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# Electrical Theory

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## Overview of Electrical Theory

Atomic Structure and Electron Movement Conductors, Semi-Conductors, Insulators Basic Electricity: Current, Voltage and Resistance Electrical and Magnetic Fields Alternating Current Electricity: L, C, XL, XC, Z
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## Atomic Structure and Electron Movement

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Classic Atom

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Electron Movement
Photon

Photon + N

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## Conductors, SemiConductors and Insulators

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Conductors
Free Electrons (e) Easily Directed Usually metals Copper Aluminum Gold Platinum

- -

- - -

- -

- - - - - - - - - - - -

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Semi-Conductors
+

Dielectrics 4 Valence Electrons Polarize with Some Electron Flow due to Electrical Fields

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Insulators
No Free Electrons No Current Flow with Field
+

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## Basic Electricity: Current, Voltage and Resistance

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Current (Amperage - I)
Current is the flow of electricity, much like the flow of water in a pipe. It is measured in Amperage as opposed to gallons per minute of water.

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Current

Electron!

Electron!

1 Amp = 6.28 x 1018 electrons per second 1 Amp = 1 Coulomb per second Electron charge = 1.60219 x 10-19 Coulombs Flows Negative Charge to Positive Charge
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Voltage (Volts - V or E)
Voltage is the electrical pressure in the system, much like water pressure. Electrical pressure is measured in Volts as opposed to Pounds per Square Inch. (ie: 110V like water from a tap, 4160 like a fire hose)
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Resistance (Ohms - R or )
Resistance is simply the restriction of current flow in a circuit. Smaller wire (conductors) and poor conductors have higher resistance.

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Resistance

e
e e e e

e e

e e

e e

## Fewer Collisions = Less Heat! Many Collisions = Heat!

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Ohms Law
Current, Voltage, and Resistance relate as follow:

I=E/R

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Magnetics
Magnetic Flux

South

Magnet

North

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## Magnetic Field With Coil

North Magnetic Pole + +

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Magnetic Flux

S Metal N

South

Magnet

North

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## Alternating Current Electricity

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Electrical Properties
Frequency Inductance (L)
Mutual Inductive Reactance (XL)

Capacitance (C)
Capacitive Reactance (XC)

## Phase Angle/Power Factor Impedance (Z)

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Frequency

90

180
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270

360

Inductance
Stores electromagnetic energy in its magnetic field mH di

I lags V

V L

dt
1 2 W Li 2

1 t i v( )d i(0) L 0
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Mutual Inductance
When 2 coils in close proximity, a changing current in one coil will induce a voltage in a second coil
N2 = 5 Turns 100 Volts

## N1 = 5 Turns 100 Volts

90

180

270

360
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Inductive Reactance XL
Inductive Reactance is the AC Resistance of a coil Presented as a resistance in Ohms Frequency and Inductance Dependant

X L 2fL

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Capacitance
Stores energy in an electric field Dielectric between 2 plates The charged condition is maintained until a discharge path is present Causes current to lead voltage
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Capacitive Reactance XC

1 XC 2fC
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## Phase Angle / Power Factor

In a coil or motor, current lags behind voltage This is represented as an angle or a fraction of unity Adding C can improve PF

V I

90

180

270

360

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Impedance Z

Z R (X L XC )
2
Complex AC Resistance

DC Resistance

X L 2fL X 1 C

2fC

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Summary
Atomic Structure and Electron Movement Conductors, Semi-Conductors, Insulators Basic Electricity: Current, Voltage and Resistance Electrical and Magnetic Fields Alternating Current Electricity: L, C, XL, XC, Z

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## AC Induction Motor Theory

Howard W Penrose, Ph.D. Instructor

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## Basic Motor Circuit

Resistance Inductance Capacitance Phase Angle Inductive Reactance XL Capacitive Reactance XC Impedance 2

R ( X L X C )2
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## The Polyphase Induction Motor

Stator Windings Fan Stator Laminations Rotor Bearing

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## Interaction of Rotor Field and Stator Field

Interaction of Two Magnetic Fields Electrical Energy to Mechanical Torque
Stator Field S
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Rotor Field

Rotating Fields

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Rotor Cage

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Output Torque

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Operating Motor

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## Insulation System Considerations for MCA and Motor Connections

Quantum Mechanics and Motor Diagnostics

## (C)2004, Howard W Penrose, Ph.D., All rights reserved

STATOR LAMINATIONS

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## Stator Failure Modes

Turn to Turn Coil to Coil Open Circuit Phase to Phase Coil to Ground

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## Insulation Diagram of Motor

Phase A Ground

Phase B Phase C

Circuit Capacitance Changes due to charge Effects of atoms in Insulation medium. Dipoles are created As electric field crosses Atoms. As they align Capacitance increases.
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The Dipole

Neg Potential

Pos Potential

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## Dipolar Motion in Operation

Capacitance Wire High Low GRND High

## MegOhms Wire High

Ground Insulation

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## Dipolar Motion in DC Tests

Capacitance Neg High

GRND Pos

Low

Meg Ohms
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Low

Time

## Dipolar Motion in Surge Test

Conductor 1

Conductor 2

Overcomes Dipolar Spin and Circuit Capacitance Requires Higher Voltage as a Result In order to cross air gap (Paschen) Potentially Destructive!!! Voltage

Impulse

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Time

## Accelerated Insulation Degradation

Arc during fault detection using surge test. The separated insulation is the result of the arc (burned). The grey area on the copper is carbonized insulation.

