Structural
Dynamics
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 2
SpringMass system subjected
to a time dependent load.
k
F(t)
m
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 3
Freebody diagram of the mass.
F(t)
m
T =kx
=
m
x m ma
=
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 4
t F x k x m
x m x k t F
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 5
0 x k x m
0 t F
: s Homogeneou
Solution of D.E. is sum
of homogeneous and
particular solutions:
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 6
0 x x
: Then
m
k
: Let
2
2
e
2
is the natural circular frequency
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 7
2
t is the period (measured in seconds)
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 8
x
m
t
Displacement due to simple harmonic motion.
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 9
One Dimensional
Bar Element
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 10
( ) t f
e
x 1
( ) t f
e
x 2
x 2
d
x 1
d
1
2
x
L
Step 1  Select Element Type
E  modulus of elasticity
A  crosssectional area
 mass density
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 11
Step 2  Select a
Displacement Function
L
x
N
L
x
1 N
d
N d
N u
a a u
2
1
x 2 2 x 1 1
2 1
=
=
+ =
+ =
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 12
Step 3  Define
Strain/Displacement and
Stress/Strain Relationships
{ }  { }
 
{ }
{ }  { }   { } d
B D D
d
L L
B
d
B
x
x
x
x
x
= c = o
)
`
=
(
=
=
c
c
= c
2
1
1 1
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 13
Step 4  Derive Element
Stiffness and Mass Matrices
and Equations
x 2 x 1
f
=
Newtons Second Law
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 15
2
2
2
2 2 2
2
1
2
1 1 1
t
d
m f
t
d
m f
x
x
e
x
x
x
e
x
c
c
+ =
c
c
+ =
NODAL EQUILIBRIUM
EQUATIONS
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 16
2
AL
m
2
AL
m
2
1
m
1
and m
2
are obtained by
lumping the total mass of the
bar equally at the two nodes
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 17
( ) t f
e
x 1
( ) t f
e
x 2
x 2
d
x 1
d
1
2
x
L
m
1
m
2
Lumped Mass Model
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 18
c
c
c
c
(
2
x 2
2
x 1
2
1
x 2
x 1
e
x 2
e
x 1
t
d
t
d
m 0
0 m
f
t f
e
+ =
Equilibrium in Matrix Form
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 20
 
 
{ }
{ }
{ }
ons Accelerati Nodal
nts Displaceme Nodal
Matrix Mass Lumped Element
Matrix Stiffness Element
2
2
1 0
0 1
2
1 1
1 1
t
d
AL
m
L
AE
k
c
c
=
(
=
(
=
Defining Terms
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 21
{ } { }
{ }   { }
{ }   { }dV u
N f
dV X N f
u
X
V
T
b
V
T
b
e
}}}
}}}
=
=
=
Consistent Mass Matrix
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 22
{ }  { }
{ }  { }
{ }  { } d
N u
N u
N u
=
=
=
Consistent Mass Matrix
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 23
{ }    { }
{ }  { }
     dV N N m
f
dV d
N N f
V
T
b
V
T
b
}}}
}}}
=
=
=
Consistent Mass Matrix
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 24
     
 
  x
d
L
x
L
x
L
x
L
x
A m
dV
L
x
L
x
L
x
L
x
dV N N m
L
V
V
T
}
}}}
}}}
(
=
(
=
=
0
1
1
1
1
Consistent Mass Matrix
Bar Element
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 25
 
 
(
=
(
(
(

.

\


.

\


.

\


.

\


.

\


.

\


.

\


.

\

=
}
2 1
1 2
6
1
1 1 1
0
L A
m
d
L
x
L
x
L
x
L
x
L
x
L
x
L
x
L
x
A m
L
Consistent Mass Matrix
Bar Element
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 26
d M d K t F
STEP 5  Assemble the Global
Equations and Apply B.C.s
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 27
d M d K t F
Now must solve coupled set
of ODEs instead of set of
linear algebraic equations!
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 28
     dV N N m
V
T
}}}
=
Consistent Mass Matrix
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 29
v
, y
y 2 y 2
d
, f
1 1
m

2 2
m

y 1 y 1
d
, f
L
1 2
Beam Element
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 30
Shape Functions
2 2 3
3
4
2 3
3
3
3 2 2 3
3
2
3 2 3
3
1
L x
L x
L
1
N
L x
3 x
2
L
1
N
L x
L x
2 L x
L
1
N
L L x
3 x
2
L
1
N
=
+ =
+ =
+ =
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 31
0.500
0.000
0.500
1.000
0
N
1
N
3
N
2
N
4
L
Shape Functions
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 32
     
