PRINCIPLES OF AEROBIC EXCERCISE

Myra LESLIES S. VILORIA

Physical Activity
 As

defined y ACSM and the Centers !f "isease C!ntr!l and #reventi!n $C"C% is any !dy &!ve&ent #r!d'ced y the c!ntracti!n !f s(eletal &'scles that res'lt in a s' stantial increase !ver restin) ener)y e*#endit're.

FI+NESS

a ility t! #erf!r& #hysical ,!r( -!r( re.'ires / A. B. C cardi!res#irat!ry f'ncti!nin)0 &'sc'lar stren)th and end'rance0 and &'sc'l!s(eletal fle*i ility. 1!, d! ,e ec!&e #hysically fit 2 A. B. 'ses lar)e &'scle )r!'#s and challen)e the cardi!res#irat!ry syste&. Activities that can i&#r!ve )eneral fitness 2 ,al(in)0 i(in)0 r'nnin)0 s,i&&in)0 stair cli& in)0 cr!ss c!'ntry s(iin)0 and3!r trainin) ,ith ,ei)hts.

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     

      .i&&in)0 . it is 's'ally &eas're2 A.hen the individ'al has reached &a*i&'& eff!rt.al(in) and r'nnin) "e#endent !n / the trans#!rt !f !*y)en0 !*y)en5 indin) ca#acity !f the l!!d0 cardiac f'ncti!n0 !*y)en e*tracti!n ca#a ilities0 and &'sc'lar !*idative #!tential. lar)e &'scles B. Activities s'ch as / #erf!r&in) an e*ercise that 'ses &any lar)e &'scles )r!'#s s'ch as s.Ma*i&'& O*y)en C!ns'&#ti!n   a &eas're !f the !dy4s ca#acity t! 'se !*y)en It is the &a*i&'& a&!'nt !f !*y)en c!ns'&ed #er &in'te . 1!.

End'rance  Is 6 the a ility t! .!r( f!r #r!l!n)ed #eri!ds !f ti&e and the a ility t! resist fati)'e. M'sc'lar B. ty#es / A. Cardi!vasc'lar .

M'sc'lar End'rance  Refers t! the a ility !f an is!lated &'scle )r!'# t! #erf!r& re#eated c!ntracti!ns !ver a #eri!d !f ti&e. .

Cardi!vasc'lar End'rance  Refers t! the a ility t! #erf!r& lar)e &'scle dyna&ic e*ercises s'ch as .i&&in)0 and3!r i(in) f!r l!n) #eri!ds !f ti&e.al(in)0 s. .

Aer! ic E*ercise +rainin)

Aer! ic e*ercise trainin) !r c!nditi!nin) is a')&entati!n !f the ener)y 'tili7ati!n !f the &'scle y &eans !f an e*ercise #r!)ra&. +he i&#r!ve&ent !f the &'scles a ility t! 'se ener)y is a direct res'lt !f/ increased levels !f !*idative en7y&es in the &'scles0 increased &it!ch!ndrial density and si7e0 and an increased &'scle fi er ca#illary s'##ly

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+rainin)
         

+RAININ85Is de#endent !n e*ercise !f s'fficient / A.F B.I C.+ Pr!d'ces/ A. M'sc'lar B. Cardi!vasc'lar C. individ'al4s end'rance +RAININ85F!r a #artic'lar s#!rt !r event 9ses :::::::: #rinci#le that is0 the individ'al i&#r!ves in the e*ercise tas( 'sed f!r trainin) and &ay n!t i&#r!ve in !ther tas(.

Ada#tati!n

Ada#tati!n5 efficiency !f the cardi!vasc'lar syste& and the active &'scles.
    

Re#resents a variety !f chan)es in the cardi!vasc'lar and &'sc'lar syste& / $PNB% A. Physical B. Ne'r!l!)ical C. Bi!che&ical Is de#endent !n the a ility !f the !r)anis& t! chan)e the trainin) sti&'l's thresh!ld $the sti&'l's that elicits a trainin) res#!nse%.

Is the #ers!n ,ith a l!, level !f fitness has &!re #!tential t! i&#r!ve that the !ne ,h! has a hi)h level !f fitness2 ;es !r N!2 +he hi)her the initial level !f fitness0 the )reater the intensity !f e*ercise needed t! elicit a si)nificant chan)e.

+he need !r de&and f!r !*y)en is deter&ined / A. C.0 . ". arterial !*y)en c!ntent $ l!!d s' strate%0 B. B. he&!)l! in !*y)en diss!ciati!n0 C.My!cardial O*y)en C!ns'&#ti!n        is a &eas're !f the !*y)en c!ns'&ed y &y!cardial &'scle. and c!r!nary l!!d fl!.       . c!llateral circ'lati!n. "e#endent !n / A. c!r!nary artery resistance0 and E.hich is deter&ined y a!rtic diast!lic #ress're0 d'rati!n !f diast!le0 ". the heart rate $1R%0 syste&ic l!!d #ress're0 &y!cardial c!ntractility0 and afterl!ad.

Beca'se the &y!cardial &'scle e*tracts <=> t! <?> !*y)en fr!& the l!!d d'rin) rest0 its &ain s!'rce !f s'##ly d'rin) e*ercise is thr!')h an increase in c!r!nary l!!d fl!.een &y!cardial !*y)en s'##ly and de&and is &aintained d'rin) &a*i&'& e*ercise. In a healthy individ'al0 the alance et.. -hen the de&and f!r !*y)en is )reater than the s'##ly0 &y!cardial ische&ia res'lts.   .

 Refer t! B!* <.h! has had an e*tended0 ac'te illness !r l!n) ter& chr!nic c!nditi!n."ec!nditi!nin)  "ec!nditi!nin)5 !cc'rs .'ently seen in a #atient .6 .ith #r!l!n)ed ed rest0 and its effects are fre.

