You are on page 1of 44

Dengue

VECTOR CONTROL
YOSRI AZWAR

Selection of control measures for biting Diptera


Self-protection Indoor/ Day/night Personal Insect Other outdoor biting Prevention of Pest/vector protection proofing control biting (D/N) breeding in and of methods Repellents, Bed (I/O) around houses houses (adults) clothing nets I/O N ++ ++ ++ +/-c +/-d Anopheles Culex Aedes Mansonia Blackflies Sandflies Midges Horseflies Stable flies Tsetse flies I/O I/O I/O O I/O I/O O O O N D N D D/N D/N D D D ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ + ++ + ++ +/++ ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ ++e ++ +/+/-f +/+ + Disease control in the community Residual Prevention Spacewallof breeding sprayingb spraying in field + +/+/+/+/+/+ +/+/+ +/-g +/-h +/+ +/+/Other control methods (adults) +/-d +/-f +/+ +

a + + = effective; + = usually effective; +/- = sometimes effective; - = not effective. b In the case of epidemic outbreaks, ultra-low-volume insecticide space-spraying can be considered. c Anopheles does not usually breed near houses in urban areas, with the exception of A. stephensi in southern Asia. In Africa, malaria transmission occurs in the semiurban fringes of cities with prevailing rural conditions. d It may be possible to obtain some additional protection by diverting mosquitos to domestic animals. e Against Culex quinquefasciatus. f Siting animal shelters far away from rice fields was effective in Japan. g Control of the larvae of Culex tritaeniorhynchus in rice fields in Asia is difficult but may sometimes be achieved by intermittent irrigation, the use of larvivorous fish, and the application of bacterial larvicides. h To control pest mosquitos breeding in rural areas, such as tidal salt marshes, granular insecticides are sometimes used which only release the active agent after flooding with water, which coincides with the hatching of the eggs. Other methods include the control of water levels and the improvement of irrigation and drainage systems.

Vector control
Control measures Selecting the most appropriate control measures 1. Personal protection

Repellents Protective clothing Insecticide vaporizers Protection measures in hammocks Suggestions for protection in the absence of a mosquito net Mosquito nets

Vector control
2. Insecticide spraying

Insecticide spraying of walls Space-spraying with insecticides Source reduction Biological control Larvicides Habitats in and around houses Habitats in the field

3. Prevention of breeding

1. Personal Protection
(Repellents)

Repellent are Available as sprays, lotions, creams, sticks and wipe-on applicators or tissues

1. Personal Protection
(Protective clothing)

Headnets

Wide-mesh netting jackets

Anklets

1. Personal Protection
(Insecticide vaporizers)

Mosquito coils

Portable coil holders

A rubber tapper

1. Personal Protection
(Insecticide vaporizers)

Electric liquid vaporizer

Dichlorvos dispenser

Vaporizing mats

1. Personal Protection
(Insecticide vaporizers)

Spray gun

Pressurized spray cans

1. Personal Protection
(Mosquito nets)

A rectangular mosquito net

A rectangular mosquito net (with an overlapping entrance flap)

1. Personal Protection
(Mosquito nets)

Rectangular mosquito nets a support system

1. Personal Protection
(Mosquito nets)

Circular net
more care has to be taken to avoid contact between the body and the net, wich would allow mosquitos to feed

1. Personal Protection
(Mosquito nets)

Self-supporting net for babies and infants

1. Personal Protection
(Mosquito nets)

A hammock mosquito net

1. Personal Protection
(Mosquito nets)

Mosquito nets provide poor protection if share by too many people

1. Personal Protection
(Mosquito nets)

Disadvantages of a standard, untreated mosquito net

1. Personal Protection
(Mosquito nets)

Advantages of mosquito nets treated with insecticide

2. Insecticide Spraying
(Wall and roof)
Insecticide spraying of walls Wall and roof surface can be sprayed with a residual insecticide against indoor-resting mosquitos

2. Insecticide Spraying
(Special precautions)
Special precautions Furniture and food must be removed or covered with a plastic sheet before a house is sprayed

2. Insecticide Spraying
(Alternative methode)
Insecticidal paint can be applied to suitable surface, such as timber and plaster

2. Insecticide Spraying
(Space spraying)
During epidemics and when the density of nuisance mosquitos reaches an unacceptable level, space-spraying can be carried out for immediate short-term results.

