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MEC281

MATERIALS SCIENCE

CHAPTER 1

THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES


OF MATERIALS
Rasdi bin Deraman
Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal
UiTM Pulau Pinang

Rasdi Deraman, FKM UiTM NPP 1


Introduction to Materials Science
and Engineering

What are Materials?


• Materials may be defined as substance of which
something is composed or made.
• We obtain materials from earth crust and atmosphere.
Examples :-
 Silicon and Iron constitute 27.72 and 5.00
percentage of weight of earths crust respectively.
 Nitrogen and Oxygen constitute 78.08 and 20.95
percentage of dry air by volume respectively.
Rasdi Deraman, FKM UiTM NPP 2
Why the Study of Materials is Important?

• Production and processing of materials constitute a large


part of our economy.
• Engineers choose materials to suite design.
• New materials might be needed for some new
applications.
Example :- High temperature resistant materials.
Space station and Mars Rovers should sustain conditions in space.

* High speed, low


temperature, strong but light.
• Modification of properties might be needed for some
applications.
Example :- Heat treatment to modify properties.
Rasdi Deraman, FKM UiTM NPP 3
Materials Science and Engineering

• Materials science deals with basic knowledge about the


internal structure, properties and processing of
materials.
• Materials engineering deals with the application of
knowledge gained by materials science to convert
materials to products.

Materials Science Materials Science and Materials Engineering


Engineering

Basic Knowledge Resultant


Applied
of Knowledge
Knowledge
Materials of Structure and
of Materials
Properties
Rasdi Deraman, FKM UiTM NPP 4
Types of Materials:
• Metallic Materials
- Composed of one or more metallic elements.
Example: Iron, Copper, Aluminum.-
- Metallic element may combine with nonmetallic elements.
Example: Silicon Carbide, Iron Oxide.

• Polymeric (Plastic) Materials


- Poor conductors of electricity and hence used as insulators.
- Strength and ductility vary greatly.
- Low densities and decomposition temperatures.
Examples : Poly vinyl Chloride (PVC), Polyester.

Applications : Appliances, DVDs, Fabrics etc.

Rasdi Deraman, FKM UiTM NPP 5


• Ceramic Materials
- High hardness, strength and wear resistance.
- Very good insulator. Hence used for furnace lining for heat treating and
melting metals.
Other applications : Abrasives, construction materials, utensils etc.
Example: Porcelain, Glass, Silicon nitride.

• Composite Materials
- Mixture of two or more materials.
- Consists of a filler material and a binding material.
- Materials only bond, will not dissolve in each other.
Examples : Fiber Glass ( Reinforcing material in a polyester or epoxy matrix).
Concrete ( Gravels or steel rods reinforce
in cement and sand).
Applications : Aircraft wings and engine, construction.

Rasdi Deraman, FKM UiTM NPP 6


• Electronic Materials
- Not Major by volume but very important.
- Silicon is a common electronic material.
- Its electrical characteristics are changed by
adding impurities.

Examples: Silicon chips, transistors


Applications : Computers, Integrated
Circuits, Sattelites etc.

Rasdi Deraman, FKM UiTM NPP 7


Atomic Structure And Bonding
- Structure of Atoms

ATOM
Basic Unit of an Element
Diameter : 10 –10 m.
Neutrally Charged

Nucleus Electron Cloud


Diameter : 10 m
–14
Mass : 9.109 x 10 –28 g
Accounts for almost all mass Charge : -1.602 x 10–9 C
Positive Charge Accounts for all volume

Proton Neutron
Mass : 1.673 x 10 –24 g Mass : 1.675 x 10 –24 g
Charge : 1.602 x 10 –19 C Neutral Charge
Rasdi Deraman, FKM UiTM NPP 8
What does an ATOM look like?
•Atoms are made of a nucleus that contains protons, neutrons and
electrons that orbit around the nucleus at different levels, known as shells.