Ener)y Syste&s0 Ener)y E*#endit're0 and Efficiency .

 B.hen::::::::::::::::::.Ener)y Syste&s  Ener)y Syste&s5 Are &eta !lic syste&s inv!lvin) a series !f i!che&ical reacti!ns res'ltin) in the f!r&ati!n !f aden!sine tri#h!s#hate $A+P%0 car !n di!*ide and .  Aden!sine di#h!s#hate $A"P% and #h!s#hate $P% cells 'se this ener)y f!r :::::::: cr!ss5 rid)e f!r&ati!n . actin0 &y!sin0 c!ntractin)  M'scle  . !f A+P t! #erf!r& &eta !lic activities /  C!nversi!n  A.ater.

Ph!s#ha)en B.S+EM $ PAA%    A.@ MAAOR ENER8. Anaer! ic . Aer! ic C. S.

Ph!s#ha)en0 !r A+P5PC0 Syste&  Ph!s#h!creatine  the  N!  It and A+P are st!red in the 2 che&ical f'el s!'rce2 !*y)en is re.'ired $anaer! ic% syste& #r!vides ener)y f!r/ 2  +he is the &aB!r s!'rce !f ener)y d'rin) the::::: sec!nds !f ::::::::::::: e*ercise .

'ic(0 'rst !f activity is the &aB!r s!'rce !f ener)y d'rin) the::::: sec!nds !f ::::::::::::: e*ercise sec!nds0 intensity  @= .Ph!s#ha)en0 !r A+P5PC0 Syste&  Ph!s#h!creatine  M'scle  the   N! and A+P are st!red in the 2 cell che&ical f'el s!'rce2 !*y)en is re.'ired $anaer! ic% syste& #r!vides ener)y f!r/ 2 Ph!s#ha)en  +he   It Sh!rt0 .

S+EM       8lyc!)n C f'el s!'rce !f ener)y N! !*y)en is re.'ires A+P is resynthesi7ed in &'scle cell By5#r!d'ct !f anaer! ic )lyc!lysis / lactic acid Pr!vides ener)y f!r activity !f &!derate intensity and sh!rt5d'rati!n MaB!r s!'rce !f ener)y fr!& the @= D E=th sec!nd .COL.ANAEROBIC 8L.+IC S.

Fats B. +he syste& #red!&inates !ver the !ther ener)y syste&s after the :::::::::: !f e*ercise. n'& er B. intensity !f the e*ercise O*y)en is re. availa ility B.'ired $aer! ic% A+P is resynthesi7ed in the / &it!ch!ndria !f the cell +he a ility t! &eta !li7e !*y)en and !ther s' strates is related t! A. @= t! E=th sec!nd . 8lyc!)en C. Pr!teins are 'tili7ed relative t! their / $AI% A.Aer! ic Syste&              f'el s!'rces/ $FP8 % A.

B.. C. B. O*y)en is re.Aer! ic Syste&             f'el s!'rces/ A.'ired $aer! ic% A+P is resynthesi7ed in the / +he a ility t! &eta !li7e !*y)en and !ther s' strates is related t! A. B. are 'tili7ed relative t! their / A. +he syste& #red!&inates !ver the !ther ener)y syste&s after the :::::::::: !f e*ercise. .

!r( recr'ited seltectively !r n!t d'rin) e*ercise SLOW TWITCH FAST TWITCH ( TYPE II B ) FAST TWITCH ( TYPE II A ) . "e#endent !n the rate !f .

ith a l!. have a l!. thresh!ld !f activati!n fast c!ntractile res#!nse0 have a l!. . c!ntractile res#!nse0 are rich in &y!)l! in &it!ch!ndria0 have a hi)h !*idative ca#acity and a l!.er. &it!ch!ndria0 have a hi)h )lyc!lytic ca#acity0 and are recr'ited f!r activities re. have characteristics !f !th ty#e I and ty#e IIB fi ers and are recr'ited f!r !th anaer! ic and aer! ic activities. &y!)l! in c!ntent fe. anaer! ic ca#acity0 and are recr'ited f!r activities de&andin) end'rance.'irin) #!. +hese fi ers are s'##lied y s&all ne'r!ns .           a sl!.

Fast5+.   .ith a l!. &y!)l! in c!ntent and fe. thresh!ld !f activati!n Fast5+. anaer! ic ca#acity0 and are recr'ited f!r activities de&andin) end'rance. have a l!.Recr'it&ent !f M!t!r 9nits  Sl!. +hese fi ers are s'##lied y s&all ne'r!ns . t. c!ntractile res#!nse0 are rich in &y!)l! in and &it!ch!ndria0 have a hi)h !*idative ca#acity and a l!.itch fi ers $ty#e IIA% have characteristics !f !th ty#e I and ty#e IIB fi ers and are recr'ited f!r !th anaer! ic and aer! ic activities.er. &it!ch!ndria0 have a hi)h )lyc!lytic ca#acity0 and are recr'ited f!r activities re.'irin) #!.itch fi ers $ty#e I%5 are characteri7ed y a sl!.itch fi ers $ty#e IIB% are characteri7ed y a fast c!ntractile res#!nse0 have a l!.

str!n)er li)a&ents A+P is s'##lied y the :::::::::::: syste&. A+P is s'##lied y the #h!s#ha)en0 aer! ic 0 aner! ic .hich is less than &a*i&'& intensity f!r @5? &in'tes re#eated after rest !r &ild e*ercise !f si&ilar d'rati!n0 &ay devel!# aer! ic #!.er and end'rance ca#a ilities.er. $P% Intense Activity5 lastin) F56 &in'tes re#eated after G &in'tes !f rest !r &ild e*ercise enhances ::::::::: #!.ith lar)e &'scles5 . $AP% Activity .  . S' &a*i&'& intensity5 lastin) 6=5@= &in'tes !r &!re ta*es a hi)h #ercenta)e !f the aer! ic syste& and devel!# end'rance. Anaer! ic A+P is s'##lied y the ::::::::::::::::: and ::::::::::: syste&.F'ncti!nal I&#licati!ns            B'rst !f intense activity5 lastin) !nly sec!nds devel!#s/ $M9SS+EL% A. &'scle stren)th B. str!n)er tend!ns C.

