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Philosophy, Ethics and Morale – the basic concept

Point to Discuss • • • • • • What is “philosophy” ? Areas of philosophy Meaning of Ethics Ethics and Morale Ethics and Law Ethics and Etiquette .

and attitudes of an individual or group". • Philosophy is distinguished from other ways of addressing such problems by its critical. generally systematic approach and its reliance on rational argument. by extension. such as those connected with reality. "philosophy" can refer to "the most basic beliefs. knowledge. values. concepts.Philosophy • Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental problems. • In more casual speech. existence. mind. reason. and language. .

processes. wholes and their parts. and theories of justification – Metaphysics is the study of the most general features of reality. belief. and causation . such as existence. events. such as the relationships between truth.Area of Philosophy – Epistemology :concerned with the nature and scope of knowledge. objects and their properties. time. the relationship between mind and body.

or "moral philosophy. public service ethics and business ethics. The discipline has many specialized fields. Normative ethics is distinct from meta-ethics because it examines standards for the rightness and wrongness of actions. and secondarily. such as Engineering Ethics. – Applied ethics. concerning the question of whether this question can be answered. and what we mean when we talk about what is right and what is wrong." is concerned primarily with the question of the best way to live. . are more concerned with the questions of how one ought to act. – Normative ethics. and what the right course of action is. know about. bioethics. geoethics.Area of philosophy • Ethics. • The main branches of ethics are : – Meta-ethics : The focus of meta-ethics is on how we understand. Applied ethics is a discipline of philosophy that attempts to apply ethical theory to real-life situations.

• In philosophy.Ethics • Paul and Elder define ethics as "a set of concepts and principles that guide us in determining what behavior helps or harms sentient creatures“. and sometimes it is used more narrowly to mean the moral principles of a particular tradition. group or individual. .. • The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy states that the word ethics is "commonly used interchangeably with 'morality' .. ethics studies the moral behavior in humans and how one should act. which means "character". • The term comes from the Greek word ethos.

Ethics is not this: 1-7 .

What is “ethics?” At its most basic level. ethics is concerned with how we act and how we live our lives. .

having to do with how we act. choose. behave. in that it deals with our reasoning about how we should act. in this sense. 1-9 . • Philosophers often emphasize that ethics is normative. practical. do things.What is “ethics?” • Ethics involves what is perhaps the most monumental question any human being can ask: How should we live? • Ethics is.

What is “ethics?” How should we live? • "We" can mean each one of us individually. what I should do. • This meaning of ethics is sometimes referred to as morality. what kind of person I should be. how I should act. • In the first sense. or it might mean all of us collectively. this is a question about how I should live my life.” 1-10 . and it is the aspect of ethics that we refer to by the phrase “personal integrity.

culture.It defines how things should work according to an individuals' ideals and principles • Individual/Internal • Because we believe in something being right or wrong . It defines how thing are according to the rules • Social system/External • Because society says it is the right thing to do Morale • Principles or habits with respect to right or wrong conduct.Ethics and Morale Ethics • The rules of conduct recognized in respect to a particular class of human actions or a particular group. etc.

we may face peer/societal disapproval. or even be fired from our job. remorse. but can vary between contexts Morale • If we don’t do it. • They tend to be consistent within a certain context. although can change if an individual’s beliefs change . • Usually consistent.Ethics and Morale Ethics • If we don’t do it. we may feel uncomfortable. depressed etc.

regulation issued by government • Related with “lahiriah” and “batiniah” (Pidana/Perdata) .Differences Ethics and Law Ethics • Sources and Regulator : Society/Community • Nature of Regulation : Oral : customary. fair. brave) Law • Sources and Regulator : Government • Nature of Regulation : ussualy written. Sometimes written : code of ethics • Related with “batiniah values ( honest.

Sometimes written : code of ethics • Related with “batiniah values ( honesty. responsibility) Etiquette/Manner • Source : Part of Society/ local community • Always Oral : story telling model from older to younger generation • Related with daily activities manner .Ethics and Etiquette/Manner Ethics • Source : Society • Nature of Regulation : Oral : customary. fairness. integrity.