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Learning Theories

Learning Theories Theories and models about The way humans learn The role of teachers and learners in the educational process Historical development Behaviourism Cognitivism Constructivism Implications for teaching and learning .

Behaviourism Definition Behaviourism is a theory of learning that only focuses on objectively observable. measurable behaviours and discounts mental activities Behaviour theorists define learning as nothing more than the acquisition of new behaviour .

Behaviourism Brain as “black box” (organ reacting to stimuli) Input Output Response Stimulus Deterministic reaction Reaction can be either born or learned (conditioning) Brain as passive container to be filled by teacher Teacher knows what and how something can be learned input output stimulus response .

and vigorously .Thorndike (connectionism) Learning: .Stimulus Response . unpleasant) (ii) being exercised frequently.A process of trial and error or selecting & connecting bond .Bonds  Patterns of behaviour . disappointed) (ii) the effect of what you do (satisfying.Bonds can be strengthened by (i) the readiness to learn (satisfied.Behaviourists (i) Edward L. recently.

Implications of Thorndike’s theories:   Appropriate motivation increases readiness Adequate consolidation activities and revision under conducive condition  Rewards and reinforcement to students’ desirable response Provide opportunity to students to achieve success in their learning  .

Conditioning Experiments by behaviourists identify conditioning as a universal learning process Conditioning yields a different behavioural pattern .

Consists of association between response and reinforcement. not stimulus. Skinner Learning: . Learning occurs because of the consequences that follow - Behaviours that are reinforced tend to be repeated Behaviours that are not reinforced tend to be lost Students learns to response in a particular situation .F.Behaviourists (ii) B.

Skinner used reinforcement techniques to teach pigeons to dance .Conditioning Behavioral or operant conditioning Occurs when a response to a stimulus is reinforced Simple feedback system: if a reward or reinforcement follows the response to a stimulus.F. leading behaviourist B. then the response becomes more probable in the future For example.

Reinforcement    A consequence that will increase the occurrence of operant behaviour Positive reinforcement: a pleasant stimulus is added to the situation after a behaviour is demonstrated Negative reinforcement: removal of an unpleasant stimulus from the situation after occurrence of a behaviour .

Reinforcement    Punishment: a consequence that will decrease the occurrence of operant behaviour Positive punishment: unpleasant stimulus is added to the situation after a behaviour is demonstrated Negative punishment : removal of a pleasant stimulus from the situation after occurrence of a behaviour .

.Skinner suggested the use of Programmed Instruction materials to overcome the problem of inadequate positive reinforcement.

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ISL Task     discuss the implications of behaviorism in the teaching and learning discuss the implications of behaviorism in the teaching and learning of mathematics in Malaysia classroom Search for a video clip from internet to show a mathematics class which emphasize on behaviorism Present outcomes of discussion in tutorial .