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Gas Turbine

COMBUSTION INSPECTION

Combustion inspection

Unit Data

GT Inspection and schedule


Constructional details of Combustion system

DLN 2, an overview
Combustion and bore scope inspection

Combustion inspection

Unit Data
Equipment model PG 6101FA Serial Number 810311 Rating 70 Mw (ISO) Speed 5231 rpm Fuel Dual fuel Comp Pr. Ratio 14.97:1 GT inlet air flow 165 m3/s NOx level 25ppm 6FA

Combustion inspection

Inspection & Inspection Schedule a) Running Inspections


Recording of operating data Checking of abnormal conditions/leakages.

b) Special inspections
Bore scope Inspection (34 locations in 6FA) Eddy current probe Inspection. Variable Inlet Guide Vanes Bushing Inspection

c) Shutdown Inspection
Combustion inspection (8000 EOH/ 450 starts) Hot Gas path Inspection (24000 EOH/ 900 starts) Major Inspection (48000 EOH/ 2400 Starts)

d) Schedule
Combustion inspection 8000 EOH/ 450 starts Hot Gas path Inspection 24000 EOH/ 900 starts Major Inspection 48000 EOH/ 2400 Starts

Combustion inspection

Gas Turbine Combustion Explosion view


Comb Case Flow sleeve Comb Liner

Compressor discharge casing


Transition Piece
1ST stage Nozzle 1ST stage Bucket Shroud

1st stage bucket 2nd stage bucket 3rd stage bucket

Comb casing outer

Combustion inspection

DUAL FUEL NOZZLE CROSS SECTION

Combustion inspection

6 FA

Combustion inspection

Combustion Explosion view


Fuel nozzle & cap assembly Comb Case Flow sleeve Comb Liner

1st Stage

Compressor discharge casing


Transition Piece
1ST stage Nozzle

nozzle 1st stage bucket 2nd stage bucket 3rd stage bucket

Comb casing outer

1ST stage Bucket Shroud

Combustion inspection

TRANSITION PIECE ARRANGEMENT

Impingement cooling holes

Combustion inspection

Combustion Technology
The regulatory requirements for low emissions from gas turbine power plants have increased during the past 15 years. Environmental agencies throughout the world are now requiring even lower rates of emissions of NOx and other pollutants from both new and existing gas turbines.

Traditional methods of reducing NOx emissions from combustion turbines (water and steam injection) having limitation in reduction level.
Evolution of Dry low nox Having better control in emission DLN 1 DLN 2 (ABAN) DLN2.6 DLN 2.6+

Combustion inspection

Combustion Technology DLN 2


Burning methodology
a) DIFFUSION While by injecting fuel into combustion air and firing them simultaneously is called Diffusion combustion b) LEAN PREMIXED COMBUSTION Burning technology after mixing fuel with air in advance is called premixed combustion, The term of lean combustion is defined as combustion under a lower fuel concentration to equilibrium. Since the fuel concentration is low in a lean premixed combustion, flame temperature cannot become high. Formation of thermal NOx, which is synthesized in large quantities at a high temperature, is accordingly suppressed. However, lean combustion generally has a problem that tends to become unstable.

Combustion inspection

DLN2 Fuel Gas nozzle manifolding (Combustion Streams) Primary Gas (Diffusion 4) Secondary Gas ( Premix 4)

Tertiary Gas (premix 1)

Quaternary Gas (casing premix) typical 15 place

Combustion inspection

DLN - 2.0 Combustion Technology DLN 2


DLN-2 fuel Four Gas streams (four Manifolds) are:

1) Primary Diffusion passages of four of the fuel nozzles are fed from a common manifold, called the primary,
Primary fuel Fuel gas entering through the diffusion gas holes in the swirler assembly of each of the outboard four fuel nozzles 2) Secondary The premixed passages of the same four nozzles are fed from another internal manifold called the secondary. Secondary fuel premix fuel gas entering through the gas metering holes in the fuel gas injector spokes of each of the outboard four fuel nozzles turbine.

Combustion inspection

DLN - 2.0
Combustion Technology DLN 2
3) Tertiary The pre-mixed passages of the remaining nozzle are supplied by the tertiary fuel system; the diffusion passage of that nozzle is always purged with compressor discharge air and passes no fuel. Tertiary fuel premix fuel gas delivered by the metering holes in the fuel gas injector spokes of the inboard fuel nozzle. 4) Quaternary The quaternary gas fuel delivery system consists of a nozzle arrangement which penetrates the circumference of the combustion can, porting fuel to casing pegs located radially around the casing. Quaternary Fuel- Quaternary passages, injects a small amount of fuel into the air stream just up-stream from the fuel nozzle swirlers splitter valve is also modulated to hold a constant tertiary flow split.

