# Oscillation: an effect that repeatedly and

regularly fluctuates about the mean value

Oscillator: circuit that produces oscillation

Characteristics: wave-shape, frequency,
amplitude, distortion, stability
•Ref:06103104HKN •EE3110 Oscillator •1
 Oscillators are used to generate signals, e.g.
◦ Used as a local oscillator to transform the RF
signals to IF signals in a receiver;
◦ Used to generate RF carrier in a transmitter
◦ Used to generate clocks in digital systems;
◦ Used as sweep circuits in TV sets and CRO.
•Ref:06103104HKN •EE3110 Oscillator •2
1. Wien Bridge Oscillators
2. RC Phase-Shift Oscillators
3. LC Oscillators
4. Stability
•Ref:06103104HKN •EE3110 Oscillator •3
•Ref:06103104HKN •EE3110 Oscillator •4
For sinusoidal input is connected
“Linear” because the output is approximately sinusoidal

A linear oscillator contains:
- a frequency selection feedback network
- an amplifier to maintain the loop gain at unity
E
+
+
Amplifier (A)
Frequency-Selective
Feedback Network (|)
Vf
Vs Vo
Vc
Positive
Feedback
•Ref:06103104HKN •EE3110 Oscillator •5
E
+
+
SelectiveNetwork
|(f)
Vf
Vs Vo
Vc
A(f)
) (
f s o
V V A AV V + = =
c
and
o f
V V | =
| A
A
V
V
s
o
÷
= ¬
1
If V
s
= 0, the only way that V
o
can be nonzero
is that loop gain A|=1 which implies that
0
1 | |
= Z
=
|
|
A
A
(Barkhausen Criterion)
•Ref:06103104HKN •EE3110 Oscillator •6
Frequency Selection Network
Let
1
1
1
C
X
C
e
=
and
1 1 1 C
jX R Z ÷ =
2
2
1
C
X
C
e
=
2 2
2 2
1
2 2
2
1 1
C
C
C
jX R
X jR
jX R
Z
÷
÷
=
(
¸
(

¸

÷
+ =
÷
Therefore, the feedback factor,
) / ( ) (
) / (
2 2 2 2 1 1
2 2 2 2
2 1
2
C C C
C C
i
o
jX R X jR jX R
jX R X jR
Z Z
Z
V
V
÷ ÷ + ÷
÷ ÷
=
+
= = |
2 2 2 2 1 1
2 2
) )( (
C C C
C
X jR jX R jX R
X jR
÷ ÷ ÷
÷
= |

Vi Vo
R1 C1
R2 C2
Z1
Z2
•Ref:06103104HKN •EE3110 Oscillator •7
| can be rewritten as:
) (
2 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 1
2 2
C C C C C
C
X X R R j X R X R X R
X R
÷ + + +
= |
For Barkhausen Criterion, imaginary part = 0, i.e.,
0
2 1 2 1
= ÷
C C
X X R R
Supposing,
R
1
=R
2
=R and X
C1
= X
C2
=X
C
,
2 1 2 1
2 1
2 1
/ 1
1 1
or
C C R R
C C
R R
= ¬
=
e
e e
) ( 3
2 2
C C
C
X R j RX
RX
÷ +
= |
0.2
0.22
0.24
0.26
0.28
0.3
0.32
0.34
F
e
e
d
b
a
c
k

f
a
c
t
o
r

|
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
P
h
a
s
e
Frequency
|=1/3
Phase=0
f(R=Xc)
•Ref:06103104HKN •EE3110 Oscillator •8
Rf
+
÷
R
R
C
C
Z1
Z2
R1
Vo
By setting , we get

Imaginary part = 0 and
RC
1
= e
3
1
= |
Due to Barkhausen Criterion,
Loop gain A
v
|=1
where
A
v
: Gain of the amplifier
1
1 3 1
R
R
A A
f
v v
+ = = ¬ = |
2
1
=
R
R
f
Therefore,
Wien Bridge Oscillator
•Ref:06103104HKN •EE3110 Oscillator •9
+
÷
Rf
R1
R R R
C C C
 Using an inverting amplifier
o
phase shift is provided by an RC
phase-shift network
•Ref:06103104HKN •EE3110 Oscillator •10
R R R
C C C
V1
Vo
I1 I2 I3
Solve for I
3
, we get
) 2 ( 0
) 2 ( 0
) (
3 2
3 2 1
2 1 1
C
C
C
jX R I R I
R I jX R I R I
R I jX R I V
÷ + ÷ =
÷ ÷ + ÷ =
÷ ÷ =
C
C
C
C
C
jX R R
R jX R R
R jX R
R
jX R R
V R jX R
I
÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷
÷
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
=
2 0
2
0
0 0
0 2
3
1
) 2 ( ] ) 2 )[( (
2 2 2
2
1
3
C C C
jX R R R jX R jX R
R V
I
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
=
Or
•Ref:06103104HKN •EE3110 Oscillator •11
The output voltage,
) 2 ( ] ) 2 )[( (
2 2 2
3
1
3
C C C
o
jX R R R jX R jX R
R V
R I V
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= =
Hence the transfer function of the phase-shift network is given by,
) 6 ( ) 5 (
2 3 2 3
3
1 C C C
o
X R X j RX R
R
V
V
÷ + ÷
= = |
For 180
o
phase shift, the imaginary part = 0, i.e.,
RC
R
X X R X
C C C
6
1

6 X
(Rejected) 0 or 0 6
2 2
C
2 3
=
= ¬
= = ÷
e
and,
29
1
÷ = |
Note: The –ve sign mean the
phase inversion from the
voltage
•Ref:06103104HKN •EE3110 Oscillator •12
+
÷
~
Av
Ro
Z1 Z2
Z3
1 2
Zp
 The frequency selection
network (Z
1
, Z
2
and Z
3
)
provides a phase shift of
180
o
 The amplifier provides an
o

