Tilapia Aquaculture – An Overview

:
Harvest, Processing, Marketing in US and Mexico

University of Arizona, Professor World Aquaculture Society, Immediate Past-President American Tilapia Association, Sec./Tres.

Kevin Fitzsimmons

Pablo Gonzalez Alanis
Universidad Autonoma de Tamaulipas, Professor World Aquaculture Society, Student Liaison Program Coordinator, Aquaculture TIES

Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico
1ero Dec, 2005

Tilapia aquaculture
3 Second

most important farmed fish after the

carps 3 Most widely grown of any farmed fish 3 In 2003 became the eighth most popular seafood in the US 3 In 2004 moved up to sixth most popular seafood in the US

Pre-processing steps
3 Hatchery

and Growout 3 Check for off-flavor 3 Harvest techniques 3 Depuration 3 Transport to processor

Quality Control begins on the Farm
3 Farmer

must remember that many actions during growout can affect final product quality and marketing 3 For example: some markets will not accept any hormone used on fish. 3 So sex-reversed fish may not be sold to these customers 3 “Organic” markets have whole set of requirements

Important on-farm management issues affecting markets
3 Sex-reversal

(yes or no) 3 Feed supply (lowest cost, highest quality, organic) 3 Algae control to avoid off-flavor 3 In salt water, control parasites that might scar skin or impact fillet 3 Bird control (environmental issue, loss of stocks, vector for parasites and disease)

Decisions before harvest
Who will buy the fish? 3 Who will harvest the fish? 3 Is flavor of fish acceptable? 3 Testing by cooking fillet in paper bag in microwave oven. Trained taster needed. 3 Will depuration be needed? (at farm or processing plant) 3 How many days and who will test? 3 Fish should be transported live to processing site!
3

Transport to processing plant
3

Best to transport live

3

May want to add salt to reduce stress and maintain quality

Processing steps
Processing line 3 Bleeding / chilling stage 3 Scale removal 3 Deheading 3 Evisceration 3 Fillet 3 Skinning 3 Trimming
3

Processing steps
3
3 3 3

Processing line
Hand cutting, machine cutting, or mix Most plants use a mixture of machine and hand Need to make these basic decisions before starting plant. Decide when and how to kill fish. (Chill, electric shock, bleeding or cutting head) Before or after bleeding. Bleed better before chilling. Stay more fresh with faster chilling Some prefer to kill before bleeding

3

3 3 3 3

Processing steps
3
3

Scale removal
Most processors use rotating drum de-scalers

3
3

Deheading
Most use food grade band saw Some still cut by hand Handlers should use chain mail gloves

3 3

Evisceration, by hand or vacuum
3

Hand evisceration – less investment, no equipment to malfunction or maintain Vacuum – less labor, waste is concentrated in collection tank, less mess on line

3

Removal of skin, by hand or machine

Skinners
3

3

Most plants use automated skinning Most markets are requiring deep skinning, leaving more flesh on the skin

Removal of pin bones and trimming
3

Fillets have small bones that must be removed for international markets Buyers are requesting better trim of margins of fillets for more consistent appearance

3

Treatments, value-addition and packaging
Ozonated water baths 3 Carbon dioxide and Liquid Smoke 3 Freezing 3 Packaging 3 Multi-function machines 3 By-products
3

Processing - bacterial testing
3

3

3

Samples should be checked for bacterial contamination Follow HACCP procedures and EU guidelines Many plants are using ozone dips to reduce surface bacteria

Processing - fillet line
Blow drying fillets Application of either: “liquid smoke” or some other kind of preservative.

Carbon monoxide (also called liquid smoke)
3

CO infuses into fillet and reacts with myoglobin

3

Fillet maintains fresh appearance for longer period

Carbon monoxide
3

3

Most plants in China appear to use carbon monoxide Some gas in chambers others infuse in bags before freezing

Individual bags for frozen fillets

Vacuum sealing

Many forms of packaging

IQF Fillets in re-sealable packages

New product forms
Sashimi grade tilapia Smoked tilapia
Hickory Smoked

Review-Rapid advances in processing and quality assurance steps
Depuration stage 3 Bleeding step 3 Deep skinning 3 Additional trimming 3 Ozone dips 3 Improved packaging 3 Value added product forms 3 Faster delivery
3