 
(
(
(
(
=
=
}}}
2 2
2 2
4 22 3 13
22 156 13 54
3 13 4 22
13 54 22 156
420
L L L L
L L
L L L L
L L
m
m
dV N N m
V
T
Consistent Mass Matrix
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 33
210
L
0 0 0
0 1 0 0
0 0
210
L
0
0 0 0 1
2
m
m
2
2
Lumped Mass Matrix
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 34
2nd and 4th terms account for rotary inertia.
o = 0 if this is ignored.
o = 17.5 if mass moment of inertia of bar
spinning about one end is selected
3
2
L
2
m
I
2

.

\


.

\

=
Lumped Mass Matrix
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 35
 
 
3
2
1
u
u
u
2 1 1
1 2 1
1 1 2
12
m
Q
Q 0
0 Q
m
(
(
(
=
(
=
For each degree of freedom
Consistent Mass Matrix  CST
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 36
2 0 1 0 1 0
0 2 0 1 0 1
1 0 2 0 1 0
0 1 0 2 0 1
1 0 1 0 2 0
0 1 0 1 0 2
12
At
m
Consistent Mass Matrix  CST
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 37
 
 
3
2
1
u
u
u
1 0 0
1 0 0
0 0 1
3
m
Q
Q 0
0 Q
m
(
(
(
=
(
=
Lumped Mass Matrix  CST
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 38
 
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
=
1 0 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 0 0
0 0 0 1 0 0
0 0 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 0 0 1
3
At
m
Lumped Mass Matrix  CST
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 39
 
 
At m
m
Q
Q
Q
m
=
(
(
(
(
=
(
(
=
4 2 1 2
2 4 2 1
1 2 4 2
2 1 2 4
36
0
0
Consistent Mass Matrix  Quad
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 40
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
=
4 0 2 0 1 0 2 0
0 4 0 2 0 1 0 2
2 0 4 0 2 0 1 0
0 2 0 4 0 2 0 1
1 0 2 0 4 0 2 0
0 1 0 2 0 4 0 2
2 0 1 0 2 0 4 0
0 2 0 1 0 2 0 4
36
m
m
Consistent Mass Matrix  Quad
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 41
Hybrid Methods
Attempts have been made to combine
consistent and lumped mass approaches
to achieve some of the benefits of each!
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 42
HRZ Lumping
1. Hinton, Rock, and Zienkiewicz
2. Compute the diagonal terms of consistent
mass matrix.
3. Compute total mass of element, m
4. Compute s by adding diagonal coefficients
associated with translational DOF that are
in same direction.
5. Scale all diagonal coefficients by multiplying
by m/s
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 43
HRZ  Bar Element
 
 
(
=
=
=
=
(
=
3 0
0 3
6
L A
m
2
3
s
m
6
L A
4 s
L A m
2 1
1 2
6
L A
m
=
=
(
(
(
(
=
s
m
L A
s
L A m
L L L L
L L
L L L L
L L
m
m
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 45
HRZ  Beam Element
 
(
(
(
(
(
(
=
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
=
2
2
2
2
L
39
L
39
78
m
L 4
312
420
0 0 0
0 156
312
420
0 0
0 0 L 4
312
420
0
0 0 0 156
312
420
420
m
m
+

.

\

+
+ = b f
6
1
2
a b
f
6
4
a f
6
1
a b dx ) x ( f
b
a
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 52
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
0 m j i
1 N 1 N
6
1
0 N 0 N
6
4
1 N 1 N
6
1
1 1
2
L
A m
2
L
J
d J N N dx N N A m
ij
j i j i j i ij
1
1
j i j i ij
= =
(
+ + =
=
= =
} }
 