Two well-known Oscillators:
• Colpitts Oscillator
• Harley Oscillator
•Ref:06103104HKN •EE3110 Oscillator •13
+
~
Av
Ro
Z1 Z2
Z3
Zp
Vf Vo
3 2 1
3 1 2
3 1 2
) (
) //(
Z Z Z
Z Z Z
Z Z Z Z
p
+ +
+
=
+ =
For the equivalent circuit from the output
p o
p v
i
o
p
o
p o
i v
Z R
Z A
V
V
Z
V
Z R
V A
+
÷
= =
+
÷
or
Therefore, the amplifier gain is obtained,
) ( ) (
) (
3 1 2 3 2 1
3 1 2
Z Z Z Z Z Z R
Z Z Z A
V
V
A
o
v
i
o
+ + + +
+ ÷
= =
o o f
V
Z Z
Z
V V
3 1
1
+
= = |
Zp
÷AvVi
Ro
+
÷
÷
+
Vo
Io
•Ref:06103104HKN •EE3110 Oscillator •14
The loop gain,
) ( ) (
3 1 2 3 2 1
2 1
Z Z Z Z Z Z R
Z Z A
A
o
v
+ + + +
÷
= |
If the impedance are all pure reactances, i.e.,
3 3 2 2 1 1
and , jX Z jX Z jX Z = = =
The loop gain becomes,
) ( ) (
3 1 2 3 2 1
2 1
X X X X X X jR
X X A
A
o
v
+ ÷ + +
= |
The imaginary part = 0 only when X
1
+ X
2
+ X
3
=0
 It indicates that at least one reactance must be –ve (capacitor)
 X
1
and X
2
must be of same type and X
3
must be of opposite type
2
1
3 1
1
X
X A
X X
X A
A
v v
=
+
÷
= | With imaginary part = 0,
For Unit Gain & 180
o
Phase-shift,
1
2
1
X
X
A A
v
= ¬ = |
•Ref:06103104HKN •EE3110 Oscillator •15
R L1
L2
C
R
C1
C2
L
Hartley Oscillator Colpitts Oscillator
T
o
LC
1
= e
1
2
RC
C
g
m
=
2 1
2 1
C C
C C
C
T
+
=
C L L
o
) (
1
2 1
+
= e
2
1
RL
L
g
m
=
•Ref:06103104HKN •EE3110 Oscillator •16
R
C1
C2
L
Equivalent circuit
In the equivalent circuit, it is assumed that:
 Linear small signal model of transistor is used
 The transistor capacitances are neglected
 Input resistance of the transistor is large enough
+
÷
Vt
gmVt
R C1 C2
L
•Ref:06103104HKN •EE3110 Oscillator •17
) (
1 1
L j i V V e
t
+ =
At node 1,
where,
t
e V C j i
2 1
=
) 1 (
2
2
1
LC V V e
t
÷ = ¬
Apply KCL at node 1, we have
0
1 1
1
2
= + + + V C j
R
V
V g V C j
m
e e
t t
0
1
) 1 (
1 2
2
2
=
|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷ + + C j
R
LC V V g V C j
m
e e e
t t t
| | 0 ) (
1
2 1
3
2 1
2
2
= ÷ + +
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ + C LC C C j
R
LC
R
g
m
e e
e
For Oscillator V
t
must not be zero, therefore it enforces,
+
÷
Vt
gmVt
R C1 C2
L
node 1
I1
I2
I3
I4
V1
•Ref:06103104HKN •EE3110 Oscillator •18
Imaginary part = 0, we have
| | 0 ) (
1
2 1
3
2 1
2
2
= ÷ + +
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ + C LC C C j
R
LC
R
g
m
e e
e
T
o
LC
1
= e
1
2
RC
C
g
m
=
2 1
2 1
C C
C C
C
T
+
=
Real part = 0, yields
 The frequency stability of an oscillator is
defined as

 Use high stability capacitors, e.g. silver
mica, polystyrene, or teflon capacitors and
low temperature coefficient inductors for
high stable oscillators.
•Ref:06103104HKN •EE3110 Oscillator •19
C ppm/
T
o
o o
d
d
e e
e
e =
|
.
|

\
|
·
1
 In order to start the oscillation, the loop
gain is usually slightly greater than unity.
 LC oscillators in general do not require
amplitude stabilization circuits because of
the selectivity of the LC circuits.
 In RC oscillators, some non-linear devices,
e.g. NTC/PTC resistors, FET or zener
diodes can be used to stabilized the
amplitude
•Ref:06103104HKN •EE3110 Oscillator •20
•Ref:06103104HKN •EE3110 Oscillator •21
Vrms
irms
Operating
point
+
÷
R
R
C
C
R2
Blub
•Ref:06103104HKN •EE3110 Oscillator •22
Rf
+
÷
R
R
C
C
R1
Vo
•Ref:06103104HKN •EE3110 Oscillator •23
+
÷
low pass filter
high pass filter
low pass region
high pass region
fr
f
Filter output
•Ref:06103104HKN •EE3110 Oscillator •24
+
÷
vo
v1
v+
Vth
+Vcc
-Vcc
vo
v1
-Vth
+Vcc
-Vcc
vo
v1
Vth
+Vcc
-Vcc
vo
v1
-Vth
•Ref:06103104HKN •EE3110 Oscillator •25
+
÷
vo
vc
vf
vc
vo
+vf
¡Ðvf
+vmax
¡Ðvmax