Combustion inspection

DLN - 2.0 DLN- 2.0 Fuel nozzle arrangement Combustion Modes


Secondary (premix) injector typical, for 4 nozzle Primary (diffusion) injector Typical for 4 nozzle

Tertiary (premix) injector Typical for 1 nozzle)

Purge air only Tertiary location

Combustion inspection

Typical Dual Fuel nozzle arrangement (diffusion)

Diffusion gas passage

Liquid fuel Water injection

Atomizing air

Combustion inspection

Combustion Technology DLN 2


The DLN-2 combustion system can operate in several different modes. 1) Primary Fuel, only to the primary side of the four fuel nozzles, diffusion flame. Primary mode is used from ignition to 81% corrected speed. 2) Lean-Lean Fuel to the primary (diffusion) fuel nozzles and single tertiary (premixing) fuel nozzle. This mode is used from 81% corrected speed to a pre-selected combustion reference temperature. The percentage of primary fuel flow is modulated throughout the range of operation as a function of combustion reference temperature. If necessary, lean-lean mode can be operated throughout the entire load range of the turbine. Selecting lean-lean base on locks out premix operation and enables the machine to be taken to base load in lean-lean

Combustion inspection

Combustion Technology DLN 2


3) Premix Transfer Transition state between lean-lean and premix modes. Throughout this mode, the primary and secondary gas control valves modulate to their final position for the next mode. The premix splitter valve is also modulated to hold a constant tertiary flow split. 4) Piloted Premix Fuel is directed to the primary, secondary and tertiary fuel nozzles. This mode exists while operating with temperature control off as an intermediate mode between lean-lean and premix mode. This mode also exists as a default mode out of premix mode and, in the event that premix operating is not desired, piloted premix can be selected and operated to base load. Primary, secondary and tertiary fuel split are constant during this mode of operation.

Combustion inspection

Combustion Technology DLN 2


5) Pre-Mix Steady State (PMSS) Fuel is directed to the secondary, tertiary and quaternary fuel passages and premixed flame exists in the combustor. The minimum load for premixed operation is set by the combustion reference temperature and IGV position. It typically ranges from 50% with inlet bleed heat on to 65% with inlet bleed heat off.

Mode transition from premix steady state, piloted premix or piloted premix to premix steady state, can occur whenever the combustion reference temperature is greater than 2200 F/1204 C. Optimum emissions are generated in premix mode. 6) Tertiary Full Speed No Load (FSNL) This mode is active when operating above approximately 12.5 % and a load rejection is experienced. . The fuel Split are changed and fuel is directed to the tertiary nozzle only. The fuel system remains in this mode for approximately 60 seconds and then transfers to lean-lean mode.

Combustion inspection

Combustion Technology DLN 2


DLN-2.0 Operating Modes, summary Gas Fuel Operation: -Primary (Diff-4) - 4 Primary Tips Only, Ignition Through 81% Speed -Lean-lean (Diff-4 + Tertiary (1-PM) - 81% Speed Thru Approx 30% Load

-Premix Transfer (Diff 4+Secondary (4-PM) +Tertiary (1-PM)


-Piloted Premix (Diff 4 + Secondary + Tertiary) - 30% to Base If Necessary -Premix Transfer (Diff 4 + Secondary + Tertiary

-Premix Steady State (Secondary + Tertiary + Quaternary) - 45% to Base


- Quaternary Fuel Injection . Upstream of Fuel Nozzles to Control PM Nozzle Pressure Ratio

Combustion inspection

Combustion Inspection
Combustion System The overall function of the combustion system is to supply the heat energy to the gas turbine cycle. This is accomplished by burning fuel mixed with compressor discharge air. The combustion system is of the reverse-flow type with the combustion chambers arranged around the periphery of the compressor discharge casing (Total 6 Combustion cans)

Combustion inspection

Combustion Inspection
Relatively a small inspection, required to Inspect / change out the below parts.

Combustion Liners Combustion End Covers Fuel Nozzles End Caps Transition Pieces Cross Fire Tubes

Flow Sleeves Purge valves Check Valves Spark Plugs Flame Detectors Flex Hoses

These parts require the most frequent attention, as continued operation with a deteriorated combustion system can result in much shortened life of the downstream parts

It is also inherent in the gas turbine design that these parts are the first to require repair or replacement being exposed to very high temperature.
Therefore, the importance of this inspection in the maintenance program must be emphasized.

Combustion inspection

Combustion Inspection To be inspected for

Foreign Objects
Abnormal Wear Cracking Liner cooling hole Plugging TBC Coating Condition Oxidation/Corrosion/Erosion Hot Spots/Burning Missing Hardware Clearance Limits

Combustion inspection

Combustion Inspection
Bore scope inspection of following can be done without opening any parts major

1. Compressor and Turbine 2. Combustion liner 3. Combustion liner cap cowl 4. Combustion transition pieces 5. Transition piece hardware 6. Combustion flow sleeve 7. Spark Plug 8. Fuel nozzle 9. Flame scanner 10. Compressor rotor vane inspection 11. Compressor stator vane 12. Inlet Guide vane

Combustion inspection

Combustion Inspection
- findings during May 2006 outage-

Combustion inspection

ABAN Combustion Inspection findings

Combustion liner cap cowl - old Fuel nozzle deposit

Combustion liner New and removed

Combustion liner cap cowl New

Combustion inspection

ABAN Combustion Inspection findings

Combustion liner damaged

Combustion liner cap cowl cracked

Combustion liner damaged

Combustion liner cap cracked

Combustion inspection

ABAN Combustion Inspection findings

Transition piece

Pulse air pipe damaged

Combustion liner installed new

Pulse air pipe came out from its position

Combustion inspection

ABAN Combustion Inspection findings


INSPECTION OF VIGV

RACK RACK RING OUTER SHAFT SPACER X2

GEAR

BUSHINGS

INLET CASING THRUST WASHER

ROOT OF VANE MIDSPAN OF VANE

INNER STUB CLEARANCE MEASURED LESS VALUE

INLET GUIDE VANE

X1

TIP OF VANE

BUSHING

INNER STUB