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# Section 15.

Electric circuit

• Electric current
• Circuit diagram

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15.1 Electric circuit (SB p. 37)

Electric circuit

In modern cities
like HK →
demands huge amount of electricity
Go to Go to

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15.1 Electric circuit (SB p. 38)

Electric circuit

Electric circuit
a conducting path that electric charges flow
through

to glow:
• power source
• closed circuit

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15.1 Electric circuit (SB p. 38)

Electric circuit

Open circuit

- e− move randomly
battery
→ no electric current
produced
copper
wires
switch is
open

remains unlit
light bulb
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15.1 Electric circuit (SB p. 38)

Electric circuit

Closed circuit

## - e− move in one direction

battery
→ electric current
copper produced
wires

switch is
closed

glow
light bulb
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15.1 Electric circuit (SB p. 39)

Electric current

dome

Electric current
between the dome
light-beam & earth
earth galvanometer
socket
→ flow of electric
charges

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15.1 Electric circuit (SB p. 39)

Electric current

electron flow
CAL
Workshop 1
Current
conventional current

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15.1 Electric circuit (SB p. 40)

Electric current

electric Quantity of
current (I) charge flow
Electric current =
Time taken
Q
i.e. I =
t
- - - - -- - - - - - - - - -
unit: ampere (A)
- - - - -- -- - - - - - - - quantity of
charge (Q)
- - - - -- - - - - - - - - -

time (t)
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15.1 Electric circuit (SB p. 40)

## Measuring electric current

1 A = 1 C s -1
1 mA (milliampe re) = 10 -3 C s -1
1μ A (microampe re) = 10 -6 C s -1

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15.1 Electric circuit (SB p. 41)

## Measuring current through light bulb

→ ammeter connected in series with light

## bulb + terminal of battery

+ terminal of ammeter

ammeter
Thinking 1 light bulb
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15.1 Electric circuit (SB p. 41)

## Typical currents in some electrical appliances

Electrical appliance Typical current

## Electric water heater 14 A

Air conditioner 10 A

Hair dryer 3A

TV set 0.8 A

## 100 W light bulb 0.5 A

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15.1 Electric circuit (SB p. 41)

Circuit diagram

Circuit diagram —
represent real circuit connection for convenience

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15.1 Electric circuit (SB p. 42)

Circuit diagram

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15.1 Electric circuit (SB p. 42)

Circuit diagram

ammeter voltmeter

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15.1 Electric circuit (SB p. 42)

Circuit diagram

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15.1 Electric circuit (SB p. 42)

Class Practice 1:
Fig. (a) shows an electric circuit. Draw its circuit diagram in
Fig. (b).

Ans
wer

Fig. (a)

To section 15.2

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15.1 Electric circuit (SB p. 36)

Quiz

## 1. When you switch on a lamp, which of

the following is true? Answe
r
B. The current flowing out of the light bulb is
equal to that into it.
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15.1 Electric circuit (SB p. 36)

Quiz (Cont)

## 2. In a classroom, when a fluorescent

tube fails, the other fluorescent tubes
still light up. In which circuit are they
connected? Ans
wer
B. Parallel circuit
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15.1 Electric circuit (SB p. 36)

Quiz (Cont)

## 3. When you connect two identical light

bulbs A and B with a battery as
shown, which of the following is Ans
true?
wer
C. Bulb A and bulb B have the

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Text 20
15.1 Electric circuit (SB p. 37)

Discussion 1:
Which of the following can you use to light up a
light bulb? Discuss with your classmates.
A. a light bulb and two connecting wires
B. a light bulb and a dry cell
C. a light bulb, a dry cell and two connecting
wires
C Ans
wer

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15.1 Electric circuit (SB p. 37)

Discussion 1: (Cont)
Explain briefly why the light bulb lights up.
Ans
wer

## In a closed circuit, the dry cell provides a voltage

to drive a current passing through the light bulb.

Text

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15.1 Electric circuit (SB p. 41)