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Atomic Structure

Atomic Structure
Content I The nucleus of the atom: neutrons and protons, isotopes, proton and nucleon numbers II Electrons: electronic energy levels, ionisation energies, atomic orbitals, extranuclear structure Learning Outcomes: identify and describe protons, neutrons and electrons in terms of their relative charges and relative masses deduce the behaviour of beams of protons, neutrons and electrons in electric fields describe the distribution of mass and charges within an atom deduce the numbers of protons, neutrons and electrons present in both atoms and ions given proton and nucleon numbers (and charge) describe the contribution of protons and neutrons to atomic nuclei in terms of proton number and nucleon number

Atomic Structure
distinguish between isotopes on the basis of different numbers of neutrons present describe the number and relative energies of the s, p and d orbitals for the principal quantum numbers 1, 2 and 3 and also the 4s and 4p orbitals. describe the shapes of s and p orbitals state the electronic configuration of atoms and ions given the proton number (and charge) explain and use the term ionisation energy explain the factors influencing the ionisation energies of elements explain the trends in ionisation energies across a Period and down a Group of the Periodic Table (see also Section 9) deduce the electronic configurations of elements from successive ionisation energy data interpret successive ionisation energy data of an element in terms of the position of that element within the Periodic Table

ELEMENT
Pure substances that contain atoms of only one type.

Daltons Atomic Theory

John Dalton (1766 1844)


All matter is composed of atoms Atoms cannot be made or destroyed All atoms of the same element are identical Different elements have different types of atoms Chemical reactions occur when atoms are rearranged Compounds are formed from atoms of the constituent elements.

1898

J. J THOMPSON

Discovered atoms could sometimes eject a


far smaller negative particle which he called an ELECTRON Introduced Plum-pudding model whereby the electron (plums) are embedded in a sphere of uniform positive charge.

1910

Ernest Rutherford

Rutherfords new evidence allowed him to propose a more detailed model with a central nucleus. He suggested that the positive charge was all in a central nucleus. With this holding the electrons in place by electrical attraction

1913

Niels Bohr

Bohr refined Rutherford's idea by


adding that the electrons were in orbits. Each orbit only able to contain a set number of electrons.

Internal Structure of Atom


Atoms are made up of three main particles: Neutron, electron, and proton. These main parts are each made up of smaller particles . - Quarks, lepton

Internal Structure of Atom


Properties of the electron, proton, neutron
Particle Electron Proton Neutron Mass (g) 9.10939x10-28 1.67262x10-24 1.67493x10-24 Symbol eP n Mass (amu) 0.00055 1.00728 1.00866 Charge (e) -1 +1 0

1 unit of mass is 1.661 x 10-27 kg Every atom has nearly all of its mass concentrated in the nucleus.

The behaviour of protons, neutrons and electrons in electric fields


What happens if a beam of each of these particles is passed between two electrically charged plates - one positive and one negative? Opposites will attract.
Protons are deflected on a curved path towards the negative plate. Electrons are deflected on a curved path towards the positive plate.

Neutrons continue in a straight line.

Proton Number and Nucleon Number


An element (atom) is characterized by its: Proton number (Z) The number of protons in a nucleus The atomic number of an element is what distinguishes it from all other elements Nucleon number (A)

Total number of protons and neutrons in a nucleus

nucleon number

proton number

A Z

Determine the number of subatomic particles in the following:


Cl has a nucleon number of 35 and proton number of 17 p+ = 17, no = 18, e- = 17
Cl- = ? K has a nucleon number of 39 and proton number of 19 p+ = 19, no = 20 e- = 19

K+ = ?

Isotopes
Isotopes have the same number of proton and electron but different number
of neutron. Example : Hydrogen has 3 naturally occurring isotopes.

Electron Arrangements Within Atoms


Electrons move rapidly in the space about an atoms nucleus.

The space is divided into subspaces called shells, subshells,


and orbitals.