Protons and neutrons join Neutron


together to form the nucleus –
the central part of the atom Nucleon
Proton

+
- -
+
Electrons
move
around the
nucleus

Electron
Shell @ Orbital @ Energy level
Rasdi Deraman, FKM UiTM NPP 9
ATOMIC NUMBER and ATOMIC
MASSusing :
Atom can be described

1) ATOMIC NUMBER 2) ATOMIC MASS

ATOMIC NUMBER, Z = no. of protons

SYMBOL
ATOMIC MASS , A =
no. of protons (Z) + number of neutrons (N)

The element helium has the atomic number 2, is


represented by the symbol He, its atomic mass is 4
and its name is helium. 
Rasdi Deraman, FKM UiTM NPP 10
- Atomic Number and Atomic Mass
• Atomic Number = Number of Protons in the nucleus
• Unique to an element
 Example :- Hydrogen = 1, Uranium = 92
• Relative atomic mass = Mass in grams of 6.203 x 1023
( Avagadro Number) Atoms.
 Example :- Carbon has 6 Protons and 6 Neutrons. Atomic
Mass = 12.
• One Atomic Mass unit is 1/12th of mass of carbon atom.
• One gram mole = Gram atomic mass of an element.
 Example :-

One gram 6.023 x 1023


12 Grams
Mole of Carbon
Of Carbon
Carbon Atoms

Rasdi Deraman, FKM UiTM NPP 11


Periodic Table

Rasdi Deraman, FKM UiTM NPP 12


ISOTOPES
•Atoms which have the same Different mass number

number of protons but different 1 2 3


numbers of neutrons. 1H 1H (D) 1H (T)
Same atomic no. @ no. of protons

Natural Proton Neutron Mass


Isotope number
•Atoms which have the same
Hydrogen 1 1 0 1
atomic number but different (hydrogen)
mass number.
Hydrogen 2 1 1 2
(deuterium)
•Eg : Hydrogen has 3 isotopes.

Hydrogen 3 1 2 3
(tritium)

Rasdi Deraman, FKM UiTM NPP 13


ELECTRON
CONFIGURATIONS OF THE
ELEMENTS
Electron configuration – the ways in
which electrons are arranged around the
nucleus of atoms.
The Pauli principle can be used to show
the maximum number of electron
permitted in any sub-shells.

Electron capacity = 2n2

Rasdi Deraman, FKM UiTM NPP 14


Based on the Aufbau principle, which assumes
that electrons enter orbitals of lowest energy
first.
Sub- No. of
shells electrons

s 2
p 6
d 10
f 14
1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p6, 4s2,
3d10 , 4p6, 5s2, 4d10 , 5p6, 6s2,
4f14 , 5d10 , 6p6, 7s2, 5f14 , 6d10 ,
7p6
Rasdi Deraman, FKM UiTM NPP 15
Each orbital holds a max. of 2 electrons.

Rasdi Deraman, FKM UiTM NPP 16


The number of available electron states in some of
the electrons shells and sub-shells.

Rasdi Deraman, FKM UiTM NPP 17


ATOMIC BONDING
Chemical bonding between atoms occurs
since there is a lower potential energy of
atoms to achieve more stability arrangements
than they exist as an individual atoms.
Chemical bonds can be divided into 2
categories :
1) Primary Inter-atomic Bonding:
Metallic, Ionic and Covalent

2) Secondary Atomic Bonding


Van der Waals
Rasdi Deraman, FKM UiTM NPP 18
- a) Ionic Bonding
• Ionic bonding is due to electrostatic force of attraction
between cations (+ ve charge) and anions (- ve charge).
• Ionic bonds are nondirectional.
• It can form between metallic and nonmetallic
elements.
• Electrons are transferred from electropositive to
electronegative atoms.
Electropositive Electronegative
Electron
Element Atom
Transfer

Electrostatic
Cation Attraction Anion
+ve charge -ve charge

Rasdi Deraman, FKM UiTM NPP 19


IONIC BOND
Ionic Bonding - Example
• Ionic bonding in NaCl

Chlorine
Sodium Atom
Atom Cl=17
Na=11

I
O
N
I Chlorine Ion
C Cl -

B
O
N
Rasdi Deraman,DFKM UiTM NPP 20
b) Covalent Bonding
• Large interatomic forces are created by the sharing of
electrons to form directional bonds.
• In Covalent bonding, outer s and p electrons are shared
between two atoms to obtain noble gas configuration.
• Takes place between elements
with small differences in
electronegativity and close by
in periodic table.
• In Hydrogen, a bond is formed between 2 atoms by
sharing their 1s1 electrons Electron Overlapping
Pair Electron Clouds
H +H H H
1s1 Hydrogen
Electrons Molecule
Rasdi Deraman, FKM UiTM NPP 21
Covalent Bonding - Examples
• In case of F2, O2 and N2, covalent bonding is formed by
sharing p electrons
• Fluorine gas (Outer orbital – 2s2 2p5) share one p electron to attain
noble gas configuration.

