C. is more reactive than lead D. is a non-metal whereas lead is a metal

CHAPTER 5: ENERGY AND CHEMICAL CHANGES QUIZ

7.

Brown gas

Grey solid

Molten lead bromide

CHAPTER 5: ENERGY AND CHEMICAL CHANGES QUIZ

When the switch is turned on, what can be observed? I. The bulb lights up II. Brown gas is given off at the anode III. A grey solid is deposited at the cathode A. I only B. I and II only C. II and III only D. I, II and III only

CHAPTER 5: ENERGY AND CHEMICAL CHANGES QUIZ

8. Which of the following is true about electroplating an iron key with silver? A. The key is used as the anode B. A small current is used C. A silver plate is used as the cathode D. Copper sulphate solution is used as the electrolyte

CHAPTER 5: ENERGY AND CHEMICAL CHANGES QUIZ

9. An endothermic reaction is one in which A. heat is absorbed from the surrounding B. heat is released to the surroundings C. heat is neither released nor absorbed D. temperature of the surroundings increases

CHAPTER 5: ENERGY AND CHEMICAL CHANGES QUIZ

10. Photosensitive chemicals are stored in dark bottles because they are sensitive to A. heat B. light C. water D. oxygen