SHELLS (n)

SUBSHELLS (l)
ORBITALS (ml)

Electron Shells
Principal quantum number, n = 1,27

As the value of n increases:


the energy increases the average distance of the electron from the nucleus increases Number of electrons in shell = 2n2
Shell 1 = 2(1) 2 = 2 electrons Shell 2 = 2(2) 2 = 8 Shell 3 = 2(3) 2 = 18

Electron Subshells
Energy sublevels within energy level All electrons in a subshell have the same energy Designated s, p, d, f .. Sublevel energy: s<p<d<f

Shell n=4 n=3 n=2 n=1

Subshell 4s, 4p, 4d, 4f 3s, 3p, 3d 2s, 2p 1s

Electron Orbital
Electron orbitals are regions within the atom where electrons have the highest probability of being found. Each orbital can accommodate 2 electrons. s subshell = 1 orbital p subshell = 3 orbitals d subshell = 5 orbitals

s orbitals

1s

2s

3s

Three p Orbitals

Electron Configuration
List of subshells containing electrons Written in order of increasing energy Superscripts give the number of electrons

Example: Electron configuration of neon


number of electrons

1s2
main shell

2s2

2p6
subshell

Subshell Order
Subshell energy order (building-up order) Based on mnemonic diagram 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s 4d 5p 6s 4f 5d

Writing Electron Configurations


H He 1s1 1s2

Li
C S

1s2
1s2 1s2

2s1
2s2 2s2 2p2 2p6 3s2 3p4

Electron configuration of Transition Elements


ELEMENT K Ca Sc ELECTRONS 19 20 21 CONFIGURATION IN 4S AND 3D ORBITALS 4s1 4s2 4s2 3d1

Ti
V Cr Mn

22
23 24 25

4s2 3d2
4s2 3d3 4s1 3d5 4s2 3d5

Fe
Co Ni Cu

26
27 28 29

4s2 3d6
4s2 3d7 4s2 3d8 4s1 3d10

30

4s2 3d10

ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION OF IONS


Positive ions (cations) are formed by removing electrons from atoms

Negative ions (anions) are formed by adding electrons to atoms


Electrons are removed first from the highest occupied orbitals (EXC. transition metals)

SODIUM

Na Na+

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1 1s2 2s2 2p6

1 electron removed from the 3s orbital

CHLORINE

Cl
Cl

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p5


1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6

1 electron added to the 3p orbital

ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION OF IONS


FIRST ROW TRANSITION METALS
Despite being of lower energy and being filled first, electrons in the 4s orbital are removed before any electrons in the 3d orbitals. TITANIUM Ti Ti+ Ti2+ Ti3+ Ti4+ 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d2 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s1 3d2 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d2 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d1 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6

Sublevel Blocks

Electron Configuration
Aufbau Principle: orbitals fill in order of increasing energy from lowest energy to highest energy Pauli Exclusion Principle: only two electrons can occupy an orbital and their spins must be paired Hunds Rule: when orbitals of equal energy are available but there are not enough electrons to fill all of them, one electron is added to each orbital before a second electron is added to any one of them

Orbital Diagram
Notation shows how many electrons in each of the orbitals in subshell order in an atom. Electron spin is denoted by arrows () pointing up or down direction. Singly occupied orbital Fully (doubly) occupied orbital

Orbital Diagram
Ca
Atomic number, Z = 20 Number of electrons = 20 Electron configuration (ground state): 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 Orbital diagram

1s

2s

2p

3s

3p

4s

Ionisation Energy
The amount of energy required to completely remove an electron from a gaseous atom. Removing one electron makes a +1 ion. The energy required is called the first ionization energy.

X(g) + energy X+ + eExample:

Successive ionisation energies

e IE1

M+

M2+

IE2

e IE3

M3+

IE3 > IE2 > IE1

Factors Affecting Ionization Energy


1) The size of the nuclear charge - The larger the nuclear charge, the greater the ionization energy. 2) Distance of outer electrons from the nucleus - The greater the distance between the nucleus and the outer electrons of an atom, the less the ionization energy. 3) Shielding effect of inner electrons - The greater the shielding effect, the less the ionization energy.

He

Ne
Ar Kr

First Ionization energy

Li Na K Rb

Atomic number

Ionization Energies (kJ/mol)


Element
Na
Mg Al Si P S Cl

1st
498
736 577 787 1063 1000 1255

2nd
4560
1445 1815 1575 1890 2260 2295

3rd
6910 7730 2740 3220 2905

4th
9540 10,600 11,600 4350 4950

5th
13,400
13,600 15,000 16,100 6270 6950 6560

6th
16,600
18,000 18,310 19,800 21,200 8490 9360

3375
3850 3945

4565
5160 5770

Ar

1519

2665

7320

8780

Shaded area on table denotes core electrons.