LA% H Pr!d'cti!n !f &!re Car !n "i!*ide .ill ha##en 2 "OMS . ::::::::% $CO. d!es !'r !dy res#!nse t! e*ercise 2 $ #hysi!l!)ically %  Ra#id ener)y re.ill &a(e the tiss'e $ Al(aline !r Acidic% -hy 2 Acid!tic +iss'e 0 eca'se !f increase !ndin) !f 1ydr!)en I!ns If end #r!d'cts are n!t re&!ve .'ire&ents C circ'lat!ry adB'st&ents +! &eet the increase need !f !*y)en and n'trients +! a le t! re&!ve end #r!d'cts &eta !lis& s'ch as 2 $ a:::::::::: .hat .1!.

res#irat!ry C. ne'r!&'sc'lar0 B. +he shift in !dy &eta !lis& !cc'rs thr!')h a c!!rdinated activity !f all the syste&s !f the !dy/ A. &eta !lic0 E. cardi!vasc'lar0 ". h!r&!nal      .

.hat area 2 rati!nale f!r this is increase in . -hat ha##ens d'rin) +he SNS 2 Peri#heral Vas!c!nstrict !r vas!dilate2 vas!c!nstricti!n .Cardi!vasc'lar Res#!nse t! E*ercise  Sti&'lati!n  !f &yelinated and 'n&yelinated fi ers in the s(eletal &'scle inv!lves a sy&#athetic nerv!'s syste& $SNS% res#!nse.hat2 1R H syst!lic l!!d #ress're  Peri#heral  In  n!n e*ercisin) &'scle increase &y!cardial c!ntracti!n  +he  A0  B0I  C.

A direct in!tr!#ic res#!nse !f the SNS increases &y!cardial c!ntractility.  +here  +here . is a decrease in va)al sti&'li as .Cardiac Effects  +he fre.'ency !f sin!atrial n!de de#!lari7ati!n increases as d!es the heart rate.ell as an increase in SNS sti&'lati!n is an increase in the f!rce devel!#&ent !f the cardiac &y!fi ers.

 E.  A l!cally &ediated red'cti!n in resistance in the .  ".Peri#heral Effects  Net  red'cti!n in t!tal #eri#heral resistance5 8enerali7ed vas!c!nstricti!n !cc'rs that all!. net.  C.!r(in) &'scles0 (idney liver0 s#leen0 and s#lanchnic area t! the .  B. .!r(in) &'scle arterial vasc'lar ed0 inde#endent !f the a't!n!&ic nerv!'s syste&0 is #r!d'ced y &eta !lites s'ch as M)6 ⁺0 Ca6 ⁺0 A"P and PCO₂.!r(in) &'scles.s l!!d t! e sh'nted fr!& the / A.

thr!')h the .!r(in) &'scle0 and increase in the c!nstricti!n !f the ca#acitance vessels !n the ven!'s side !f the circ'lati!n in !th the .!r(in) and n!n .ith a res'ltant increase in str!(e v!l'&e0 heart rate0 l!!d fl!.-hat &a(es the #eri#heral ven!'s #ress're increase2  Increased  in &y!cardial c!ntractility0 .!r(in) &'scles0  an .

Increased &'scle &eta !lis& d'rin) e*ercise res'lt in &!re O6 e*tracted fr!& arterial l!!d0 res'ltin) in an increase in ven!'s PCO6 and 1J 0 an increase in !dy te&#erat're0 increased e#ine#hrine0 and increase sti&'lati!n !f rece#t!rs !f the B!ints and &'scles.    . .-hat are the Res#irat!ry Res#!nse t! E*ercise   8as e*chan)e $O60 CO6% increases acr!ss the alve!lar5ca#illary &e& rane y the first !r sec!nd reath.

E Bar!rece#t!r refle*es0 #r!tective refle*es0 #ain0 e&!ti!n and v!l'ntary c!ntr!l !f res#irati!n &ay als! c!ntri 'te t! the increase in res#irati!n -hat ha##ens d'rin) diff'si!n !f )ases acr!ss ca#illary alve!lar &e& rane2 Alve!lar ventilati!n -hat is rati!nale !f increase alve!lar ventilati!n 2 increase F=56= f!ld d'rin) heavy e*ercise t! s'##ly the additi!nal !*y)en needed and e*crete the e*cess CO6 #r!d'ced     . B. ". C.Other fact!rs that can increase t! res#irat!ry res#!nses       A.

+he increase !f red l!!d cells 60@5di#h!s#!)lycerate $"P8% #r!d'ce the )lyc!sis d'rin) e*ercise als! c!ntri 'tes t! the enhanced release !f !*y)en    . +he #r!d'cti!n !f &!re CO6 ca'ses the tiss'e t! ec!&e acid!tic $the hydr!)en i!n increases% and the te&#erat're !f the tiss'e t! increase.!r(in) &'scle As the #artial #ress're !f !*y)en decreases0 the 'nl!adin) !f !*y)en fr!& he&!)l! in is facilitated.Res#!nses Pr!vidin) Additi!nal O*y)en t! M'scle  A decrease !f the l!cal tiss'e PO6 !cc'rs eca'se !f 'se !f &!re !*y)en y the .