F + F F F F F
Bond Energy=160KJ/mol

• Oxygen (Outer orbital - 2s2 2p4) atoms share two p electrons

O + O O O O=O
Bond Energy=28KJ/mol

• Nitrogen (Outer orbital - 2s2 2p3) atoms share three p electrons

HH N + N N N
Rasdi Deraman, FKM UiTM NPP
N 22
N
Bond Energy=54KJ/mol
Covalent Bonding in Benzene

•• Chemical composition
Chemical composition of
of Benzene
Benzene is
is C
C6H .
6H66.

•• The Carbon
The Carbon atoms
atoms are
are arranged
arranged in
in hexagonal
hexagonal ring.
ring.
•• Single and
Single and double
double bonds
bonds alternate
alternate between
between the
the atoms.
atoms.
H

H C H
C C

C H
H
C

Structure ofRasdi
Benzene
Deraman, FKM UiTM NPP
Simplified Notations
23
Covalent Bonding in Carbon
• A carbon atom can form symmetrically
toward the corners of a tetrahedron.

Rasdi Deraman, FKM UiTM NPP 24


c) Metallic Bonding
• Atoms in metals are closely packed in crystal structure.
• Loosely bounded valence electrons are attracted towards nucleus of
other atoms.
• Electrons spread out among atoms forming electron clouds.
• These free electrons are
reason for electric
conductivity and ductility. Positive Ion (ion cores)
• Since outer electrons are
shared by many atoms,
metallic bonds are
Non-directional bonding.

• The electron cloud act as “glue”


to hold the ion cores together.
Valence electron charge 25cloud
Rasdi Deraman, FKM UiTM NPP
Metallic Bonds (Cont..)

• Overall energy of individual atoms are lowered by


metallic bonds
• Minimum energy between atoms exist at equilibrium
distance a0
• Fewer the number of valence electrons involved, more
metallic the bond is.
 Example:- Na Bonding energy 108KJ/mol,
Melting temperature 97.7oC
• Higher the number of valence electrons involved, higher
is the bonding energy.
 Example:- Ca Bonding energy 177KJ/mol,
Melting temperature 851oC
Rasdi Deraman, FKM UiTM NPP 26
2) Secondary Atomic Bonding: Van der Waals

Occur when there is


no exchanging @
sharing of electrons,
eg : inert gases.
The atom behaves
like a dipole.
Rasdi Deraman, FKM UiTM NPP 27
Characteristic of BONDING

Rasdi Deraman, FKM UiTM NPP 28


Crystal Structures
• Atoms, molecules, or ions are arranged in repetitive
3-D pattern, in long range order (LRO) give rise to
crystal structure.
• Properties of solids depends upon crystal structure
and bonding force.
• Generally, fluid substances form crystals when they
undergo a process of solidification. Under ideal
conditions, the result may be a single crystal, where
all of the atoms in the solid fit into the same lattice.
• However, many crystals form simultaneously during
solidification, leading to a polycrystalline solid.
Rasdi Deraman, FKM UiTM NPP 29
STRUCTURE OF SOLIDS
Amorphous Crystal

•No recognizable •Atoms are •Entire solid is •All atoms


long-range order disordered made up of arranged on
atoms in an a common Turbine
•No lattice
orderly array lattice blades

•Different
Polycrystalline lattice
orientation for
•Completely ordered each grain
•In segments
Rasdi Deraman, FKM UiTM NPP 30
The Space Lattice and Unit Cells
• An imaginary network of lines, with atoms at
intersection of lines, representing the arrangement of
atoms is called space lattice.

• Unit cell is that block of Space Lattice

atoms which repeats itself


to form space lattice.

• Materials arranged in short


range order are called
amorphous materials. Unit Cell

Rasdi Deraman, FKM UiTM NPP 31


Crystal Systems and Bravais Lattice
According to Bravais (1811-1863), fourteen standard
unit cells can describe all possible lattice networks.
• Cubic Unit Cell
 a=b=c
 α = β = γ = 900

Simple Body Centered

Face centered

• Tetragonal
 a =b ≠ c
 α = β = γ = 900
Rasdi Deraman, FKM UiTM NPP Body Centered32
Simple
Types of Unit Cells (Cont..)

