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By MUHAMMED SABEER N.A REG.NO.

: WMALMPH005

POST GRADUATE DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS (Accredited by NAAC with A grade) W.M.O ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE MUTTIL-WAYANAD 2011-2013

Matter
-substance or particle having rest mass -substance that makes up all observable physical objects -proton, neutron and electron have both rest mass and volume -quark and leptons having rest mass but no effective size or volume -photons are not matter because neither rest mass nor volume Types of matter - solid, liquid, gas and plasma -Bose-Einstein Condensate, Fermionic Condensate and quark-gluon plasma Types of solids -amorphous solid: coal, glass, plastic, rubber, etc. -crystalline solid: graphite, diamond, NaCl, metallic oxides, etc. -polycrystalline solid: ceramics, metals, etc.

Lattice parameters
-lattice, basis, unit cell

Crystal systems and Bravais lattices

Index system for crystal planes-Miller indices

Plane-spacing equations

Rotational energy Vibrational energy Electronic energy

Introduction
-metal oxides: easy, cheap, safe and environmental friendly synthesis -energy harvesting and storage, photonics, sensors as well as medical and biological applications -ZnO: cheap replacement of Si and GaN, fabrication of transistors, FETs and LEDs, applications in UV/blue optoelectronics, transparent electronics, spintronics, sensors piezoelectric transducers, varistors, and as a transparent conducting electrodes and sunscreen, ointments, facial powders, catalyst, lubricant additives, paint pigments

Introduction
bottom up top down advanced methods : chemical synthesis : film deposition, milling, lithography : sol-gel, precipitation, inert gas condensation, ion sputtering, laser ablation

Precipitation method - for oxides, carbonides, sulphides, selenides, halides synthesis - stoichiometric constituents dissolved to get the stock solution - decomposition of stock solution gives oxide
concentration of solution rate of precipitation reaction temperature annealing temperature : : : : shape shape and size size size and other properties

Chemical reaction
zinc sulfate + ammonium bicarbonate basic zinc carbonate

basic zinc carbonate

calcining

zinc oxide

Stoichiometry
ZnSO4 : 287.54 gm/mol NH4HCO3 : 79.06 gm/mol 1.5 mol/l 2.5 mol/l 86.262 gm for 200ml 39.53 gm for 200ml

Experimental procedure
Cleaning: Tap water, distilled water, acetone, nitric acid.

1. Prepare stoichiometric solutions of reactants


2. Drop by drop mixing of 100ml ZnSO4 and 126ml NH4HCO3 using magnetic stirrer at 45C 3. Filter the white precipitate and washing using centrifuge 4. Drying at 800C for 45 minutes and cool to room temperature 5. Calcining the precipitate at 500C for 1 hour 6. Crushing and powdering , then annealing at two different temperatures 3000C, and 6000C for 3hrs

Introduction
- to understand the structure-property correlation of the material

1. XRD
- interaction of X-rays with plane - diffraction from reflection - particular angle for each plane - high intensity of particular plane

XRD Analysis -crystal structure, lattice parameters, crystallite size, stress analysis

Peak intensity variation due to annealing Peak shift towards lower scattering angle during annealing Peak broadening and narrowing due to crystallite size

2. SEM/EDX
-morphology: shape, mono size, mono shape, mono dispersion -elemental analysis, purity of sample, contaminants

3000C

6000C

3. FTIR
-functional groups

4. UV-VIS
-optical band gap

Blue shift from bulk ZnO, 380nm Annealing ,band gap edge tailoring

CONCLUSION
1. XRD - hexagonal, determined a, c and D - annealing: crystallinity, growth, stress 2. SEM/EDX - spherical, growth, sulphur contaminant 3. FTIR -sulphur contaminant, metal-oxygen vibration 4. UV-VIS - optical band gap 3.4eV

Thank You for Your Attention