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CANADA

Unit Study of Canada For homeschooling families.

National Anthem

"O Canada" was proclaimed Canada's national anthem on July 1, 1980, 100 years after it was first sung on June 24, 1880.

O Canada! Our home and native land! True patriot love in all thy sons command. With glowing hearts we see thee rise, The True North strong and free! From far and wide, O Canada, we stand on guard for thee. God keep our land glorious and free! O Canada, we stand on guard for thee. O Canada, we stand on guard for thee.

All About Canada!


Canada is on the continent of North America. The country stretches from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean. The Arctic Ocean is north and the United States is south. Canada is north of the 49th parallel of latitude. The 49th parallel was chosen as a border from the Great Lakes to the west coast.
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All About Canada!


The second largest country in the world (Russian Federation is the largest) Ten provinces and three Territories Provinces : 1. Alberta (Edmonton) 2. British Columbia (Victoria) 3. Manitoba (Winnipeg) 4. New Brunswick (Fredericton) 5. Newfoundland and Labrador(St. John's) 6. Nova Scotia (Halifax) 7. Ontario (Toronto) 8. Prince Edward Island (Charlottetown) 9. Quebec (Quebec City) 10. Saskatchewan (Regina) Territories : 1. Yukon (Whitehorse) 2. Nunavut (Iqaluit) 3. Northwest Territories (Yellowknife)
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All About Canada


Population 33,212,696 (July 2008 est.) Capital city of Canada Ottawa, Ontario Leader of Canada - Prime Minister Emblem - maple leaf Flag - red and white with a red maple leaf Canada's birthday is on the first of July. Animal - the beaver Motto - "From sea to sea National anthem - "O Canada RCMP (Royal Canadian Mounted Police) the national police force There are six time zones

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The People of Canada

Most of the people live in the southern part of Canada. About 77 percent of Canadians live in cities and towns. The largest cities are Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver. Toronto - 5.5 million Montreal - 3.6 million Vancouver - 2.1 million Canada's two official languages are English and French. More than 9 million Canadians speak French. Ethnic groups includeBritish Isles origin 28% French origin 23% other European 15% North American Indian 2% Other mostly Asian, African, Arab 6%, mixed background 26%

Canada is the home of over a million Aboriginal people. Three Aboriginal groups : First Nations, Mtis and Inuit. Eastern Canada : the Maliseet, Algonquin, Iroquois, Micmac, Huron and Ojibwa. The Plains : Blackfoot, Cree and Assiniboine. Pacific Coast : Kwakiutl, Bella Coola, and Haida. Northern regions : Dene, Tsimshian and Slavey peoples Arctic region : the Inuit

Land and Water


-Canada has the world's longest coastline. There are oceans on three sides - Pacific ( west), Atlantic ( east), Arctic (north). Nearly one-fourth of all the fresh water in the world is in Canada. Glaciers shaped the land and created many lakes (about 2 million lakes). The Mackenzie River ( in the N.W.T. ) is the longest river in Canada. Ships sail inland on the St. Lawrence River (from the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes). Forests cover almost half of Canada. Canada has one-tenth of the world's forests. Mount Logan in the Yukon Territory is Canada's tallest peak at 5,959 metres.

GEOGRAPHY
Canada has six main geographical regions: Appalachian Highland, Canadian Shield, Arctic, Lowlands, Interior Plains, Cordillera

HISTORY
-The

first people were the Aboriginal people. -Explorers and settlers from Western Europe arrived in the 1500s. -Canada was named by the French explorer Jacques Cartier (1535). -The name "Canada" comes from the Huron and Iroquois word "Kanata" meaning "village". -Canada became a country on July 1st, 1867. -The first provinces were Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Ontario and Quebec. -The first prime minister was Sir John A. Macdonald.