Fact!rs in O*y)en C!ns'&#ti!n     Vasc'larity !f the &'scle Fi er distri 'ti!n N'& er !f &it!ch!ndria O*idative &it!ch!ndrial en7y&es #resent in the fi er  is the difference et.een the !*y)en c!ntent !f arterial and ven!'s l!!d2 Atri!ven!'s !*y)en difference  .

 +he . ca#acity !f the individ'al t! trans#!rt and 'tili7e !*y)en is reflected in the !*y)en '#ta(e.+estin) as a Basis f!r E*ercise Pr!)ra&s  Re)ardless !f the ty#e !f testin)0 the level !f #erf!r&ance is ased !n the s' &a*i&'& !r &a*i&'& !*y)en '#ta(e $VO6 &a*% !r the sy&#t!&5li&ited !*y)en '#ta(e.

+his &eas'res c!rrelate . tre"dmill !t"%e!0 .ell .$%en utili1"tion &l"te"u! de!&ite "n incre"!e in (or2lo"d       ./ minute! lon% Electroc"rdio%r"&hic (EC0) monitorin% is #erf!r&ed d'rin) the testin) Ma*i&'& !*y)en '#ta(e can e determined (hen the o. mile! or di!t"nce r"n in 1# minute!.ith the VO6 &a*0 't their 'se is limited to $oun% &er!on! or middle "%ed indi'idu"l! (ho h"'e )een c"re*ull$ !creened or h"'e )een +o%%in% or runnin% *or !ome time M'ltista)e testin) can #r!vide can #r!vide a direct &eas're&ent !f VO6 &a* y analy7in) sa&#les !f e*#ired air +estin) is 's'ally c!&#leted in *our to !i.Fitness +estin) !f 1ealthy S' Bects  Field test f!r deter&inin) the cardi!vasc'lar fitness5 include the time to run 1.hich #r!)ressively increase in s#eed and !r )rade Each sta)e i! -.

 An  Maintainin)  +er&inatin) .Princi#les !f Stress +estin)  Chan)in) the .!r(l!ad y increasin) the s#eed and3!r )rade !f the tread&ill !r the resistance !f the icycle er)!&eter initial . in ter&s !f the individ'al4s antici#ated aer! ic thresh!ld the .!r(l!ad f!r a &in'te !r l!n)er the test at the !nset !f sy&#t!&s !r a defina le a n!r&ality !f the EC8.!r(l!ad that is l!.

!r( ca#acity in (il!)ra&5&eters #er &in'te $()5&3&in% !r the f'ncti!nal ca#acity in ME+s Eval'ate res#!nses t! e*ercise trainin) and3!r #reventive #r!)ra&s Assist in the selecti!n and eval'ati!n !f a##r!#riate &!des !f treat&ent f!r heart disease Increase individ'al &!tivati!n f!r adherin) !r enterin) t! e*ercise #r!)ra&s Is 'sed clinically t! eval'ate .ith a hist!ry !f chest #ain It can als! eval'ate the f'ncti!nal ca#acity !f #atients .ith chr!nic disease      .ith chest sensati!n !r .P'r#!se !f Stress +estin)    1el# esta lish dia)n!sis !f !vert !r latent heart disease Eval'ates cardi!vasc'lar f'ncti!nal ca#acity "eter&ines the #hysical .ith #atients .

-hat are the Pre#arati!n f!r Stress +estin)2  1ave  Be had a #hysical e*a&inati!n &!nit!r y EC8 and cl!sely ! served at rest0 d'rin) e*ercise and d'rin) rec!very a c!nsent f!r&  Si)n .

-hen d! ,e need t! +er&inate stress +estin)2
 

Pr!)ressive An)ina A si)nificant dr!# in syst!lic #ress're in res#!nse t! an increase ,!r(l!ad Li)htheadedness0 c!nf'si!n0 #all!r0 cyan!sis0 na'sea !r #eri#heral circ'lat!ry ins'fficiency A n!r&al EC8 res#!nse incl'din) S+ se)&ent de#ressi!n )reater than G&& E*cessive rise in l!!d #ress're S' Bect ,ishes t! st!#

 

"eter&inants !f an E*ercise Pr!)ra&
 Effective

end'rance trainin) f!r any #!#'lati!n &'st #r!d'ce a c!nditi!nin) !r cardi!vasc'lar res#!nse. !f the cardi!vasc'lar res#!nse is de#endent !n several critical ele&ents !f e*ercise. y ASCAM and !thers is t! 'se the FI++ &eth!d

 Elicitati!n

 A rec!&&endati!n F I +  +.

Intensity
"eter&inati!n

!f the a##r!#riate intensity !f e*ercise is ased !n the $S=% A. B. S#ecificity 0 Overl!ad

er3)reater2 1i)her 3 )reater2 18          .2 Or hi)her3lesser2 L!. a)e0 and ". level !f activity0 C.individ'al4s level !f health0 B. )ender +he l!. +! i&#r!ve cardi!vasc'lar and &'sc'lar end'rance0 an !verl!ad &'st e a##lied t! these syste& +rainin) sti&'l's thresh!lds are varia le0 de#endin) !n the / A.er the initial level !f fitness0 the lesser the intensity !f the e*ercise needed t! elicit a chan)e.Overl!ad Princi#le  Overl!ad is a stress !n an !r)anis& that is )reater than re)'larly enc!'ntered d'rin) everyday life.