Mexico - 100,000 - 110,000 mt
Tilapia-shrimp farm in Sonora Pond Tilapia farm in Tamaulipas

metric tons per year

1,000,000

100,000

200,000

300,000

400,000

500,000

600,000

700,000

800,000

900,000

0 China Egypt Philippines Mexico Thailand Taiwan Brasil Indonesia Colombia Cuba Ecuador Vietnam Costa Rica Honduras United States Others

World Tilapia Production of 2,002,087 mt in 2004

Mexican Consumption of Tilapia
110,000,000 kg ≈ one kg/per capita/year 3 US consumption ≈ 0.3 kg/capita/year 3 Most Mexican consumption is domestic, few imports from China
3

Tilapia production in Mexico
Production in most states of Mexico 3 Most production in southern states 3 Veracruz has greatest production 3 Intensive in north, lake ranching in south 3 Repopulation of reservoirs 3 Problem with FAO definition of aquaculture 3 Tilapia-shrimp polyculture in seawater
3

Markets in Mexico
3 Strong

domestic markets; on ice, fillets in grocery stores 3 All domestic consumption – Exports are minimal.

Raceway system

Live markets in Mexico
Live markets (≈ 30 pesos/kg) 3 Established live markets in Guadalajara and Mexico City 3 Need to develop live markets in other cities (Asians are first customers) 3 May need to provide live tanks to retailers (allows you to exclude competitors)
3

Fresh product markets in Mexico
Regional and local markets (15-20 pesos/kg) 3 Wide recognition across Mexico 3 110,000 MT annual consumption 3 Virtually zero exports, this is a prime opportunity
3

Frozen product markets in Mexico
Strong markets (10-15 pesos/kg) 3 Established channels for processing and distribution 3 Problem with frozen imports from China 3 Should be a temporary problem as costs rise in China and transportation costs increase 3 (Of course future change in costs in China does not help tilapia farmer in Mexico today)
3

Global Tilapia Sales
3For

year 2000 3US $ 1,706,538,200
(FAO Fisheries Circular No. 886)

32005

sales >$ 3,000,000,000 32010 sales >$ 5,000,000,000

Top Ten Seafoods (U.S.)
per capita (lbs)
2000 Tuna Shrimp Pollock Salmon Catfish Cod Clams Crabs Flatfish Scallops Tilapia 2001 2002 3.5 Shrimp 3.4 Shrimp 3.2 Tuna 2.9 Tuna 1.6 Salmon 2.0 Salmon 1.5 Pollock 1.2 Pollock 1.1 Catfish 1.1 Catfish 0.8 Cod 0.6 Cod 0.5 Clams 0.5 Crabs 0.4 Crabs 0.4 Clams 0.4 Flatfish 0.4 Tilapia 0.3 Tilapia 0.35 Flatfish 0.28

2004 (est) 2003 3.7Shrimp 4.0 Shrimp 4.2 3.1Tuna 3.4 Tuna 3.4 2.0 Salmon 2.2 Salmon 2.2 1.1 Pollock 1.7 Pollock 1.7 1.1Catfish 1.1 Catfish 1.1 0.7 0.7 Cod 0.6 Tilapia 0.6 Crabs 0.6 Cod 0.6 0.54 Crabs 0.5 Tilapia 0.6
0.4Clams 0.3 Scallops 0.5 Clams 0.3 Scallops

0.5 0.3

US Tilapia Aquaculture
9,200 mt per year (20,000,000 lbs) 3 California is largest producer 3 ID, NC, FL, TX, AZ, NY,PA, MA are also significant producers 3 Virtually all tilapia in US for live sales 3 Asian groceries and restaurants are primary market outlets
3

Nutritional quality contributes to popularity
3 USDA

has completed a complete highly technical nutritional analysis. Now is preparing nutritional report on tilapia for the general public 3 New USDA “Pyramid” guidelines further support frequent fish consumption

Nutritional quality of tilapia contributes to popularity
Moderate in PUFA’s: 0.387 g/100g raw 0.600 g/100g cooked 3 Moderate omega 3 FA’s: 0.141 g/100g raw 0.220 g/100g cooked Source – USDA- ARS Lab
3

Low in mercury: Tilapia = 0.01 ppm Shark = 0.99 ppm Source FDA http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~frf/sea-mehg.html
3