RESOURCES
-Forests, plants, animals and fish are some of Canada's renewable resources. -Renewable resources can be replaced by nature. -Canada has 10% of the world's forests. -Minerals, metal, natural gas, and oil are some of Canada's nonrenewable resources. -They cannot be replaced by nature. -Hydroelectric power is sold to the United States. -Canada is one of the largest mining nations in the world. -Over 60 minerals and metals are produced in Canada. -Canada is the third largest diamond producing nation in the world. -Canada is the world's leader in the production of potash and uranium. -There are many different types of farms in Canada: grain farms, vegetable farms, fruit orchards, livestock and dairy farms

There are 42 national parks in Canada. Parks were created to protect the forests, plants and wildlife. Canada has laws to protect the wild animals and plants that are endangered. Hunting, mining and logging are not allowed in parks. The largest park in Canada is Wood Buffalo National Park, in Alberta and the Northwest Territories. It is home of the world's largest bison herd and the only nesting site of the endangered whooping crane. -The oldest National Park is Banff in Alberta. It was created in 1885 as Rocky Mountain Park.

Exports and Transportation


EXPORTS motor vehicles and parts, industrial machinery, aircraft, telecommunications equipment; chemicals, plastics, fertilizers; wood pulp, timber, crude petroleum, natural gas, electricity, aluminum
TRANSPORTATION -The main highway system (completed in 1962) is called the Trans-Canada Highway. It goes from St. John's NFLD to Victoria, B.C. The highway is 7 604 kilometres long. It is the longest national highway in the world. The Dempster Highway in the Yukon territory is the northernmost highway. The major ports are Vancouver, Churchill, Montreal, Quebec City, Halifax and St. John's. The St. Lawrence Seaway allows ocean-going ships to sail inland. The Seaway has twenty-six locks and five canals. The two main freight railway systems are the Canadian National and the Canadian Pacific Railway. VIA railway provides passenger service. Workers began to build the national railroad in 1872. The Canadian Pacific Railway was finished in 1885. Upon completion many settlers were able to travel west. -In 1937 Bombardier invented the first snowmobile.

GOVERNMENT
Democratic system of government Parliament of Canada is in Ottawa, Ontario Parliament consists of House of Commons (elected) and Senate (appointed) Canada has a Prime Minister Canada has a Governor General of Canada

Sports
-The native people of Canada invented the game of lacrosse. -Lacrosse is the national summer sport of Canada. -Ice hockey is the winter national sport of Canada. -Five pin bowling was invented by T.E. Ryan of Toronto in 1909. -Basketball was invented by James Naismith in 1891.

ALBERTA
Quick Facts
-Alberta is one of the three prairie provinces. -It is the fourth largest province. -Saskatchewan is east of Alberta; British Columbia is west. -The Northwest Territories are north of Alberta. -The state of Montana is south. -Alberta was named after Princess Louise Caroline Alberta, fourth daughter of Queen Victoria. -Edmonton (capital city) and Calgary are the largest cities. -Alberta's flower - Wild Rose, tree - Lodgepole Pine, bird - Great Horned Owl, mammal - Rocky Mountain Bighorn Sheep -Alberta's motto - "strong and free". -It is known as Canada's "energy province".

People
Alberta is home to over 3.5 million people.(April, 2007) -The largest cities are Edmonton (capital) and Calgary. -More than half of the people live in these two cities. -Immigrants came from Britain, Western Europe, Eastern Europe, the East and Southeast Asia. -Ethnic backgrounds - British (44 percent), German, Ukrainian, French, Scandinavian, Dutch, and many other countries

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ALBERTA
History
-The first people settled in the area about 8000 years ago. -In the woodland areas the Woodland Cree and Chipewyan tribes hunted moose, caribou and deer, fished and gathered plants and berries. -They used bark canoes to travel up and down the streams. -On the plains the Blackfoot, Blood, and Peigan hunted the bison and lived in tipis. -Anthony Henday ( European explorer and fur trader ) came to Alberta in 1754. -Fur traders built trading posts on the Athabasca River and North Saskatchewan River. -Forts were built to keep law and order. -The First Nations traded furs and received guns, blankets and metal goods. -In 1874 The North-West Mounted Police (NWMP) established their first post in Alberta at Fort Macleod. -Alberta grew when the railroad was built in 1883. -Early settlers were ranchers from England and the United States. -Immigrants came from Ukraine, Germany, Romania and many parts of Europe to farm. -Alberta became a province on September 1, 1905.

