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(c)2005 Penrose

Atomic Structure and Electron Movement Conductors, Semi-Conductors, Insulators Basic Electricity: Current, Voltage and Resistance Electrical and Magnetic Fields Alternating Current Electricity: L, C, XL, XC, Z

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Classic Atom

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Electron Movement

Photon

Photon + N

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Conductors

Free Electrons (e) Easily Directed Usually metals Copper Aluminum Gold Platinum

- -

- - -

- -

- - - - - - - - - - - -

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Semi-Conductors

+

Dielectrics 4 Valence Electrons Polarize with Some Electron Flow due to Electrical Fields

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Insulators

No Free Electrons No Current Flow with Field

+

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Current (Amperage - I)

Current is the flow of electricity, much like the flow of water in a pipe. It is measured in Amperage as opposed to gallons per minute of water.

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Current

Electron!

Electron!

1 Amp = 6.28 x 1018 electrons per second 1 Amp = 1 Coulomb per second Electron charge = 1.60219 x 10-19 Coulombs Flows Negative Charge to Positive Charge

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Voltage (Volts - V or E)

Voltage is the electrical pressure in the system, much like water pressure. Electrical pressure is measured in Volts as opposed to Pounds per Square Inch. (ie: 110V like water from a tap, 4160 like a fire hose)

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Resistance (Ohms - R or )

Resistance is simply the restriction of current flow in a circuit. Smaller wire (conductors) and poor conductors have higher resistance.

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Resistance

e

e e e e

e e

e e

e e

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Ohms Law

Current, Voltage, and Resistance relate as follow:

I=E/R

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Magnetics

Magnetic Flux

South

Magnet

North

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North Magnetic Pole + +

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Magnetic Flux

S Metal N

South

Magnet

North

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Electrical Properties

Frequency Inductance (L)

Mutual Inductive Reactance (XL)

Capacitance (C)

Capacitive Reactance (XC)

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Frequency

90

180

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270

360

Inductance

Stores electromagnetic energy in its magnetic field mH di

I lags V

V L

dt

1 2 W Li 2

1 t i v( )d i(0) L 0

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Mutual Inductance

When 2 coils in close proximity, a changing current in one coil will induce a voltage in a second coil

N2 = 5 Turns 100 Volts

90

180

270

360

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Inductive Reactance XL

Inductive Reactance is the AC Resistance of a coil Presented as a resistance in Ohms Frequency and Inductance Dependant

X L 2fL

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Capacitance

Stores energy in an electric field Dielectric between 2 plates The charged condition is maintained until a discharge path is present Causes current to lead voltage

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Capacitive Reactance XC

1 XC 2fC

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In a coil or motor, current lags behind voltage This is represented as an angle or a fraction of unity Adding C can improve PF

V I

90

180

270

360

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Impedance Z

Z R (X L XC )

2

Complex AC Resistance

DC Resistance

X L 2fL X 1 C

2fC

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Summary

Atomic Structure and Electron Movement Conductors, Semi-Conductors, Insulators Basic Electricity: Current, Voltage and Resistance Electrical and Magnetic Fields Alternating Current Electricity: L, C, XL, XC, Z

(c)2005 Penrose

Howard W Penrose, Ph.D. Instructor

(c)2005 Penrose

Resistance Inductance Capacitance Phase Angle Inductive Reactance XL Capacitive Reactance XC Impedance 2

R ( X L X C )2

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Stator Windings Fan Stator Laminations Rotor Bearing

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Interaction of Two Magnetic Fields Electrical Energy to Mechanical Torque

Stator Field S

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Rotor Field

Rotating Fields

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Rotor Cage

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Output Torque

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Operating Motor

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Quantum Mechanics and Motor Diagnostics

STATOR LAMINATIONS

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Turn to Turn Coil to Coil Open Circuit Phase to Phase Coil to Ground

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Phase A Ground

Phase B Phase C

Circuit Capacitance Changes due to charge Effects of atoms in Insulation medium. Dipoles are created As electric field crosses Atoms. As they align Capacitance increases.

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The Dipole

Neg Potential

Pos Potential

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Capacitance Wire High Low GRND High

Ground Insulation

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Capacitance Neg High

GRND Pos

Low

Meg Ohms

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Low

Time

Conductor 1

Conductor 2

Overcomes Dipolar Spin and Circuit Capacitance Requires Higher Voltage as a Result In order to cross air gap (Paschen) Potentially Destructive!!! Voltage

Impulse

(c)2005 Penrose

Time

Arc during fault detection using surge test. The separated insulation is the result of the arc (burned). The grey area on the copper is carbonized insulation.

