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Section 17.

Induced voltage and


induced current
• Magnet moving near coil
• Conducting wire moving in
magnetic field

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17.1 Induced voltage and induced current (SB p. 142)

Magnet moving near coil

Expt. 17B light-beam


galvanometer
Electromagnetic
induction
A. Induced
current in a coil

magnet coil

Go to Go to

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17.1 Induced voltage and induced current (SB p. 143)

Magnet moving near coil

Expt. 17A
Electromagnetic bar magnet
induction
(data-logging) data-logging
A. Induced current interface
in a coil

coil current sensor

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A current-time graph
3
17.1 Induced voltage and induced current (SB p. 143)

Magnet moving near coil

S N

h a n g e o f
c induced current
magnetic
fi e l d
induced voltage

electromagnetic induction
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17.1 Induced voltage and induced current (SB p. 143)

Faraday's law

Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction

conductor
+ change of induced voltage
magnetic field

strength of voltage
 rate of change of magnetic field

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17.1 Induced voltage and induced current (SB p. 144)

Direction of induced current – Lenz's law

Lenz's law
induced current flows in a direction
opposes the change producing it

S N

induced current
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17.1 Induced voltage and induced current (SB p. 144)

Direction of induced current – Lenz's law

repulsive
repulsive force
force

repel N-pole
of the magnet

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17.1 Induced voltage and induced current (SB p. 144)

Direction of induced current – Lenz's law

attractive
attractive force
force

attract N-pole
of the magnet

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17.1 Induced voltage and induced current (SB p. 145)

Direction of induced current – Lenz's law

no
no force
force
at rest

no current

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17.1 Induced voltage and induced current (SB p. 145)

Factors affecting the magnitude of induced


voltage
magnitude of induced voltage ↑ by

(1) moving magnet faster


S N

(2) using stronger magnet

(3)↑ no. of turns of coil

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17.1 Induced voltage and induced current (SB p. 146)

Example 1:
An aluminium ring vertically above a bar
magnet falls through it as shown. Draw
the induced current in the ring when
(a) the ring is moving towards the magnet,
(b) the magnet is inside the ring, and
(c) the ring is moving away from the magnet.
Solut
ion

(a) (b) (c)


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17.1 Induced voltage and induced current (SB p. 146)

Conducting wire moving in magnetic


field
Expt. 17B light-beam
Electromagnetic galvanometer
induction
B. Induced current
in a long wire
long wire

slab-shaped
magnets on
an iron yoke
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17.1 Induced voltage and induced current (SB p. 147)

Conducting wire moving in magnetic


field
data-logging
Expt. 17A
interface
Electromagnetic
induction
(data-logging) long
B. Induced current wire
in a long wire

current
sensor

slab-shaped magnets
on an iron yoke

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17.1 Induced voltage and induced current (SB p. 148)

Fleming's right hand rule

Fleming's right hand rule


motion

field

current
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17.1 Induced voltage and induced current (SB p. 148)

Fleming's right hand rule

motion

current

field

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17.1 Induced voltage and induced current (SB p. 148)

Fleming's right hand rule

field

current
motion
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17.1 Induced voltage and induced current (SB p. 149)

Fleming's right hand rule

CAL no current
Workshop 1
Induced
voltage in a
conducting
wire

Thinking 1
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17.1 Induced voltage and induced current (SB p. 149)

Factors affecting the magnitude of


induced voltage

e t h e
m o v
(1) s t e r
i re fa
w

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17.1 Induced voltage and induced current (SB p. 149)

Factors affecting the magnitude of


induced voltage

ir e w i t h
use w
(2) tu rn s
mor e

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17.1 Induced voltage and induced current (SB p. 149)

Factors affecting the magnitude of


induced voltage

on g er
s e str
(3) u n e t
Go to
ma g
Activity 1
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17.1 Induced voltage and induced current (SB p. 150)

Example 2:
A conducting loop moves across a magnetic field as shown.
Draw the direction of induced current in the loop (if any) in each
case.