• Orthorhombic
 a≠ b≠ c
 α = β = γ = 900

Simple Base Centered

Body Centered
Face Centered

• Rhombohedral
 a =b = c
 α = β = γ ≠ 900
Simple

Rasdi Deraman, FKM UiTM NPP 33


Types of Unit Cells (Cont..)
• Hexagonal
 a≠ b≠ c
 α = β = γ = 900

Simple

• Monoclinic
 a≠ b≠ c
 α = β = γ = 900
Base
Centered
Simple

• Triclinic
 a≠ b≠ c
 α = β = γ = 900 Simple

Rasdi Deraman, FKM UiTM NPP 34


Simple Cubic (SC) Crystal Structure

• Represented as one
atom at each corner
of cube. a
• Each atom has 8
nearest neighbors. R=0.5a
• Therefore,
coordination close-packed directions
number is 8. contains 8 x 1/8 =
1 atom/unit cell

Rasdi Deraman, FKM UiTM NPP 35


Body Centered Cubic (BCC) Crystal Structure

• Represented as one atom at each corner of cube and


one at the center of cube.
• Each atom has 8 nearest neighbors.
• Therefore, coordination number is 8.
• Examples :-
 Chromium (a=0.289 nm)
 Iron (a=0.287 nm)
 Sodium (a=0.429 nm)

Rasdi Deraman, FKM UiTM NPP 36


BCC Crystal Structure (Cont..)
• Each unit cell has eight 1/8
atom at corners and 1
full atom at the center.
• Therefore each unit cell has

(8x1/8 ) + 1 = 2 atoms

• Atoms contact each


other at cube diagonal
Therefore, lattice 4R
constant a BCC =
3
Rasdi Deraman, FKM UiTM NPP 37
Face Centered Cubic (FCC) Crystal Structure

• FCC structure is represented as one atom each at the


corner of cube and at the center of each cube face.
• Coordination number for FCC structure is 12
• Atomic Packing Factor is 0.74
• Examples :-
 Aluminium (a = 0.405)
 Gold (a = 0.408)

Rasdi Deraman, FKM UiTM NPP 38


FCC Crystal Structure (Cont..)

• Each unit cell has eight 1/8


atom at corners and six ½
atoms at the center of six
faces.
• Therefore each unit cell has
(8 x 1/8)+ (6 x ½) = 4 atoms
• Atoms contact each other
across cubic face diagonal
4R
• Therefore, lattice
constant a = Rasdi Deraman,2FKM UiTM NPP 39
ATOMIC PACKING FACTOR
Atomic packing factor (APF) is defined as the
efficiency of atomic arrangement in a unit cell.
Volume of atoms in unit cell*
APF =
Volume of unit cell
*assume hard spheres

What is the APF for SC, FCC and BCC?


Rasdi Deraman, FKM UiTM NPP 40
DENSITY, ρ
Density of metal = ρv Mass/Unit cell
=
Volume/Unit cell
#atoms/unit cell Atomic weight (g/mol)

ρ = nA
Volume/unit cell Vc NA Avogadro's number
(cm3/unit cell) (6.023x 1023 atoms/mol)

Rasdi Deraman, FKM UiTM NPP 41


14
Example:
Copper (FCC) has atomic mass of 63.54 g/mol
and atomic radius of 0.1278 nm. Determine:
a) the density of copper.
b) the APF of copper.

4R 4 × 0.1278nm
a= =
2 2
Volume of unit cell = V= a3 = (0.361nm)3 = 4.7 x 10-29 m3
FCC unit cell has 4 atoms.

Mass of unit cell = m =

ρv Rasdi Deraman, FKM UiTM NPP 42


Characteristics of Selected Elements at 20°C

Rasdi Deraman, FKM UiTM NPP 43


Isotropy and Anisotropy
• Isotropy: when the properties of a
material are the same in all directions,
the material is said to be isotropic.
• Anisotropy : when the properties of a
material vary with different
crystallographic orientations, the
material is called to be anisotropic.
Rolling direction
Longitudinal

Long
Transvers
e

Short Transverse

Rasdi Deraman, FKM UiTM NPP 44


Miller Indices
Miller Indices are used to refer to specific
lattice planes of atoms in a crystal.
Why Miller indices is important?
To determine the shapes of single crystals, the
interpretation of X-ray diffraction patterns and the
movement of a dislocation , which may determine
the mechanical properties of the material.