(
(
(
=
4 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
6
AL
m
1
2
3
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 53
Serendipity
12
1
3
1
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 54
Lagrangian
36
1
9
1
9
4
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 55
Mass Matrices
Product [m]{a} must yield the correct total force on
an element (F = ma) when {a} represents a rigid
body translational acceleration.
Consistent mass matrices, [m] and [M] are positive
definite.
Lumped mass matrix is positive semidefinite when
zero terms appear on main diagonal.
Lumped mass matrix is indefinite when negative
terms appear on main diagonal.
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 56
Mass Matrices
Special treatment may be needed to
handle the last two cases.
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 57
Best Type ?
1. Consistent matrices usually
more accurate for flexural
problems.
2. Consistent matrices give upper
bounds on natural frequencies.
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 58
Best Type ?
1. Lumped matrices usually give natural
frequencies less than exact values.
2. Simpler to form.
3. Occupy less storage.
4. Require less computational effort.
5. Usually more important in timehistory than
in vibration problems.
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 59
Damping
1. Structural damping is not viscous.
2. Due to mechanisms such as hysteresis and
slip in connections.
3. Mechanisms not well understood.
4. Awkward to incorporate into structural
dynamic equations.
5. Makes equations computationally difficult.
6. Effects usually approximated by viscous
damping.
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 60
Types of Damping Models
Phenomenological Damping Methods
(models actual dissipative mechanisms)
ElasticPlastic Hysteresis Loss
Structural Joint Friction
Material Microcracking
Spectral Damping Methods
Introduce Viscous Damping
Relies on Fraction of Critical Damping
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 61
Critical Damping
Damping Critical
Damping Critical of Fraction
1 =
\

e

e o =
2
1
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 65
If critical damping ratio is known
at two frequencies then:
2
1
2
2
1 2 2 1
2 1
2
1
2
2
1 1 2 2
2
2
2
1
e e
e e
e e = 
e e
e e
= o

.

\

e

e o =
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 66
Natural Frequencies and Mode Shapes
Undamped, Unforced Response
) Hz (
D
t sin D D
t cos D D
t sin D D
2
t
e
=
e
e e =
e e =
e =
2
f
frequency circular
f  o  d nodal of amplitudes
i
i
D
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 71
Modes Normal D
s Frequencie Natural
i
i
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 72
Natural Frequencies
[K] and [M] n x n then there are n eigenvalues
and n eigenvectors
[K] and [M] positive definite then eigenvalues are
all positive
M
ii
= 0 infinite eigenvalue
M
ii
< 0 negative eigenvalue  imaginary frequency
Use condensation to remove i
th
equation if M
ii
= 0
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 73
Rayleigh Quotient
{ }  { }
{ }  { }
 
 
{ }
eigenvalue i to ion approximat
r eigenvecto i to ion approximat
definite positive
symmetric
th
th
=
D
M
K
D M D
D K D
T
T
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 74
Rayleigh Quotient
eigenvalue est arg l
eigenvalue smallest
v M v
v K v
max
min
max
T
T
min
s s
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 75
Modal Methods
When [K], [C], [M] are known and time
independent the problem is linear.
conditions initial as given 0 D , 0 D
R D K D C D M
ext
= + +
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 76
Modal Methods
Assume orthogonal damping, such as
Rayleigh Damping. Modes can be uncoupled:
j i
0 D C D
0 D K D
0 D M D
j
T
i
j
T
i
j
T
i
=
=
=
=
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 77
i i i
T
i
2
i i
T
i
i
T
i
2 D C D
D K D
1 D M D
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 78
Eigenvectors are linearly independent
 