(a) (b) Solut (c)


ion

(a) The induced current


is no (b) There
(c) The induced
flows in an current flowing current flows in a
anticlockwise direction. through the coil. clockwise direction.
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17.1 Induced voltage and induced current (SB p. 151)

Class Practice 1:
1. In which direction does the induced current flow (if any)
when the conductor or magnet is moved in the ways as
shown? Note that the arrows in (c) and (d) show the
movements of the magnets.

Mark the direction of the current (if any) in each of the


following diagrams. Ans
(a)
wer (b)

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17.1 Induced voltage and induced current (SB p. 151)

Class Practice 1: (Cont)


1. (c)

Ans
wer

(d) (e)

No current

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17.1 Induced voltage and induced current (SB p. 152)

Class Practice 1: (Cont)


2. When a copper rod is moving along a metal frame, an
induced current flows as shown.

induced
current
metal frame

(a) In which direction is the copper rod moving?


Ans
wer By Fleming's right hand rule,
the copper rod is moving to the left.

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17.1 Induced voltage and induced current (SB p. 152)

Class Practice 1: (Cont)


2. (b) Due to the induced current, the rod experiences a
force inside the magnetic field. In which direction
does this force act on the rod? Ans
wer
By Fleming's left hand rule or Lenz's law,
the force on the rod acts to the right.
It opposes the motion of the rod.

induced
current
metal frame

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To section 17.2

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17.1 Induced voltage and induced current (SB p. 140)

Quiz

1. Which of the following statements about


coal-burning power plants and nuclear
power plants is incorrect? Answe
r
A. Coal-burning power plants generate direct
current (d.c.) but nuclear power plants
generate alternating current (a.c.).
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17.1 Induced voltage and induced current (SB p. 140)

Quiz (Cont)

2. Which of the following cannot be


achieved by a simple transformer
Return to
(power adapter)? Ans
C. Convert 220 V d.c. to 12 Vwer
d.c. Text
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17.1 Induced voltage and induced current (SB p. 141)

Discussion 1:

In 1831, Michael Faraday (1791 – 1867)


discovered that a current could be produced by
moving a conductor through a magnetic field.
The conductor was connected in a closed circuit.
His discovery turned electricity from a scientific
curiosity into a powerful technology.
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17.1 Induced voltage and induced current (SB p. 141)

Discussion 1: (Cont)

One day, the Prime Minister of England


came to see the demonstration of electricity. After
that, he asked Faraday what electricity was good
for. Do you know how did Faraday reply? If you
were Faraday, how would you reply? Discuss
with your classmates.
Ans
wer

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17.1 Induced voltage and induced current (SB p. 141)

Discussion 1: (Cont)
After the Prime Minister of England asked what
electricity was good for, Faraday replied that he did
not have the answer yet, but he did know that one day
the Prime Minister would put a tax on it.

Return to

Text

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17.1 Induced voltage and induced current (SB p. 149)

Thinking 1

In what situations does the electromagnetic


induction happen? Ans
wer
1. Move a magnet near a conductor.
2. Move a conductor inside a
magnetic field.
3. Change the magnitude of a magnetic
field.
Return to

Text
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17.1 Induced voltage and induced current (SB p. 150)

Activity 1
Fleming's right hand rule
Let's start:

1. Draw a card from the above pack of 6


cards to represent the direction of the
magnetic field. Into the paper

2. Then draw another card to represent


the direction of the motion.
To left

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17.1 Induced voltage and induced current (SB p. 150)

Activity 1 (Cont)
Fleming's right hand rule
3. By Fleming's right hand rule, find the
direction of the induced current.

4. Sketch a diagram to show the directions


of the magnetic field, motion and induced
current. Into the
pape r
To left field
(into the paper)
motion
Return to
(to left)
Text
current
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