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Presence of harmonics in power system causes various problems.

especially the low frequency harmonics reduce the overall efficiency of the system to a greater extent. Fourier transformation is applied in harmonic analysis. Any periodic waveform can be shown to be the super position of a fundamental and a set of harmonic components. By applying Fourier transformation, magnitude of these components can be known. The frequency of each harmonic component is an integral multiple of its fundamental.

50 Hz (h = 1)

150 Hz (h = 3) 250 Hz (h = 5) 350 Hz (h = 7) 450 Hz (h = 9) 550 Hz (h = 11) 650 Hz (h = 13)

There are several methods to indicate the quantity of harmonics content. The most widely used measure is the total harmonic distortion (THD), which is defined in terms of the amplitudes of the harmonics, Mh. THD is a measure of the effective value of the harmonic components of a distorted waveform. That is, it is the potential heating value of the harmonics relative to the fundamental.

where Mh is the rms value of harmonic component h of the quantity M.

Inverter Conventional Two-Level And Three-Level Voltage Source Inverter PWM Techniques Multi-Level Voltage Source Inverter Cascaded Multi-Level Inverter

Circuit Configuration Operation

CIRCUIT CONFIGURATION

Typical two-level inverter

+2V +V 0 -V -2V

The micro-controller is used here to create accurate on, off pulses for all the eight MOSFETs. Using a micro-controller for generating the switching sequence is very advantageous in many aspects. It is very com occupies very less space, allows reprogramming of time-delays, and is very reliable. The P89V51RD2 is an 80C51 microcontroller with 64 kB Flash and 1024 bytes of data RAM

Modes of operation Mode 0 Mode 1 Mode 2

OPTO-COUPLER Opto-coupler is nothing but a combination of LED and a phototran It provides optical coupling between input and output. The input si a LED. It emits photons, when it is forward biased.The output side a phototransistor.When the emitted photons hit the phototransisto it induces the base current to flow. The transistor is switched on. When the LED is not forward biased, the transistor remains in off s

R12 500

V3
1 10

35 R4 10k 7 2 Q2 IRF530

R13 500

V5 30 1
2

U2

4 8

U3

45

9V

9V 14

R2 10k

XSC1
Ext Trig + _

PS2561-1

PS2561-1

Q3 IRF530

A + _ +

B _

33 VCC U1
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 P1B0T2 P1B1T2EX P1B2 P1B3 P1B4 P1B5MOSI P1B6MISO P1B7SCK RST P3B0RXD P3B1TXD P3B2INT0 P3B3INT1 P3B4T0 P3B5T1 P3B6WR P3B7RD XTAL2 XTAL1 GND VCC P0B0AD0 P0B1AD1 P0B2AD2 P0B3AD3 P0B4AD4 P0B5AD5 P0B6AD6 P0B7AD7 EAVPP ALEPROG PSEN P2B7A15 P2B6A14 P2B5A13 P2B4A12 P2B3A11 P2B2A10 P2B1A9 P2B0A8 40 38 39 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21

6 V1 12 V Q4 IRF530 37 R1 100 4 R3 10k 19 Q5 IRF530 24

5V VCC 36

R14 500 38

V7
1 11

R15

V6
1 12

U5

4 20

U4

4 15

9V 22 39

500 R5 10k 2 PS2561-1

9V

PS2561-1

8051 R16 500


2 3

R17 V8
1 13

V9
1 16

17 9 R6 10k 25 V2 12 V Q1 IRF530 0 500 Q6 IRF530

U7

4 26

U6

4 23

9V

9V

PS2561-1

R7 10k 28

PS2561-1 40

41

Q7 IRF530 R18
1 21

Q8 IRF530 R19 V11 27 1


2

U8

V10 4 29
3

U9

4 32

18 R9 10k 34

500 0 2 PS2561-1

9V 31

R8 10k

500
3

9V

PS2561-1

The 3rd and 5th order harmonics eliminated, two-level cascaded inverter is successfully implemented in hardware. It is giving the expected output. It is well suited for dc-ac conversion from batteries, fuel cells and solar cells. Compared to other multilevel inverter topologies, it requires least no of components. Since the circuit for all the levels are same, optimized circuit layout and packaging are possible. This two-level inverter has only 8 transitions in each cycle, but a PWM inverter of same type needs 10 Moreover in each transition only half of the voltage is applied across the MOSFET so switching loss is Thus switching loss is substantially reduced compared to PWM inverters.