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Section 15.

Electric circuit

• Electric current
• Circuit diagram

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15.1 Electric circuit (SB p. 37)

Electric circuit

In modern cities
like HK →
demands huge amount of electricity
Go to Go to

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15.1 Electric circuit (SB p. 38)

Electric circuit

Electric circuit
a conducting path that electric charges flow
through

conditions for a bulb


to glow:
• power source
• closed circuit

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15.1 Electric circuit (SB p. 38)

Electric circuit

Open circuit

- e− move randomly
battery
→ no electric current
produced
copper
wires
switch is
open

remains unlit
light bulb
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15.1 Electric circuit (SB p. 38)

Electric circuit

Closed circuit

- e− move in one direction


battery
→ electric current
copper produced
wires

switch is
closed

glow
light bulb
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15.1 Electric circuit (SB p. 39)

Electric current

dome

Electric current
between the dome
light-beam & earth
earth galvanometer
socket
→ flow of electric
charges

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15.1 Electric circuit (SB p. 39)

Electric current

electron flow
CAL
Workshop 1
Current
conventional current

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15.1 Electric circuit (SB p. 40)

Electric current

electric Quantity of
current (I) charge flow
Electric current =
Time taken
Q
i.e. I =
t
- - - - -- - - - - - - - - -
unit: ampere (A)
- - - - -- -- - - - - - - - quantity of
charge (Q)
- - - - -- - - - - - - - - -

time (t)
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15.1 Electric circuit (SB p. 40)

Measuring electric current

1 A = 1 C s -1
1 mA (milliampe re) = 10 -3 C s -1
1μ A (microampe re) = 10 -6 C s -1

ammeter milliammeter microammeter

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15.1 Electric circuit (SB p. 41)

Measuring electric current

Measuring current through light bulb


→ ammeter connected in series with light

bulb + terminal of battery

+ terminal of ammeter

ammeter
Thinking 1 light bulb
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15.1 Electric circuit (SB p. 41)

Measuring electric current

Typical currents in some electrical appliances


Electrical appliance Typical current

Electric water heater 14 A

Air conditioner 10 A

Hair dryer 3A

TV set 0.8 A

100 W light bulb 0.5 A


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15.1 Electric circuit (SB p. 41)

Circuit diagram

Circuit diagram —
represent real circuit connection for convenience

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15.1 Electric circuit (SB p. 42)

Circuit diagram

Circuit symbols for some electrical components

battery light bulb switch

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15.1 Electric circuit (SB p. 42)

Circuit diagram

ammeter voltmeter

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15.1 Electric circuit (SB p. 42)

Circuit diagram

resistor rheostat potential divider

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15.1 Electric circuit (SB p. 42)

Class Practice 1:
Fig. (a) shows an electric circuit. Draw its circuit diagram in
Fig. (b).

Ans
wer

Fig. (a)

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To section 15.2

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15.1 Electric circuit (SB p. 36)

Quiz

1. When you switch on a lamp, which of


the following is true? Answe
r
B. The current flowing out of the light bulb is
equal to that into it.
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15.1 Electric circuit (SB p. 36)

Quiz (Cont)

2. In a classroom, when a fluorescent


tube fails, the other fluorescent tubes
still light up. In which circuit are they
connected? Ans
wer
B. Parallel circuit
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15.1 Electric circuit (SB p. 36)

Quiz (Cont)

3. When you connect two identical light


bulbs A and B with a battery as
shown, which of the following is Ans
true?
wer
C. Bulb A and bulb B have the
same brightness. Return to

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Text 20
15.1 Electric circuit (SB p. 37)

Discussion 1:
Which of the following can you use to light up a
light bulb? Discuss with your classmates.
A. a light bulb and two connecting wires
B. a light bulb and a dry cell
C. a light bulb, a dry cell and two connecting
wires
C Ans
wer

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15.1 Electric circuit (SB p. 37)

Discussion 1: (Cont)
Explain briefly why the light bulb lights up.
Ans
wer

In a closed circuit, the dry cell provides a voltage


to drive a current passing through the light bulb.

Return to

Text

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15.1 Electric circuit (SB p. 41)
Return to

Thinking 1 Text
If the positions of the ammeter and light
bulb in Fig. 15.7 are exchanged (Fig. (a)),
what happens to the current in the circuit?
The currents are the same. Since there is onlyAns
one path for the current to flow, the value ofwer
the current is the same in the whole circuit.
Fig. 15.7 Fig. (a)

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