{ }  { }
{ } amplitudes modal
shapes) (mode
rs eigenvecto of matrix
Z
Z D  =
= 
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 79
Substitute into:
given 0 D , 0 D
R D K D C D M
ext
= + +
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 80
given 0 D ) 0 ( Z
0 D ) 0 ( Z
R Z K Z C Z M
ext
= 
= 
=  +  + 
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 81
Mode Displacement Method
p Z Z Z I
2
= e + +
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 82
Mode Displacement Method
Premultiply by []
T
given 0 D ) 0 ( Z
0 D ) 0 ( Z
R Z K
Z C Z M
ext
T T
T T
= 
= 
 =   +
  +  
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 83
Mode Displacement Method
2
T
T
T
K
C
I M
e =  
=  
=  
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 84
Mode Displacement Method
p Z Z Z I
2
= e + +
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 85
Modes Uncouple:
n , 1 i p Z Z 2 Z
Z Z Z Z I
i
2
i i i i i
2
= = e + e +
= e + +
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 86
0 D M ) 0 ( Z
0 D M ) 0 ( Z
0 D M ) 0 ( Z I
0 D M ) 0 ( Z M
0 D ) 0 ( Z
0 D ) 0 ( Z
T
T
T
T T
 =
 =
 =
 =  
= 
= 
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 87
=
m
1 i
i i
eq
Z D
n m
Reduce size of problem:
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 88
Error Estimate:
{ }
% 1 ) t ( e
R
D K D C D M R
) t ( e
ext
ext
s
=
: analysis accurate an For
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 89
In many structural dynamics
problems, more modes
participate in the quasistatic
response than in the dynamic
response. For a small m value,
the mode displacement method
may have difficulty in predicting
the quasistatic response.
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 90
Mode Acceleration method
Method
p Z Z Z I
2
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 91
given 0 D ) 0 ( Z
0 D ) 0 ( Z
R D K Z C Z M
ext
= 
= 
= +  + 
Modal transformation only on
inertial and damping terms
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 92
 { } { }   { }   { }
{ }   { }     { }   { } ( ) Z C Z M K R K D
Z C Z M R D K
ext
ext
  =
  =
1 1
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 93
T
T
M
I M
 = e 
 =  = e 
= e  
e =  
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 96
{ }   { }     { }     { }
{ }   { }    { }     { } Z C K Z R K D
Z C K Z K R K D
ext
T
ext
 + e  =
 +  =
1
1
2 1
1 1 1
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 97
{ }   { }     { }     { }
{ }   { }    { }         { }
{ }   { }    { }     { } Z Z R K D
Z C K Z R K D
Z C K Z K R K D
ext
T T
ext
T
ext
e  + e  =
   + e  =
 +  =
1
2
1
2 1
1
1
2 1
1 1 1
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 98
=


.

\

e
+
e
 =
+ e  =
m
1 i
i
i
i
i
2
i
i
ext 1
1
2 ext 1
Z
2
Z
1
R K D
Z Z R K D
First term on RHS represents quasistatic
response, the second term represents
corrections for inertia and viscous effects.
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 99
n , 1 i p Z Z 2 Z
i
2
i i i i i
= = e + e +
Solve for Z terms as before:
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 100
Mass Condensation
Reduces number of dof.
Reduces expense of computing
eigenvalues.
Detrimental to accuracy.
Not used with optimal lumping.
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 101
Guyan Reduction


.

\

(
(
(
(
0
0
D
D
M M
M M
K K
K K
s
m
ss
T
ms
ms mm
ss
T
ms
ms mm
m  master degree of freedom
s  slave degree of freedom
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 102
Guyan Reduction
m  master degree of freedom
s  slave degree of freedom
Basic Assumption:
For lowest frequency modes the inertial
forces on slave dof are less important
than elastic forces transmitted by master
dof. Thus we ignore all mass except M
mm
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 103
Guyan Reduction
{ }     { }
m
T
ms
1
ss s
s
m mm
ss
T
ms
ms mm
D K K D
0
0
D
D
0 0
0 M
K K
K K
=
)


.

\

(
(
(
(
=
=
T
ms
1
ss
m
s
m
K K
I
T
D T
D
D
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 105
Guyan Reduction
T M T M
T K T K
0 D M K
T
r
T
r
m r r
=
=
=
Both [K
r
] and [M
r
] are generally full.
[M
r
] contains both mass and stiffness terms
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 106
Guyan Reduction
ext
r m r m r m r
ext
T
ext
r
T
r
R D K D C D M
R T R
T C T C
= + +
=
=
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 107
Compute Slaves
i
m
T
ms i
T
ms
1
ss i ss
i
s
D M K M K D =
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 108
Choosing Master DOF
Choose dof where inertia is most important
These are characterized by large mass to
stiffness ratios.
Each dof that has a time varying applied
load should be chosen.
Master dof should not be clustered.
Process can be automated
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 109
Process for Choosing Master DOF
Scan diagonal coefficients of [K] and [M].
Choose dof for which K
ii
/M
ii
is largest.
This becomes first slave.
Condense [K] and [M] by one order.
Repeat process using condensed matrices till
a user specified number of dof remain.
These are Master dof chosen in near
optimal way.
3/22/2014 Dynamic Analysis 110
Number of Master DOF
Choose cutoff frequency e
c
Take this to be about three times the highest
frequency of interest.
Terminate selection of master dof when K
ii
/M
ii
< e
c
2
Can combine manual and automatic selection (i.e.
Choose each dof that has a time varying applied
load and then automatically select others.)
Number of Master dof may be 10%  20% of
total dof.