Land and Water


-The main rivers are the Peace River, North and South Saskatchewan River, and Athabasca River. -There are icefields in Banff and Jasper National Parks. -The icefields help to fill the rivers. -There are five national parks. -Banff National Park is the oldest national park in Canada. -Wood Buffalo National Park is the home to about 2200 wood buffalo (endangered). -A large mountain range ( Rocky Mountains ) is along the western border. -The badlands ( dry, sandy, rocky area) are in southeastern Alberta. -Northern Alberta is covered with forest and muskeg. -The rest of the province is on a great plain or prairie.

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RESOURCES
-Alberta has oil, natural gas, and coal. -Oil was discovered at Leduc (near Edmonton) in 1947. -It is the main producer of coal in Canada. -Coal was first mined near Lethbridge in 1872. -The province is also the main producer of oil and natural gas in Canada. -Alberta sells the oil, natural gas and coal to other provinces and other countries. -There is also sulfur, silica sand, potash, quartz, thick salt deposits, clay and limestone. -Forests cover over half of Alberta. -There is good soil for growing crops like oats, canola and barley. -The main crop is wheat. Alberta is the second largest producer of wheat in Canada. - Alberta is the only province to produce sugar from sugar beets. -There are many dairy farms and cattle ranches. -There are also poultry, hog and sheep farms. -Most of the beef cattle in Canada are raised on ranches in the southern foothills. AB - 3

CLIMATE
-The foothills receive the most rainfall. -Warm, dry "chinook" winds are produced when air funnels through the Rockies. -Chinook winds sweep down on southern Alberta and raise temperatures in the winter. -Cold arctic air masses bring cool weather in the winter.

PEOPLE AND PLACES

Jasper national parks attracts thousands of tourists. -Calgary stampede has bull riding, calf roping and wagon racing. -Dinosaur Provincial Park is in the badlands. -Historical sites include HeadSmashed-In Buffalo Jump, Rocky Mountain House (fur trade) and the Ukrainian Cultural Heritage Village. -A 9 m. high Ukranian Easter egg is displayed at Vegreville, east of Edmonton. -Figure skater Kurt Browning (born in Caroline, Alberta) won four World Championships. -Tantoo Cardinal (born in Fort McMurray) is a Canadian film and television actress.

-The mountain scenery of Banff and

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BRITISH COLUMBIA
Quick Facts
-B.C. is the most western province in Canada and the third largest. -Alberta is to the east, and the Yukon and Northwest Territories are north . -The Pacific Ocean is to the west. -To the south, B.C. is bordered by three U.S. states - Washington, Idaho and Montana. -There are many islands off the coast that are also part of B.C. -Victoria, the capital city is on Vancouver Island. -Vancouver is the third largest city in Canada. -B.C.'s flower - Pacific Dogwood, bird - Stellar's Jay, tree - Western Red Cedar. -motto - "Splendour without diminishment"

People
-B.C. is the home to over 4.2 million people. (2006) -The largest city is Vancouver. (2.1 million estimated) -The Northwest Coast Native peoples live in B.C. -People came from Britain, Western Europe, East and Southeast Asia, Bangladesh, and Pakistan. -B.C. has the largest Chinese community in Canada. -The top 10 languages spoken are English, Chinese (including Cantonese and Mandarin), Punjabi, German, French, Tagalog, Korean, Spanish, Persian, and Italian. -About 75 percent of the people live in the southwest part of the province.

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HISTORY

LAND AND WATER


-The Fraser River is one of the largest rivers in Canada. -Both the Fraser and the Columbia River flow into the Pacific Ocean. -Ferry boats take people to and from the Islands off the coast. -There are seven national parks -The three main mountain ranges are the Coastal Mountains in the west, the Columbia Mountains in the centre, and the Rocky Mountains in the east. -There are thousands of islands along the coastline,including the Queen Charlotte Islands (north) and the Gulf Islands near the southern end of Vancouver Island.

