Tools For System Analysis & Design

Flow Charts
• • • • • • John Von Neumann in 1945 Provide communication Provide an overview Check logic Facilitate programming Provide Documentation

Flowchart Basics
• 2 types of flowchart
– System flowchart-used by analysts to describe data flow. They show origin of data, filling structure, processing to be performed and the output to be generated. – Program flowchart- used by programmers to plan the program structure. – Basic Symbols – Specialized Input/Output Symbols – Specialized Process Symbols

• American National Standards Institute groups the symbols in 3 categories

Usage
• Basic symbols are used throughout the charting conventions • Specialized input/output symbols are most often used in system flowcharts, where there is a need of showing h/w and media • Specialized process symbols are most often used in program flowcharts

Basic Symbols
Input/Output Process

Flow Comments, Remarks, Notes

Specialized Input/Output Symbols
Punch Card Manual Input

Magnetic Tape

Display

Direct Access Storage

Communication Link Offline Storage

Document

Online Storage

Specialized Process Symbols
Decision

Predefined Process

Manual Storage

Connector Termination (Start/Stop)

Data Flow Diagram (DFD)
• • • • • • • To show logical flow of data in the system Context or 0 level Level 1 Level 2 …………. ………… Level n

Basic Symbols
External Entities
• • • • • • • • • • • • Organizations, departments, persons other systems Originate input or receive output May be duplicated Transform inputs to output Represent manual or automated activities Must have atleast one input and one output data flow May be numbered Store data between processes Must be connected only to processes (by data flows) Must have atleast one input and one output data flow May be duplicated Represents transfers of data among entities, processes, and data stores Arrows represent direction of flows Must be labeled to describe data being transferred

Process

or

Process

Data Store

Data Flow

• •

Context Diagram (0 level DFD)

Customers

Sales Order

Manager

Receipt

Sales Processing System

Sales Results

Level 1 DFD
Managers Customers Selected Results Sales Order
3.0 Perform Sales Analysis

Receipt

1.0 Capture Sales Transactions

Selected Sales Data

Sales Transactions

Sales Analysis File

Sales Transaction File 2.0 Process Sales Transactions

Selected Sales Data

Sales Transactions

Sales Master Records
Old Sales Master File

Update Sales Master Records
New Sales Master File

Level 2 DFD
Sales Order Customers Receipt
1.1 Capture Sales Transactions

Sales Orders

Sales Orders

Sales Order File

1.2 Convert Source Documents

Sales Transactions
Sales Transaction File

Sales Transactions
New Sales Master File

1.3 Sort Transactions

Sorted Sales Transactions

Sorted Sales Transactions

Ford Purchasing System (0 Level DFD)
Order

Material Planning Dept.

Material Requirement

Supplier

Payment

Purchasing System

Invoice

Receiving Dept.

Confirmation of Receipt

Level 1 DFD-Ford Purchasing System
Material Planning Dept. Material Requirement 1.0 Order Material Purchase order

Purchase order P O Details
Purchase orders

2.0 Decide What To Pay

Invoice

Supplier

Receipt confirmations

Receipt Details

Receipt Confirmation

Payment Authorization 3.0 Pay The Supplier Payment

Receiving Dept.

Level 2 DFD-Ford Purchasing System
Material Requirement Material Planning Dept. Supplier Profile 1.1 Identify Qualified Suppliers Material Requirement & Qualified Suppliers 1.2 Negotiate Prices & Delivery Terms Final Price & Delivery Terms For Each Supplier Requested price & delivery terms

Supplier
Offered price & delivery terms

Qualified Suppliers

1.3 Decide Which Supplier To Use Material ordered, Supplier, price & delivery terms

Purchase Order

1.4 Create The Purchase Order

Purchase Order

Receipt confirmations

Entity Relationship Diagrams (ERD)
• Association among different categories of data in an IS • Does not show how data is created, captured, processed, used, transmitted etc. • Various styles; most popular Peter Chen Style

Purpose of ERD
• Registration system for a university? • What kinds of things does this IS collect information about?

• What is the relationship between these entities? (Student can be enrolled in several courses) • What specific information does it collect about each of those things?
– Attributes? (Student: Name, address etc.)

– Entities? (Courses, professors, students etc.)

Peter Chen Style Representation
Customer
Customer ID Name Address Places or Is placed by

Order
Order ID Order date Order price Shipping cost

Item
Item ID Item name Quantity in hand Current price Contains or Is Contained by

James Martin Style Representation

Customer

Places Is Placed By

Order

Is Contained On

Contains

Item

Another Example
Department Offers Course

Belongs to Has

Professor

Teaches

Section

Office

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