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Knowledge Sharing: Online Learning (week 1

By: Aji Raditya

Definition Online learning: The use of the Internet to access learning materials; to interact with the content, instructor, and other learners; and to obtain support during the learning process, in order to acquire knowledge, to construct personal meaning, and to grow from the learning experience.

For Learners: 1. Time zones, location and distance not an issue, 2. (asynchronous) can access material anytime, 3. (synchronous) can interact real time, 4. Study with their own pace, 5. Can complete course while working on the job.

For Instructor: 1. Tutoring can be done at anytime & anywhere, 2. Online materials can easily update & distributed, 3. Can assign appropriate materials for different learners, 4. Can easily direct learners to appropriate source.

Designing Online Learning Material
Before any learning materials are developed, educators must, tacitly or explicitly, know the principles of learning and how students learn. The development of effective online learning materials should be based on proven and sound learning theories.

This is especially true for online learning, where the instructor and the learner are separated.

Learning Theory…
1. Thorndike (1913) 2. Pavlov (1927) 3. Skinner (1974) Change behavior by external stimuli in the environtment



Critiques: 1. Not all learning is observable 2. More than a change behavior

Learning something or not


…Learning Theory…
Ausubel Piaget Vygotsky Important part of learning: 1. Use of memory 2. Motivation 3. Thinking 4. Reflection Learning is an important process The critical bridge between brain science and education.


…Learning Theory
John Dewey, Maria Montessori, David Kolb learning process: 1. Active learner 2. students receive clear guidance 3. dynamic assessment Learners should learn to discover principles, concepts, and facts for themselves. Learning is viewed as active, where guesswork and intuitive thinking are encouraged


people construct their own understanding, through experiencing things and reflecting on those experiences.

Implications for Online Learning…
Set expectation Judge Themself Monitoring Corrective act

Explicit Outcome


Tested Learning Material

Check Learner Understanding


…Implications for Online Learning…
Metacognitive skills Learners should be given the opportunity to : 1. reflect on what they are learning, 2. collaborate with other learners, and 3. check their progress. Using: 1. Self-check questions , 2. exercises with feedback , Accomodated different learning styles 1. Concrete-experience: specific examples, group work, feed back, instructor as coach 2. Reflective-observation: observe carefully, instructor as the expert, complete information, avoid interaction with other 3. Abstract conceptualization: work with theory, conduct systematic analyses 4. Active-experimentation: learn by doing practical projects, group discussions, interacting with peers.


…Implications for Online Learning
active process : apply the information in a practical situation (Assignments and projects ) Collaborative and cooperative learning: 1. Group work 2. Consider learning style 3. Consider expertise level

reflection : 1. Using check-list, 2. Generate learning journal 3. Mapping material

Anderson, Terry & Elloumi, Fathi (Edited). Theory and Practice of Online Learning. Athabasca University