C. ".-h! is the ideal candidate f!r &a*i&'& and e*ercise heart rate #rescri#ti!n 2 A. . B.

.h! are elderly and identified ased !n their #erf!r&ance !n stress  ideally test.ith c!r!nary heart disease0 and individ'als .-h! is the ideal candidate f!r &a*i&'& and e*ercise heart rate #rescri#ti!n 2  individ'als 0  at ris( f!r c!r!nary artery disease individ'als .

i&&in) events0 the individ'al &ay n!t de&!nstrate an i&#r!ve&ent in VO6&a* . M'scle stren)th .hen r'nnin)      .ith!'t a si)nificant increase in t!tal !*y)en c!ns'&#ti!n Aer! ic !r end'rance trainin) . -hen trainin) f!r s.ith!'t trainin) the anaer! ic syste&s Anaer! ic trainin) .er activities and trainin) f!r end'rance activities.hen trainin) f!r stren)th5#!. +here is n! !verla# .ith!'t trainin) the aer! ic syste& Aer! ic trainin) s#ecific t! the ty#e !f activity.S#ecificity Princi#le  S#ecificity #rinci#le is related t! the s#ecificity !f trainin) t! ada#tati!n in &eta !lic and #hysi!l!)ical syste&s de#endin) !n the de&and i&#!sed.

-hen hi)h intensity e*ercise0 F=5F? &in'te e*ercise #eri!ds are ade. A 6=5@= &in'te sessi!n is )enerally !#ti&al at L=> t! <=> &a*i&'& heart rate.+i&e $"'rati!n%      +he !#ti&al d'rati!n !f e*ercise f!r cardi!vasc'lar c!nditi!nin) is de#endent !n the/ A.'ency and C.er the intensity !f the e*ercise0 the l!n)er the d'rati!n needed.'ateK three ? &in'te daily #eri!ds are effective in s!&e dec!nditi!ned #atients   .!r( #erf!r&ed0 B. intensity and fitness level. t!tal . +he )reater the intensity !f the e*ercise0 the sh!rter the d'rati!n needed f!r ada#tati!nK and the l!. e*ercise fre.

hen #r!)ra&s are #lanned t! &eet the individ'als needs and ca#acities !f the #artici#ants.     .+y#e $M!de%  +he i&#!rtant fact!r that the e*ercise inv!lves lar)e &'scle )r!'#s that are activated in a rhyth&ic0 aer! ic nat're. +he s(ill !f the individ'al0 variati!ns a&!n) individ'als in c!&#etitiveness and a))ressiveness and variati!n in envir!n&ental c!nditi!n &'st e c!nsidered. F!r s#ecific aer! ic activity s'ch as cyclin) and r'nnin)0 the !verl!ad &'st 'se the &'scles re. +rainin) enefits are !#ti&i7ed . If end'rance !f '##er e*tre&ities is needed t! #erf!r& activities !n the B! 0 the '##er e*tre&ity &'scle &'st e tar)eted in e*ercise #r!)ra&.'ired y the activity and stress the cardi!res#irat!ry syste& $s#ecific #rinci#le%.

hen the #ers!n ::::::::::::: st!#s trainin) !nly ::::.ee(s !f detrainin)0 si)nificant red'cti!ns in .ithin several &!nths.!r( ca#acity can e &eas'red0 and i&#r!ve&ents can e l!st . .Reversi ility Princi#le  :::::: !cc'rs ra#idly .ee(s  "etrainin)0  After 6 .

ee(0 !r a c!& inati!n !f &!derate and vi)!r!'s intensity. +he @= &in'te t!tal !f &!derate intensity can e acc'&'lated in s&all !'ts !f c!ntin'!'s activity !f at least F= &in'tes   .Clinical +i#  Children a)es L t! F</ L= &in'tes !f &!derate vi)!r!'s aer! ic #hysical activity #er day Ad'lts a)es FM t! L?/ @= &in'tes !f &!derate intensity activity $@5L ME+ level% ? days3.ee( !r 6= &in'tes !f vi)!r!'s intensity activity $NL ME+s% @ days3.

E*ercise #r!)ra&  Caref'lly #lanned e*ercise can res'lt in hi)her level !f fitness f!r healthy individ'al0 sl!.h! have een ill !r have chr!nic disease. are three c!&#!nents !f the e*ercise #r!)ra&/ $F% . the decrease in f'ncti!nal ca#acity !f the elderly0 and rec!nditi!n th!se .ar& '# #eri!d $6% the aer! ic e*ercise #eri!dK and $@% a c!!l d!.n #eri!d  +here .

-ar&5 '# Peri!d +he #'r#!se !f the . .ar& '# #eri!d is t! enhance the n'&er!'s adB'st&ent that4s that &'st ta(e #lace ef!re #hysical activity.

An increase in ven!'s ret'rn. is shifted centrally fr!& the #eri#hery.!r(. Ada#tati!n in the sensitivity !f the ne'ral res#irat!ry center t! the vari!'s e*ercise sti&'lants. An increase need !f !*y)en t! &eet the ener)y de&and f!r the &'scle. +he hi)her te&#erat're increases the efficiency !f &'sc'lar c!ntracti!n y red'cin) &'scle visc!sity and increasin) the rate !f nerve c!nd'cti!n.     . +his !cc'rs as l!!d fl!. "ilati!n !f the #revi!'sly c!nstricted ca#illaries . E*tracti!n fr!& he&!)l! in is )reater at hi)her &'scle te&#erat'res0 facilitatin) the !*idative #r!cess at .Physi!l!)ical Res#!nse  An increase in &'scle te&#erat're.ith increase in the circ'lati!n0 a')&entin) !*y)en delivery t! the active &'scles and &ini&i7in) the !*y)en deficit and the f!r&ati!n !f lactic acid.