US market development
The LAND opens at EPCOT in 1983 – features tilapia culture and on menu in the Good Turn Restaurant 3 Farms in ID, CA, FL & AZ begin sales to Asian stores and restaurants 3 Farms in Colombia, Costa Rica, Jamaica Taiwan, and Indonesia begin imports
3

Market evolution in US
3 Ethnic

buyers (Asians, Latino & African) 3 Live markets 3 Up-scale restaurants 3 Casual dining 3 Club stores and hypermarkets 3 Local groceries

US Consumption of tilapia from domestic and imported sources
250,000
Tilapia (000's of kg of live weight)

200,000 150,000 100,000 50,000 0 1990 1992 1993 1995 1996 1998 1999 2000 2002 2004 1991 1994 1997 2001 2003

Domestic Imports

US Tilapia consumption 412,148,000 lbs (187,000 mt) of live weight-2003 504,716,000 lbs (229,000 mt) of live weight-2004
250,000 200,000 Metric tons 150,000 100,000 50,000 0

1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004

19,480 mt fresh fillets, 36,160 mt frozen fillets, 57,2990 mt whole frozen (2004)
Tilapia product forms imported to the U.S.
120,000 100,000

80,000

Metric tons

Whole Frozen 60,000 Fillet Frozen Fillet Fresh

40,000

20,000

0 1992 1993 1994 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2004 1995 2003

$174,215,165 (2002)

$241,205,610 (2003) $297,413,000 (2004) $
Value of Tilapia product forms imported to the U.S. Value of Tilapia product forms imported to the U.S. 2002

352,305,388 (est 2005)

$200,000,000 $450,000,000 $180,000,000 $400,000,000 $160,000,000 $350,000,000 $140,000,000 $300,000,000 $ US $ US $120,000,000 $250,000,000 $100,000,000 $200,000,000 $80,000,000 $150,000,000 $60,000,000 $100,000,000 $40,000,000 $50,000,000 $0 $20,000,000 1992 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2001 2002 1993 2000 $0 1993 Fillet Fresh 2003 2004 est 2005 Whole Frozen Whole Frozen Whole Frozen Fillet Frozen Fillet Frozen Fillet Fresh Fillet Fresh

Fillet Frozen

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

US Sales of tilapia
3 Imports

in 2004 were $297,413,261 3 US production of $40,000,000 at farm 3 2004 Total US tilapia sales were over

$337,000,000 3 2005 Sales estimate – $176,152,694 (Jan-June imports) *2= $352,305,388 + $40,000,000 =

$392,000,000

Current US Market Trends
3 Increase

in demand for all forms of

tilapia 3 Demand increase will be greatest for fresh fillets 3 Demand increase will be smallest for live tilapia

Tilapia the “Green” farmed fish
Herbivore / omnivore, low trophic level feeder 3 Algae, bacteria, and detritus are important food sources 3 Prepared feeds are mostly grains and ag byproducts 3 Can be reared in high densities, with low water exchange 3 Disease resistant and tolerant of poor water quality. Anti-biotics and chemicals are rarely used.
3

The “environmental” fish
Promoted by aid agencies and NGO’s 3 Dr. M. Gupta wins World Food Prize for promotion of tilapia aquaculture, June 10, 2005 3 Does not prey on other species 3 Often used in integrated farming systems 3 Frequently reared in reservoirs and irrigation systems with effluents used for irrigation, reducing fertilizer applications
3

Tilapia Market Trends
Prices have been constant or trending down for several years, will not increase with inflation
7

6

5

4

$/kg

3

2

F reshfillet F enfillet roz W ole h Liv e

1

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

0

Metric tons

1,000,000

1,500,000

2,000,000

2,500,000

3,000,000

500,000

0 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994
Year

Aquaculture

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 (est.) 2006 (est.)

Global aquaculture production of tilapia
Fishery

Advertising at all levels

Advertising

Cooking contests and gastronomic festivals

Tilapia by-products
3Leather

goods from skins 3Pharmaceuticals from skins 3Formed fish products 3Fertilizer 3Fish meal

Tilapia Leather

Flowers made from Tilapia scales

Future global tilapia production
3,000 Metric tons (000) 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 2003 2010 2002 2004 2005 2006 0

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