3. Prevention Of Breeding

Methods to control larvae include the following: Eliminating or changing the breeding place to make it unsuitable for development of larvae; Making the breeding place inaccessible to adult mosquitos; Releasing fish or other predators that feed on larvae; Applying larvicides.

3. Prevention of breeding
(Source reduction)
Environmental modification Removal or destruction of breeding sites Small containers, such as used cans, bottles, tyres and coconut husks used as breeding sites can be removed or destroyed. This method is commonly used to control the breeding of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus.

3. Prevention of breeding
(Source reduction)
Environmental modification Filling The filling of mosquito breeding sites with soil, stones, rubble, ash or rubbish is the most permanent control measure available. It is most suitable for reducing breeding in small depressions, water holes, borrow-pits, abandoned ditches or pools, which do not require much filling material.

3. Prevention of breeding
(Source reduction)
Environmental modification Drainage The drainage of water can be accomplished by constructing open ditches and dykes with tidal gates, subsoil drainage and pumping. Proper drainage reduces mosquito breeding; however, the drainage systems used in agriculture or for the transportation of sewage and rainwater in cities are often an important source of breeding because of poor design and maintenance.

3. Prevention of breeding
(Source reduction)
Environmental modification Drainage

3. Prevention of breeding
(Source reduction)
Environmental modification Eucalyptus trees Eucalyptus trees can be used for drying marshy areas and other plots of land with a high water table. Species that grow rapidly and use a lot of water are particularly suitable. The trees dry the land by allowing water to evaporate through their leaves. For optimum evaporation they should be planted with adequate spaces between them. An additional advantage of the trees is their commercial value.

3. Prevention of breeding
(Source reduction)
Environmental modification Eucalyptus trees

3. Prevention of breeding
(Source reduction)
Environmental modification Closing, screening or covering breeding sites Potential breeding sites in relatively small enclosed habitats, such as drinkingwater storage containers and wells, should be made inaccessible to adult mosquitos. Removable covers, such as mosquitoproof lids or wire mesh screening, can be fitted in some cases

3. Prevention of breeding
(Source reduction)
Environmental modification Closing, screening or covering breeding sites

3. Prevention of breeding
(Biological control)

The biological control of mosquitos and other pests involves introducing into the environment their natural enemies, such as parasites, disease organisms and predatory animals. They may include insects, viruses, bacteria, protozoa, fungi, plants, nematode worms and fish. The effective use of these agents requires a good understanding of the biology and behaviour of the insects to be controlled as well as of local environmental conditions. Such methods may be most effective when used in combination with others, such as environmental manipulation or the application of larvicides that do not harm the biological control agents.

3. Prevention of breeding
(Biological control)
Several organisms have proved effective against mosquito larvae. The most important are: Fish that eat mosquito larvae (larvivorous fish); Predatory mosquitos of the genus Toxorhynchites, the larvae of which feed on other mosquito larvae; Dragonflies, the larvae of which feed on mosquito larvae; Cyclopoid copepods, small crustaceans that attack first- and second-instar larvae of mosquitos; Nematode worms that are parasites of mosquito larvae;

3. Prevention of breeding
(Biological control)
Several organisms have proved effective against mosquito larvae. The most important are: Fungi that grow in the bodies of mosquito larvae; Bacterial larvicides, the toxic products of the bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis H-14 and Bacillus sphaericus (It is not effective against blackflies or Ae.aegypti) Neem, an oil extract of seeds of the neem tree, Azadirachta indica, which has larvicidal properties; Azolla, a free-floating fern that can completely cover water surfaces and prevent breeding by mosquitos.