.ar& '# als! #revents !r decreases the s'sce#ti ility !f the &'sc'l!s(eletal syste& t! inB'ry and the !cc'rrence !f ische&ic electr!cardi!)ra#hic $EC8% chan)e and arrhyth&ias.P'r#!ses  In additi!n t! the #hysi!l!)ical res#!nse0 the .

ly a heart rate that is .8'idelines  +he .ithin 6= eats3&in !f the tar)et heart rate.ith!'t ca'sin) fati)'e !r red'cin) ener)y st!res.  A F=  Attainin) . &in'te #eri!d !f t!tal !dy &!ve&ent e*ercises0 s'ch as calisthenics and .al(in) sl!.ar&5'# sh!'ld e )rad'al and s'fficient t! increase &'scle and c!re te&#erat're .

  .'ency intensity0 ti&e and ty#e !f #r!)ra& as #revi!'sly disc'ssed has an i&#act !n the effectiveness !f the #r!)ra&. +here are f!'r &eth!d that challen)e the aer! ic syste&K c!ntin'!'s0 interval $. +he &ain c!nsiderati!n .hen ch!!sin) a s#ecific &eth!d !f trainin) i! the inten!it$ )e %re"t enou%h to !timul"te "n incre"!e in !tro2e 'olume "nd c"rdi"c out&ut "nd to enh"nce loc"l circul"tion "nd "ero)ic met")oli!m in the "&&ro&ri"te mu!cle %rou&!.Aer! ic E*ercise Peri!d  Attenti!n t! the deter&inants0 fre.!r( relief%0 circ'it and circ'it interval.

Fe&ale B!dy +y#e .

Male B!dy +y#e .

 +he  +he . Stress is #laced #ri&arily !n the sl!. activity can e #r!l!n)ed fr!& 6=5L= &in'tes .5t. Overl!ad can e acc!&#lished y increasin) the e*ercise d'rati!n.ith!'t e*ha'stin) the !*y)en trans#!rt syste&.C!ntin'!'s +rainin)  Once the steady sta)e is achieved0 the &'scle ! tains ener)y y &eans !f aer! ic &eta !lis&. .itch fi ers.!r( rate is increased #r!)ressively as trainin) i&#r!ve&ents are achieved.

relief interval is either a rest relief $#assive rec!very% !r a .Interval +rainin)  +he .!r( relief $active rec!very%0 and its d'rati!n ran)es fr!& a fe.!r( !r e*ercise is f!ll!.  Interval  +he  A #!rti!n .ith &y!)l! in that . sec!nds t! several &in'tes.ed y a #r!#erly #rescri ed relief !r rest interval trainin) is #erceived t! e less de&andin) than c!ntin'!'s trainin).!r( #eri!d are re#lenished y the aer! ic syste&K an increase in VO6&a* !cc'rs. !f the &'sc'lar st!res !f A+P and !*y)en ass!ciated .ere de#leted d'rin) the .

.

 Several  9se . e*ercise &!des can e 'sed inv!lvin) lar)e and s&all &'scle )r!'#s and a &i* !f static and dyna&ic eff!rt. !f circ'it trainin) can i&#r!ve stren)th and end'rance y stressin) !th the aer! ic and anaer! ic syste&.Circ'it +rainin)  Circ'it trainin) e&#l!ys a series !f activities. At the end !f the last activity0 the individ'al starts fr!& the e)innin) and a)ain &!ves thr!')h the series.

.

Circ'it5 Interval +rainin)  C!& inin) circ'it and interval trainin) is effective eca'se !f the interacti!n !f the aer! ic and anaer! ic #r!d'cti!n !f A+P.  In . additi!n t! the aer! ic and anaer! ic syste& ein) stressed y the vari!'s activities0 .ith the relief interval0 there is a delay f!r the need !f )lyc!lysis and the #r!d'cti!n !f lactic acid #ri!r t! the availa ility !f !*y)en s'##lyin) the A+P.

#!!lin) !f l!!d fr!& the e*tre&ities y c!ntin'in) t! 'se the &'scles t! &aintain ven!'s ret'rn faintin) y increasin) the ret'rn !f l!!d t! the heart and rain as cardiac !'t#'t and ven!'s ret'rn decreases.n Peri!d  Is si&ilar t! the .  Prevents  Prevents .ar&5'# #eri!d in that it sh!'ld last ? t! F= &in'tes and c!nsist !f t!tal !dy &!ve&ents and static stretchin).C!!l5"!.

P1. C1AN8ES ME+ABOLIC C1AN8ES O+1ER S.S+EM C1AN8ES .SIOLO8ICAL C1AN8ES +1A+ OCC9R -I+1 +RAININ8     CAR"IOVASC9LAR C1AN8ES RESPIRA+OR.

Cardi!vasc'lar Chan)es .

ith decreasin) levels in n!re#ine#hrine and e#ine#hrineK A decrease in in l!!d #ress're !cc'rs in s!&e individ'als .ith a decrease in #eri#heral vasc'lar resistance. An increase in l!!d v!l'&e and he&!)l! in.   .Chan)es at Rest  A red'cti!n in the restin) #'lse rate !cc'rs in s!&e individ'als eca'se !f a decrease in sy&#athetic drive0 .

!r(in) &'scle "ecrease l!!d fl!.Chan)es "'rin) E*ercise  A red'cti!n in #'lse rate !cc'rs in s!&e individ'als eca'se !f the &echanis& listed earlier in this secti!n Increase str!(e v!l'&e Increase cardiac !'t#'t Increase e*tracti!n !f !*y)en y . #er (il!)ra& !f the .!r(in) &'scle "ecreased &y!cardial !*y)en c!ns'&#ti!n $ #'lse rate ti&es syst!lic l!!d #ress're%      .

