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Linear programming problems with two decision variables can be easily solved by graphical method.

Feasible Region

Linear Programming

(Graphical Method)

It is the collection of all feasible solutions. In the following figure, the shaded area represents the feasible region.

Steps for Graphical Methods

1.

Formulate the mathematical model of the given linear programming problem.

2. Treat inequalities as equalities and then draw the lines corresponding to each equation and non-negativity restrictions. 3. Locate the end points (corner points) on the feasible region. 4. Determine the value of the objective function corresponding to the end points determined in step 3. 5. Find out the optimal value of the objective function.

Problem
A factory produces two types of raw mortar i.e. lean mix mortar and rich mix mortar. Two basic materials, Cement and Sand are used to produce the mixes. The maximum availability of cement is 800 cu.ft a day; that of sand is 3000 cu.ft a day. The requirement of cement and sand per cu.ft of rich and lean mix is given as under:
Rich Mix Lean Mix

Price in Rs. / (cu.ft) Cement (cu. ft)


Sand (cu.ft)

500 0.3
1.0

300 0.2
1.0

A market survey has established that the daily demand for the lean mix does not exceed that of rich mix by more than 1000 cu.ft. The maximum demand for lean mix is limited to 1200 cu.ft

How much rich and lean mixes should be produced daily to maximize gross income?

1.

Decision Variables Rich Mix produced daily = x1

2. Lean Mix produced daily = x2


Objective Function Z = 500 x1 + 300 x2 (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) Constraints 0.3 x1 + 0.2x2 800 (Cement) x1 + x2 3000 (Sand) x2 x1 1000 ( relative diff. of lean and rich) x2 1200 ( lean) x1 0, x2 0 (non negativity)


5000 4000 3000

Constraint Equations
5000

x1 + x2 3000

(ii)
x2

4000 3000 2000 1000 0

0.3x1 +0.2 x2 800

(i)

x2
2000

1000
0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

x1
5000 4000

x1

5000 4000 3000

x2 1200

(iv)

x2

x2 - x1 1000

(iii)

x2

3000

2000 1000 0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000

2000
1000 0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000

x1

x1

Constraint Equations

x2

x1

Z = 500 x1 + 300 x2
B A C D

x2
500

O
-300

x1
Z-Line

Lines for different values of Z are drawn parallel to Z line passing through origin O which has been constructed by equating Z = 500 x1 + 300 x2 = 0, giving x1/x2 = -300 / 500

For different values of decision variables, the values obtained for Z are given in following table. Z = 500 x1 + 300 x2

Corner Origin A B C D E

x1 0 0 150 1800 2000 2667

x2 0 1000 1200 1200 1000 0

Z 0 300000 435000 1260000 1300000 1333500