-The first people to live in BC : Tlingit, Sekani, Haida, Nootka, Chilcotin and Shuswap. -They fished for salmon and seals and hunted deer, bear and elk. -They built large wooden houses and carved totem poles. -(1778) Captain James Cook a British explorer sailed to Vancouver Island. -George Vancouver mapped the coastline (1792 -1794). -Alexander Mackenzie, Simon Fraser and David Thompson explored the interior of B.C. -Fur trading posts were built. -(1857-1858) Fraser Valley Gold Rush brought many people. -B.C. became a province in 1871. -Canadian government promised to build a railway to B.C. -Thousands of Chinese labourers arrived to pan for Gold and to help build the railway. -The Japanese came to work as agricultural labourers and fishermen. -In 1885 the CPR railway reached Vancouver. -British settlers came by train to the west coast.

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Draw a picture showing the climate.

CLIMATE
-The coastal mountains protect the Lower Mainland and the coast from the cold Arctic air masses in the winter. -The mountains along the coast bring the coastal region a lot of rain. -Vancouver and Victoria are warmer in the winter and cooler in the summer than the central areas of the province.

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RESOURCES and INDUSTRIES


-Forestry is the largest industry. Forest covers over half of B.C. -B.C. has the largest and oldest trees in Canada. -B.C.'s mountains, parks and beaches attract many tourists. -Mining is the third largest industy. (copper, coal, gold, silver, zinc, sulphur, asbestos) -B.C. has a large fishing industry (salmon, halibut, clams, cod, crab, oysters, rockfish, shrimp and herring) -Fraser Valley has cattle and dairy farms and farms that grow fruit and flowers. -There are many orchards in the Okanagan Valley. ( apples, cherries, peaches, apricots, and plums) -The province is Canada's second largest generator of hydro electricity. -B.C. is Canada's second largest natural gas producer. -B.C. is the third largest film and television production centre in North America (after New York and Los Angeles). BC - 4

PEOPLE and PLACES


-Emily Carr (1871-1945) - painted the West Coast Aboriginal people -Terry Fox (1958-1981) - tried to run across Canada to raise money for cancer research -Chief Dan George (1899-1981) - actor and poet -Stanley Park in Vancouver Is one of Canada's biggest city parks with an aquarium, gardens, beaches, Trails and totem poles carved out of wood by the native people of the west coast. -The mountains, the coastline and the mild weather attract thousands of tourists. -Tourists come to ski at Whistler Mountain and other ski resorts in B.C. -Okanagan Valley is known for the warm weather, wineries and as a fruit growing region. -Vancouver has Canada's largest port. -Vancouver will host the 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games.

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MANITOBA
Quick Facts
-Manitoba is one of the three prairie provinces in Canada. -It is located in the centre of Canada. -Ontario is to the east and Saskatchewan to the west. -Nunavut and Hudson Bay are north and the United States is south. -"Manitoba" may come from the Cree words "manitou bou" meaning "strait of the Great Spirit". -The name may also come from the Assiniboine Words "mini" and "tobow" meaning "Lake of the Prairie". -About 60 percent of the people live in the capital city of Winnipeg and its suburbs. -The second largest city is Brandon. -flower-Prairie Crocus , tree-White Spruce, bird Great Gray Owl -motto-"Glorious and Free"

THE PEOPLE
-Manitoba is the home of over a million people.(1.2 million October 2008) -Winnipeg is the largest city. About 653,000 people live there. (2007) -Manitoba is home to many Mtis and native peoples. -The native people include Assiniboine and Saulteaux; Northern, Woodland, and Swampy Cree; Chipewyan; and Inuit. -Ethnic backgrounds include British, German, Ukrainian, French, native people, Dutch, and Poles. MAN -1