Res#irat!ry Chan)es .

Chan)es at Rest  Lar)er l'n) v!l'&es devel!# eca'se !f i&#r!ved #'l&!nary f'ncti!n0 .  Lar)er .ith n! chan)e in vital v!l'&e. diff'si!n ca#acities devel!# eca'se !f lar)e l'n) v!l'&es and )reater alve!lar5 ca#illary s'rface area.

&a*i&al &in'te ventilati!n is increased.Chan)es "'rin) E*ercise  Lar)er diff'si!n ca#acities !cc'rs f!r the sa&e reas!ns. a&!'nt !f air is ventilated at the sa&e !*y)en c!ns'&#ti!n rateK &a*i&'& diff'si!n ca#acity is 'nchan)ed. efficiency is increased.  A s&aller  +he  Ventilat!ry .

Meta !lic Chan)es .

Chan)es at Rest  M'scle hy#ertr!#hy and increased ca#illary density !cc'rs. &'scle &y!)l! in c!ncentrati!n increases0 increasin) the rate !f !*y)en trans#!rt and #!ssi le the rate !f !*y)en diff'si!n t! &it!ch!ndria .  +he  +he n'& er and si7e !f &it!ch!ndria are increased0 increasin) the ca#acity t! )enerate A+P aer! ically.

It is d'e t! an increase in ca#acity t! &! ili7e and !*idi7e fat and increase fat &! ili7in) and fat &eta !li7in) en7y&es L!.   . Less reliance !n #h!s#h!creatine $PC% and A+P in s(eletal &'scle and an increase ca#a ility t! !*idi7e car !hydrate &ay res'lt eca'se !f an increased !*idative #!tential !f the &it!ch!ndria and an increase )lyc!)en st!ra)e in the &'scle.!r( &ay !cc'r.!r( levels &ay !cc'r.er l!!d lactate levels at s' &a*i&al .Chan)es "'rin) E*ercise  A decreased rate !f de#leti!n !f &'scle )lyc!)en at s' &a*i&'& . An!ther ter& f!r this is )lyc!)en s#arrin).

Other Syste& Chan)es  "ecrease  "ecrease in !dy fat in l!!d ch!lester!l and tri)lyceride heat accli&ati7ati!n levels  Increases  Increase in the rea(in) stren)th !f !nes and li)a&ents and the tensile stren)th !f tend!ns. .

A##licati!n !f Princi#les !f an Aer! ic C!nditi!nin) Pr!)ra& f!r the Patient . .ith C!r!nary "isease  "'rin)  +he the #ast 6= t! 6? years0 there have een &aB!r chan)es in the &edical &ana)e&ent !f these #atients chan)es have incl'ded sh!rtened h!s#ital stays0 &!re a))ressive #r!)ressi!n !f activity f!r the #atient f!ll!.in) MI !r cardiac s'r)ery0 and earlier initiati!n !f an e*ercise #r!)ra& ased !n l!. level stress test #ri!r t! dischar)e fr!& the h!s#ital.

in) sta ili7ati!n !f the #atients cardi!vasc'lar stat's after MI !r c!r!nary y#ass s'r)ery0 and )enerally last @ t! ? days.In#atient Phase $Phase F% +he in#atient #hase !f the #r!)ra& !cc'rs in h!s#ital f!ll!. .

Pre#are #atients and fa&ily f!r c!ntin'ed reha ilitati!n and f!r life at h!&e after cardiac event. +his is 's'ally acc!&#lished y s'#ervised a& 'lati!n.P'r#!se   Inta(e ris( fact!r ed'cati!n $ s'ch eatin) ha its0 s&!(in)% Initiate self care activities and #r!)ress fr!& sittin) t! standin) t! &ini&i7e dec!nditi!nin) $F t! @ days #!stevent%.   . Pr!vide an !rth!static challen)e t! the cardi!vasc'lar syste& $@ t! ? days #!stevent%.

&edical re)i&en.ee(s later.s the &y!cardi'& t! heal as . +his delay all!. +hese #r!)ra&s 's'ally last L t! M . Partici#ants are &!nit!red via tele&etry t! deter&ine heart rate and rhyth& res#!nsesK l!!d #ress're is rec!rded at rest d'rin) e*erciseK and ventilati!n res#!nses are n!ted.O't#atient #hase $Phase 6%  +he !'t#atient #hase !f the #r!)ra& is initiated either '#!n dischar)e fr!& the h!s#ital !r0 de#endin) !n the severity !f the dia)n!sis0 L t! M .ell as ti&e t! &!nit!r the #atient4s res#!nse t! ne.ee(s    .

     . Enhanced cardiac f'ncti!n and red'ce cardiac c!st !f . +he early #art !f the #r!)ra& is referred t! s!&e as Hl!. "eter&ine the effect !f &edicati!ns !n increasin) levels !f activity Relieve an*iety and de#ressi!n Pr!)ress the #atient t! an inde#endent e*ercise #r!)ra&. Pr!d'ce fav!ra le &eta !lic chan)es.P'r#!se  Increase the #ers!n4s e*ercise ca#acity in a safe #r!)ressive &anner0 s! ada#tive cardi!vasc'lar and &'sc'lar chan)es !cc'r.!r(.5levelI e*ercise trainin).

+he e*ercise #r!)ra& is #red!&inantly aer! ic Fre.8'idelines  A sy&#t!&5 li&ited e*ercise stress test is #erf!r&ed L t! F6 .'ency5 #artici#ants !ften attend sessi!ns !ffered three ti&es #er .    . as G=> t! L=> !f the &a*i&'& heart rate !r G=> t! <=> !f the f'ncti!nal ca#acity defined y ME+s.in) dischar)e%.ee(s after h!s#ital dischar)e $!r as early as 6 t! G .ee(s f!ll!. Intensity5 +he initial level !f activity !r trainin) intensity &ay e as l!.ee(.