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wire wire wire

wire

wire

wire

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## Dipolar Motion in MCA - 2

wire wire wire

Capacitive Defect

wire

wire

wire

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## Before and After Defect

1-2 Resistance Impedance Inductance Phase Angle I/F Ins Resist 0.6821 21 8 77 -47 1-3 0.6798 21 8 76 -45 >99 2-3 0.6865 39 7 76 -47 Resistance Impedance Inductance Phase Angle I/F Ins Resist 1-2 0.6786 21 8 77 -47 1-3 0.6797 21 8 77 -43 >99 2-3 0.6819 39 7 76 -47

MCA Result on 20 hp with contamination and slight phase to phase defect. Still running.

MCA test results following surge test from previous example. Trips on start.

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## Time to Failure Estimation Techniques

Howard W Penrose, Ph.D. T-Solutions, Inc.

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Concept of TTFE
Setting test frequencies such that faults can be detected in advance Setting alarms at a point where fault detection is effective Knowing that failures are random Know that the resistance to failure decreases following detection of a CBM alarm
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Condition-Directed Example
100%

## A (New Motor Installed)

Resistance to failure

## P (Interturn insulation degradation detection)

0%

Inspection Interval
DT

F (Winding fails)

(F-P)

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## Example of TTFE in MCA

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This Presentation
Stages of Winding Failure Causes and Effects Trending Time to Failure Discussion
< 600 Vac Standard, integral, three phase motors, operating an average of 4000 hours 50% load, balanced voltage, good power quality, constant load
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Insulation Breakdown
Contamination
Moisture and electric field expansion Gasses, vapors, dust, etc.

Arc Tracking
High Current Between Conductors

## Thermal Aging (10oC)

Partially Assembled 125 horsepower Motor in repair shop

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Insulation Breakdown
VFD Applications
Partial Discharge

Mechanical Faults
Stress cracking Parts Faults
Stators awaiting assembly after rewind

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## Stages of Winding Failure

Time to Failure
Severity of the Fault Potential Between Conductors Type and Amount of Insulation Cause of the Fault Cycling and Load

Contamination, Thermal, Moisture Incursion, Corona, Transients, Overloads, etc. may initiate fault.
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Stage 1
Insulation between conductors stressed Changes to R and C between conductors High temps and reactive faults Carbonization begins to occur MCA values of Fi and I/F begin to change

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Stage 2
Fault becomes more Resistive Mutual Inductance between good and bad I2R losses increase at point of fault Motor may start tripping although may run after short cooling period (ins res increases as insulation cools)
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Stage 3
Insulation breaks down Possible explosive rupture Vaporization of windings Inductance and sometimes resistance may change
Stage 3 winding failure

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Review
MCA Requirement:
Resistance Loose connections, Broken Wires (~5%) Impedance and Inductance Rotor position or contaminated windings. Also, used for rotor test in assembled equipment. (Parallel good, Unparallel bad) I/F and Fi Early winding shorts (I/F: +/-2; Fi: +/-1) Insulation Resistance Ground Faults (5 MOhm/100 MOhm)

Combination used for troubleshooting or trending Comparative tests: Assumes that phases do not fail at same rate

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How Trended
AC Motors
% unbalance: R, Z and L Phase Diff: I/F and Fi Reading: Insulation Resistance

## Induction Rotors: Need numerical method (Rotor Grading System RGS)

MCA Being used to confirm the Winding voltage connection in a submersible Pump.

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## AC Rotating Machine Testing

Reading R, Z, L R, Z, L Change from Baseline < 3% >3 and <5% Severity Green Yellow

R, Z, L
Fi, I/F

>5%
<1 pt

Red
Green

Fi, I/F
Fi, I/F

>3
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Yellow
Red

Trended Reading

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AC Motor 2

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## PdM Testing Frequency

Motor Type 3-Phase Non-Critical 3-Phase Production 3-Phase Critical DC Motors Transformer Clean/Dry Environment Moderate Environment Dirty/Wet Environment

12 Mo 6 Mo 3 Mo 6 Mo 12 Mo
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9 Mo 6 Mo 2 Mo 6 Mo 9 Mo

6 Mo 3 Mo 1 Mo 3 Mo 6 Mo

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## What Makes Fault Detection Difficult?

Time To Failure
Application Type of Fault Severity of Fault

## Based upon Stages of Failure, Insulation fails over time

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Winding Contamination
7
Time to Action (Months)

6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Annual 9Months
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Quarterly

Monthly

## Turn to Turn Shorts

Time to Action (Months)

10 8 1pt 6 4 2 0 Annual 9 Months Semi Quarterly Monthly Test Frequency 2pt 3pt >3

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Phase to Phase or Coil to Coil 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 Annual 9 Months Semi Quarterly Monthly Test Frequency (c)2005 Penrose 1pt 2pt 3pt >3

## Time to Action (Months)

TTFE Software

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Final Comments
When is TTFE effective?
Technology can detect developing faults (Condition-Based) Optimized testing frequency or continuous monitoring A history exists or can be obtained Multiple-Technology approach to confirm condition and stage of failure Understanding that the functional failure is not instantaneous and some forcing function drives the failure Action is taken on findings: Risk-based decision
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SUCCESS by DESIGN
5 Dogwood Ln Old Saybrook, CT 06475 Ph: 860 575-3087 Fax: 860 577-8537 http://www.motordoc.net howard@motordoc.net
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