HISTORY
-The first people to live in Manitoba were the Assiniboine, Cree, Saulteaux, Chipewyan, Ojibwa. -They followed herds of bison and caribou. -Early explorers arrived through Hudson Bay in northern Manitoba. -Hudson's Bay Company (created in 1670) set up fur trading posts along the rivers. -The early settlers were the British and French. -The first British settlement was Red River. -Louis Riel (1844-1885) was an influential Mtis leader. -Riel and his people were concerned about the settlers taking over their land. -Manitoba became Canada's fifth province in 1870. -Red River Cart trails were the first roads. -The railway brought thousands of settlers from eastern Canada and from all over the world. -Many settlers came from Ukraine and Iceland. man - 2

CLIMATE
-In the winter there are often blizzards with strong winds and extreme cold temperatures. -Polar air masses bring very cold air from the Arctic Ocean. -Winnipeg is the coldest major city in Canada.

LAND and WATER -Manitoba is known as the land of 100,000 lakes. -Lake Winnipeg, Lake Winnipegosis and Lake Manitoba are three large lakes. -Lake Winnipeg is the third largest lake in Canada. -The Churchill River, Nelson River and Hayes River flow into Hudson Bay in northern Manitoba. -The Assiniboine, Souris, Winnipeg, and Red Rivers in southern Manitoba drain into Lake Winnipeg. -Forests of pine, hemlock and birch cover northern Manitoba. -The prairie region is in the southern part of the province.
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RESOURCES and INDUSTRIES


-Manitoba lies in the area of Canada known as the Canadian Shield. -Minerals and metals are found in the Canadian Shield. (nickel, gold, copper, zinc, cobalt, gypsum) -Manitoba is a world leader in the production of nickel. -The large lakes are home to many species of fresh water fish. (whitefish, pike, walleye, pickerel, trout, and bass) -Thirty-seven percent of Manitoba is covered with forest. -Hydroelectric power is a very important industry. -Manitoba sells hydroelectric power to other provinces and to the US. -There are different types of farming in southern Manitoba: One-third of the farmland is used for growing wheat. Mills make wheat into flour. The wheat is sold to other countries. Farmers also grow canola, sunflowers, oats, rye, flax, buckwheat and field peas. These crops are made into cereal and oil products. Dairy farms produce milk, cheese, yogurt and cream. There are also livestock farms.-Industries include manufacturing (farm equipment, buses, clothing, furniture), food processing, aerospace and transportation.

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PLACES and PEOPLE


-The Royal Canadian Mint ( where coins are made ) is in Winnipeg. -The Viking at Gimli is a giant statue honoring the ancestors of the Icelandic people. -Churchill in northern Manitoba is "the polar bear capital of the world". Polar bears make their dens near the town. -Wapusk National Park (Wapusk is a Cree word meaning "white bear") located in Northern Manitoba protects one of the world's largest known polar bear denning areas -Many festivals are held in Manitoba, including the Ukrainian Festival (Dauphin) and Icelandic Festival (Gimli). -Gabrielle Roy (1909-1983) and Margaret Laurence (1926-1987) - novelists -Nellie McClung (1873-1951) - fought for the rights of women -Jackson Beardy (1944-1984) - Cree artist -Louis Riel (184485) - Founding Father of Manitoba and leader of the Mtis rebellions of 1870 and 1885 -The Guess Who - a Canadian rock band from Winnipeg -Fred Penner (1946 - ) - musician, children's entertainer

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NEW BRUNSWICK
Quick Facts
-New Brunswick is one of the four Atlantic provinces in Canada. -It is the third smallest province. -The province is named for the British royal family of Brunswick Lneburg. -It is called the Loyalist Province. -New Brunswick is Canada's only officially bilingual province. -N.B. has a mainland and many islands. -Fredericton is the capital city. -flower -Purple Violet, tree BalsamFir, bird Black-capped Chickadee -motto - "Hope was restored."

The People
-The population was 729,997 -Estimated population in 2008 was 747,300. -The largest and oldest city is Saint John. -Other major cities are Fredericton (the capital city) and Moncton. -Many people are of French, British, Scottish and Irish origin. -Over 32 percent of the population are Francophones. -Other groups include native people, Germans, Dutch, Scandinavians, Italian And Asians.

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