M. I of a DIRECTION
Miller Indices
M. I of a PLANE
Rasdi Deraman, FKM UiTM NPP 45
MILLER INDICES OF A DIRECTION
How to determine crystal direction
i)indices?
Determine the length of the vector projection
on each of the three axes, based on :

ii) These three numbers are expressed as the


smallest integers.

iii) Place a ‘bar’ over the Negative indices and


enclose with square parentheses
Rasdi Deraman, FKM UiTM NPP 46
EXAMPLE : CRYSTAL DIRECTION INDICES
Axis X Y Z
Head (H)
Tail (T)
Projection (H-T)
Reduction 1/3
Enclose [ ]
Axis X Y Z
Head (H)
Tail (T)
Projection (H-T)
Reduction
Enclose [ ]
Rasdi Deraman, FKM UiTM NPP 47
Miller Indices of a Plane - Procedure
Choose a plane that does not pass
through origin

Determine the x,y and z intercepts


of the plane

Find the reciprocals of the intercepts

Clear fractions by
Fractions?
multiplying by an integer
Place a ‘bar’ over the to determine smallest set
Negative indices of whole numbers

Enclose in round parenthesis


Eg: crystal plane for
x, y and z axes (111).
Rasdi Deraman, FKM UiTM NPP 48
Miller Indices - Examples
Axis X Y Z
Intercept 1 ∞ 1
Reciprocal 1 0 1
Reduction - - -
Enclose (1 0 1)
Axis X Y Z z
Intercept
Reciprocal
y
Reduction
Enclose ( ) x
Rasdi Deraman, FKM UiTM NPP 49
Exercise:
Determine the Miller Indices plane for the following
figure below?

Rasdi Deraman, FKM UiTM NPP 50


Quiz # 1 03/08/2009

a) Plane A intersects with x-axis and y-axis at ¾


and 1/3 respectively. It is also parallel to the z-axis.
Determine the Miller Indices and sketch plane A in a
cubic unit cell to support the answer.

b) Determine the direction Indices for vector Q in


figure below.

Rasdi Deraman, FKM UiTM NPP 51


PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
Physical properties are properties that can be
recorded without changing the identity of the
substance such as solubility in water,
volume, length, colour, odour, melting point,
mass, etc.

Example:
• Metals have relatively high melting points and
remain in the liquid state over a wide temp.
range.
• Metals conduct electricity and heat.
• Metals are usually shiny when polished.
Rasdi Deraman, FKM UiTM NPP 52
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
Generally, the common mechanical properties of
metals are as follows:
Toughness - the ability to resist / withstand repeated
bending.
Ductility – a property of material which can be easily
drawn into wires
Brittle – a property of material which easily
breaks when subjected to impacts.
Hardness - resistance to scratching or indentation.
Elasticity - ability to return to its original shape.
Plasticity - does not return to its original shape.
Rasdi Deraman, FKM UiTM NPP 53
STRESS-STRAIN CURVE
A stress–strain curve is a graph derived from
measuring load (stress – σ) versus extension
(strain – ε) for a sample of a material tested
using tensile machine.

Typical regions that


can be observed in
a stress-strain
curve are:
Elastic region,
Yielding,
Strain
Hardening,
Necking
&Failure Rasdi Deraman, FKM UiTM NPP 54
STRESS-STRAIN CURVE (Cont…)

Rasdi Deraman, FKM UiTM NPP 55


HARDNESS
• Hardness is defined as a measure of the resistance of
a material to permanent deformation (plastic
deformation).
• The hardness of a material is measured by forcing
an indenter into its surface. The indenter can be
either a ball, pyramid or cone type which is made of
a material much harder than the material being
tested such as hardened steel, tungsten carbide or
diamond.

Rasdi Deraman, FKM UiTM NPP 56


Indenter Load Applications

Knoop A very small rhombic pyramidal diamond. Between 1 and 1000 g •Measure the hardness of small specimen,
(HK) very hard brittle materials (ceramic), very thin
sections and small elongated areas.

Vickers A very small square pyramidal diamond. Between 1 and 1000 g •Measure the hardness of small specimen, thin
(HV) materials and small rounded areas.
•More sensitive to measurement errors than
Knoop test
•Less sensitive to surface conditions than
Knoop test

Brinell Hardened steel or tungsten carbide ball. Use much higher loads than •Steel parts.
(HB) Rockwell.
Hardness-Width of indentation.

Rockwell Conical diamond or hardened steel balls. An initial minor load (10kg) •Measuring many materials from soft bearing
(HR) followed by a larger major load metals to carbides.
Hardness-Depth of penetration. (60, 100 or 150 kg)

Rasdi Deraman, FKM UiTM NPP 57


End of the Chapter 1

Rasdi Deraman, FKM UiTM NPP 58


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