(c)2005 Penrose

wire wire wire

wire

wire

wire

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wire wire wire

Capacitive Defect

wire

wire

wire

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1-2 Resistance Impedance Inductance Phase Angle I/F Ins Resist 0.6821 21 8 77 -47 1-3 0.6798 21 8 76 -45 >99 2-3 0.6865 39 7 76 -47 Resistance Impedance Inductance Phase Angle I/F Ins Resist 1-2 0.6786 21 8 77 -47 1-3 0.6797 21 8 77 -43 >99 2-3 0.6819 39 7 76 -47

MCA Result on 20 hp with contamination and slight phase to phase defect. Still running.

MCA test results following surge test from previous example. Trips on start.

(c)2005 Penrose

Howard W Penrose, Ph.D. T-Solutions, Inc.

(c)2005 Penrose

Concept of TTFE

Setting test frequencies such that faults can be detected in advance Setting alarms at a point where fault detection is effective Knowing that failures are random Know that the resistance to failure decreases following detection of a CBM alarm

(c)2005 Penrose

Condition-Directed Example

100%

Resistance to failure

0%

Inspection Interval

DT

F (Winding fails)

(F-P)

(c)2005 Penrose

(c)2005 Penrose

This Presentation

Stages of Winding Failure Causes and Effects Trending Time to Failure Discussion

< 600 Vac Standard, integral, three phase motors, operating an average of 4000 hours 50% load, balanced voltage, good power quality, constant load

(c)2005 Penrose

Insulation Breakdown

Contamination

Moisture and electric field expansion Gasses, vapors, dust, etc.

Arc Tracking

High Current Between Conductors

Partially Assembled 125 horsepower Motor in repair shop

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Insulation Breakdown

VFD Applications

Partial Discharge

Mechanical Faults

Stress cracking Parts Faults

Stators awaiting assembly after rewind

(c)2005 Penrose

Time to Failure

Severity of the Fault Potential Between Conductors Type and Amount of Insulation Cause of the Fault Cycling and Load

Contamination, Thermal, Moisture Incursion, Corona, Transients, Overloads, etc. may initiate fault.

(c)2005 Penrose

Stage 1

Insulation between conductors stressed Changes to R and C between conductors High temps and reactive faults Carbonization begins to occur MCA values of Fi and I/F begin to change

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Stage 2

Fault becomes more Resistive Mutual Inductance between good and bad I2R losses increase at point of fault Motor may start tripping although may run after short cooling period (ins res increases as insulation cools)

(c)2005 Penrose

Stage 3

Insulation breaks down Possible explosive rupture Vaporization of windings Inductance and sometimes resistance may change

Stage 3 winding failure

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Review

MCA Requirement:

Resistance Loose connections, Broken Wires (~5%) Impedance and Inductance Rotor position or contaminated windings. Also, used for rotor test in assembled equipment. (Parallel good, Unparallel bad) I/F and Fi Early winding shorts (I/F: +/-2; Fi: +/-1) Insulation Resistance Ground Faults (5 MOhm/100 MOhm)

Combination used for troubleshooting or trending Comparative tests: Assumes that phases do not fail at same rate

(c)2005 Penrose

How Trended

AC Motors

% unbalance: R, Z and L Phase Diff: I/F and Fi Reading: Insulation Resistance

MCA Being used to confirm the Winding voltage connection in a submersible Pump.

(c)2005 Penrose

Reading R, Z, L R, Z, L Change from Baseline < 3% >3 and <5% Severity Green Yellow

R, Z, L

Fi, I/F

>5%

<1 pt

Red

Green

Fi, I/F

Fi, I/F

>3

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Yellow

Red

Trended Reading

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AC Motor 2

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Motor Type 3-Phase Non-Critical 3-Phase Production 3-Phase Critical DC Motors Transformer Clean/Dry Environment Moderate Environment Dirty/Wet Environment

12 Mo 6 Mo 3 Mo 6 Mo 12 Mo

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9 Mo 6 Mo 2 Mo 6 Mo 9 Mo

6 Mo 3 Mo 1 Mo 3 Mo 6 Mo

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Time To Failure

Application Type of Fault Severity of Fault

(c)2005 Penrose

Winding Contamination

7

Time to Action (Months)

6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Annual 9Months

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Quarterly

Monthly

Time to Action (Months)

10 8 1pt 6 4 2 0 Annual 9 Months Semi Quarterly Monthly Test Frequency 2pt 3pt >3

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Phase to Phase or Coil to Coil 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 Annual 9 Months Semi Quarterly Monthly Test Frequency (c)2005 Penrose 1pt 2pt 3pt >3

TTFE Software

(c)2005 Penrose

Final Comments

When is TTFE effective?

Technology can detect developing faults (Condition-Based) Optimized testing frequency or continuous monitoring A history exists or can be obtained Multiple-Technology approach to confirm condition and stage of failure Understanding that the functional failure is not instantaneous and some forcing function drives the failure Action is taken on findings: Risk-based decision

(c)2005 Penrose

SUCCESS by DESIGN

5 Dogwood Ln Old Saybrook, CT 06475 Ph: 860 575-3087 Fax: 860 577-8537 http://www.motordoc.net howard@motordoc.net

(c)2005 Penrose

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