+y#e5 +he &eth!d !f e*ercise is 's'ally c!ntin'!'s0 'sin) lar)e &'scle )r!'#s0 s'ch as stati!nary i(in) !r .it the #atient d'rin) #hase 6. +he #atient can e*ercise !n each &!dality at defined .n #eri!ds. Each sessi!n 's'ally incl'des M5F= &in'te .al(in).ith e*ercisin) c!ntin'!'sly !n a icycle !r tread&ill. Meth!d5 Circ'it5interval e*ercise is c!&&!n &eth!d 'sed .ar& '# and c!!l d!.!r(l!ad0 c!&#ared .   . +i&e5 +he d'rati!n !f the e*ercise sessi!n &ay e li&ited t! F= t! F? &in'tes at the start #r!)ressin) t! @= t! L= &in'tes as the #atients stat's i&#r!ves.

the tar)et heart rate. Pr!)ressi!n5 Pr!)ressi!n !f the .ith an increase in heart rate and syst!lic l!!d #ress're.  .ithin a sh!rter #eri!d !f ti&e Maintain lactic acid and !*y)en deficit at &ini&'& levels E*ercise at a l!.!r(l!ad !cc'rs .hen there have een three c!nsec'tive sessi!ns $every5!ther5day sessi!ns% d'rin) .!r( E*ercise at hi)her intensity5 fitness &ay i&#r!ve .hich the #ea( heart rate is el!. As a res'lt the #atient can/     Perf!r& &!re #hysical .er rate !f #erceived e*erti!n  -ei)ht +rainin)5 resistive e*ercises sh!'ld n!t #r!d'ce ische&ic sy&#t!&s ass!ciated .

.O't#atient Pr!)ra& $Phase @% 1eart rate and rhyth& are n! l!n)er &!nit!red via tele&etry.

8'idelines  Recreati!nal Activities5  S.hile s.hich inc!r#!rate !th ar&s and le)s.areness !f ische&ic sy&#t!&s .ever0 there is a decreased a.i&&in)5 activities t! &aintain levels )ained d'rin) #hase 6 &ay incl'de .hich is e*cellent if !n level terrain  O'td!!r . hi(in)5 .i&&in)0 es#ecially . 1!.hen the s(ill level is #!!r.

Activities at M ME+s A!))in) a##r!*i&ately ? &iles #er h!'r Cyclin) a##r!*i&ately F6 &iles #er h!'r Vi)!r!'s d!.nhill s(iin) .

ith ar& e*ercise than . Mechanical efficiency ased !n the rati! et.ith le) e*ercise.er .er than .ith le) e*ercises.!r( and cal!ric e*#endit're is l!.!r(l!ad is si)nificantly hi)her f!r ar& e*ercises than f!r le) e*ercises.ith le) e*ercise than .    . O*y)en '#ta(e is at a )iven e*ternal .een !'t#'t !f e*ternal . My!cardial efficiency is l!. My!cardial !*y)en c!ns'&#ti!n $heart rate * syst!lic l!!d #ress're% is hi)her .S#ecial C!nsiderati!n   Ar& e*ercise elicit different res#!nses than le) e*ercises.ith ar& e*ercise.

Ada#tive Chan)es   Increased &y!cardial aer! ic .idenin) the a5V!6 difference Increased str!(e v!l'&e f!ll!.!r(l!ad and0 theref!re0 a )reater heart rate reserve. Increased t!lerance t! a )iven #hysical .in) hi)h intensity trainin) L5F6 &!nths int! the trainin) #r!)ra&.!r(l!ad ef!re an)ina !cc'rs Si)nificantly l!. "ecreased &y!cardial de&and f!r !*y)en Increased &y!cardial s'##ly y the decreased heart rate and #r!l!n)ati!n !f diast!le.er heart rate at each s' &a*i&'& .      .!r( ca#acity Increased &a*i&'& aer! ic !r f'ncti!n ca#acity y #red!&inantly .

A##licati!n !f Aer! ic +rainin) f!r the "ec!nditi!ned Individ'al and the Patient .ith Chr!nic Illness .

"ec!nditi!ned individ'als 0 incl'din) th!se .ith chr!nic illness and the elderly0 &ay have &aB!r li&itati!n in #'l&!nary and cardi!vasc'lar reserves that severely c'rtail their daily activities. .

!r( ca#acity0 .     .hich res'lts fr!& a decrease in . +here is a decrease in !dy &ass0 .!r( F!r s!&e individ'als0 this res'lts in tachycardia al!n) . +here is increased e*creti!n !f 'rinary calci'&0 .'irin) lar)e &'scle )r!'#s.ei)ht earin) sti&'l's critical in &aintainin) !ne inte)rity0 in !ne l!ss !r !ste!#!r!sis0 and in an increased li(elih!!d !f fract're '#!n fallin) eca'se !f !ste!#!r!sis.ith !rth!static hy#ertensi!n0 di77iness and e#is!des !f sync!#e ."ec!nditi!nin)  +here is decrease .hich is a res'lt !f decreased &a*i&'& !*y)en '#ta(e and decreased a ility t! 'se !*y)en and #erf!r& .hich res'lt in decrease &'scle si7e and decreased &'scle stren)th and a ility t! #erf!r& activities re.hen initially atte&#tin) t! stand.hich increase the li(elih!!d !f life5 threatenin) e& !thr!& !lic e#is!des and #r!l!n)ati!n !f the c!nvalescent #eri!d. +here is a decrease in #las&a and l!!d cells0 .

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