3. Prevention of breeding
(Biological control)

Fish that eat mosquito larvae (larvivorous fish);

The mosquito fish or top minnow, Gambusia affinis

The guppy, Poecilia reticulata

3. Prevention of breeding
(Biological control)

Fish that eat mosquito larvae (larvivorous fish);

The panchax, Aplocheilus panchax

The Mozambique mouthbrooder, Oreochromis (Tilapia) mossambicus

3. Prevention of breeding
(Biological control)

Fish that eat mosquito larvae (larvivorous fish);

The Argentine pearl.sh, Cynolebias bellotii

The carp, Cyprinus carpio

3. Prevention of breeding
(Larvicides)
Larvicides

Petroleum oils Synthetic organic larvicides Bacterial larvicides

3. Prevention of breeding
(Larvicides)
Larvicide Formulationa Dosage of active ingredient (g/ha)b 140 - 190d 19 - 47d 840 1000 11 25 100 1000 22 112 50 100 224 1000 50 100 56 112 25 100 100 1000 10 100 100 6000 500 5000 Duration of effective action (weeks) 12 12 12 3 17 13 2 11 7 16 12 1 11 24 14 48 48 12 28

Toxicity/ hazard of active ingredientc


U U High Moderate Moderate High U Slight Slight U U U U U U

Petroleum oils Diesel oil S Larvicidal oil S Paris green GR Organophosphorus compounds Chlorpyrifos EC, GR, S, WP Fenitrothion EC, GR Fenthion EC, GR Jodfenphos EC, GR, S Malathion EC, GR, S Pirimiphos methyl EC, GR, S Temephos EC, GR, S Insect growth regulators Diflubenzuron GR, WP Methoprene BR, S, SRS Pyriproxyfen GR Bacterial larvicides Bacillus thuringiensis H-14 BR, EC, GR, WP B. sphaericus BR, EC, GR

a BR = briquettes; EC = emulsifiable concentrate; GR = granules; S = suspension; SC = suspension concentrate; SRS = slow-release suspension; WP = wettable powder.

3. Prevention of breeding
(Habitat in and around houses)
Mosquito breeding places in and around houses can be divided into two main types:
Breeding sites with clean water: mainly rain-filled receptacles in humid tropical areas which are suitable breeding sites for some Aedes species. Breeding sites with polluted water: mainly in on-site sanitation systems and bodies of stagnant and polluted water favoured by Culex species.

3. Prevention of breeding
(Habitat in and around houses)

Breeding sites with clean water: Temporary breeding sites indoors and outdoors; Indoors,
Breeding sites for Aedes mosquitos can be found in and around houses in flower vases, pot plants, pot-plant saucers and neglected ant traps (containers filled with water and placed under the legs of food cupboards). In vacant houses, breeding may occur in toilet bowls, toilet-flushing cisterns, and drains in bathrooms and kitchens.

3. Prevention of breeding
(Habitat in and around houses)

Breeding sites with clean water: Temporary breeding sites indoors and outdoors; Outdoors,
Breeding sites can be found outdoors in rubbish, discarded tyres, discarded household and garden utensils, construction materials, roof gutters, water storage containers, drinkingwater tanks, plants and various other objects. If villages are located near a beach or river bank, breeding also occurs in water in the bottom of boats.

3. Prevention of breeding
(Habitat in and around houses)

Breeding sites with clean water: Temporary breeding sites outdoors;

3. Prevention of breeding
(Habitat in and around houses)

Breeding sites with clean water: Permanent breeding sites; Water storage containers,
Jars, cisterns and water storage tanks provide suitable breeding places for Aedes species and Anopheles stephensi. The introduction of a reliable and properly designed piped water supply reduces dependence on water storage containers and should lead to a reduction in breeding sites. Measures to prevent breeding in water containers must not adversely affect water quality or interfere with the addition or removal of water.

3. Prevention of breeding
(Habitat in and around houses)

Breeding sites with clean water: Permanent breeding sites;