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Substance composed of only one kind of atom which cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical reactions.

Substance which consists of two or more elements combined in a fixed ratio.


Examples

Contain carbon and hydrogen Do not contain carbon and hydrogen

Function of Elements in animal cells and plant cells


Elements
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen

Animal cells
Synthesis of _____________________ compounds. For example ________________________________________. Component of some _________________________. Formation of bones and teeth. / _________________ of muscles / synthesis _____________________ Regulates _______________ pressure in the cells. / Helps in the transmission of ___________________________. Involved in protein synthesis. / Act as a _________________ for some enzyme. Required for the formation of strong bones and teeth. / Contraction of muscles cells / Promote blood clotting.

Plant cells
Synthesis of organic compounds. For example proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. Component of some proteins. Induces the formation of flowers and _______________. / Promotes cell division. / Synthesis of ATP and nucleic acids. Not Required. Required for the synthesis of _________________________. / Activates enzymes in the cells. Synthesis of cell walls (________________________). / Maintain the semi-permeability of plasma membrane. Synthesis of _______________________. / Act as an electron carrier during photosynthesis and respiration. Synthesis of carbohydrates. / Activates certain enzymes. _______________________ of water during light reaction in photosynthesis.

Sulphur (S)
Phosphorus (P)

Sodium (Na)
Magnesium (Mg)

Iron (Fe)

Synthesis of _________________ blood cells / Respiratory enzymes. Required in muscle contractions and transmission of nerve impulses.

Chlorine (Cl)

Synthesis HCl by gastric glands in the stomach which destroys pathogens and maintains ______________ of the stomach.

________ % of our body

Water

Structure

A polar molecules consists of two _____________ atom dan one _____________ atom.

Medium of __________________ reactions -digestive reactions such as breaking down of protein, lipids and sugars.

High surface tension and ___________ (tent to stick each other)

___________________ -can dissolve many ionic compounds such as salt and polar molecules (sugar)

The importance of water in the cell

-Water can move in long unbroken columns through the vascular tissue in plants.
____________ and _______________ -Provides moisture to respiratory surfaces (alveoli) -Mucus assist the movement of food substances in the intestinal tract.

__________________ Medium -in the blood, lymphatic, excretory & digestive system (transport sugar O2, CO2) Maintain ___________________

Maintain __________________ balance and ______________ -maintain the stable internal environment within a living organism.

____________________ -support the structure of a cell (90% of the protoplasm is made up of water)

are

functions

Nucleic Acids

Complex macromolecules which store _______ _________________ in the form of code.

2 types

structure

structure
____________ - stranded nucleic acid.

Draw the structure

A __________-stranded nucleic acid, with the two strands of polynucleotides twisted around each other to form a _________________________ Found in nucleus of a cell.

Found in the cytoplasm, ribosomes and nucleus.

function
Genetic material that organisms ____________ from their parents. Store information regarding its own replication and the order in which amino acids are linked to make a protein.

function
_________________________ carries DNAs genetic code into the cytoplasm and directs the synthesis of proteins.

Elements

Protein
2 types

Main function

monomer

2X
Linear sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain

Equation
Amino acids that cannot be synthesised by the body. Can only be obtained from a healthy diet. Amino acids that can be synthesised by the body. Polypeptide chain that is coiled to form alpha-helix or folded into beta-pleated.

Animal protein
Long chain
(contain all the essential amino acids)

Plant protein

The helix chains or beta-pleated sheets are folded into a 3D shape of polypeptide chain. Hormones, enzymes, plasma protein, antibodies

(do not contain all the essential amino acids)

2 classes

Two or more tertiary structure polypeptide chains are arranged to form a large and complex protein molecule.

Elements

Carbohydrates
3 types

Main function

characteristics Simple sugar C6H12O6 combine with proteins and lipids to form ________ & ______ respectively 3 types

characteristics _______________ sugar / complex sugars. Consists of 2 _____________ joined together through condensation
Equation
Sucrose

characteristics
Hundreds or thousands of monosaccharides linked through _________________ to form a long chain of molecules. ___________________ in water Do not taste sweet. Do not crystallise.

3 types

3 types

Genaral Equation

Elements

Lipids
5 main types

Main function

Fats
_________ at room temperature

Oils
structure ___________ at room temperature

Long chain molecules / water proof.

Main component of plasma membrane

plant
Equation Found on the ____________ of the epidermis of leaves, fruits and seeds of some plants.

Major component in plasma membrane.

animal

Fatty acids

____________ that is excreted from oil glands in the skin contains wax that soften the skin.

Male sex hormone.

Female sex hormones.

The Differences between saturated fats and unsaturated fats


Saturated Fats Differences Unsaturated Fats

The presence of double bonds between carbon atoms in fatty acids

Ability to react with an additional hydrogen atom Condition at room temperature Cholesterol level Examples

Answers

Element
Compound

Substance composed of only one kind of atom which cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical reactions. Substance which consists of two or more elements combined in a fixed ratio.
Examples

Organic compounds Inorganic compounds

Contain carbon Not contain carbon

Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids

Water

Function of Elements in animal cells and plant cells


Elements
C, H, O, N S P Na Mg Ca Fe K Cl

Animal cells
Synthesis of organic compounds. For example proteins, lipids and nucleic acids
Component of some proteins Formation of bones and teeth. / Contraction of muscles / synthesis ATP Regulates osmotic pressure in the cells. / Helps in the transmission of nerve impulses. Involved in protein synthesis. / Act as a cofactor for some enzyme. Required for the formation of strong bones and teeth. / Contraction of muscles cells / Promote blood clotting. Synthesis of red blood cells / Respiratory enzymes.

Plant cells

Induces the formation of flowers and seeds. / Promotes cell division. / Synthesis of ATP and nucleic acids. Not Required Required for the synthesis of chlorophyll. / Activates enzymes in the cells. Synthesis of cell walls (Cellulose). / Maintain the semipermeability of plasma membrane. Synthesis of chlorophyll. / Act as an electron carrier during photosynthesis and respiration. Synthesis of carbohydrates. / Activates certain enzymes. Photolysis of water during light reaction in photosynthesis.

Required in muscle contractions and transmission of nerve impulses.


Synthesis HCl by gastric glands in the stomach which destroys pathogens and maintains pH of the stomach.

70-90% of our body


Cell, lymph, blood plasma and interstitial fluid.

Water

Structure

A polar molecules consists of 2 hidrogen atom & 1 oxygen atom

Medium of biochemical reactions

High surface tension and cohesion (tent to stick each other)

-digestive reactions such as breaking down of protein, lipids and sugars.

Solvent -can dissolve many ionic compounds such as salt and polar molecules (sugar)

The importance of water in the cell

-Water can move in long unbroken columns through the vascular tissue in plants.
Moisture and lubrication -Provides moisture to respiratory surfaces (alveoli) -Mucus assist the movement of food substances in the intestinal tract.

Transport Medium -in the blood, lymphatic, excretory & digestive system (transport sugar O2, CO2) Maintain body temperature

Maintain osmotic balance and turgidity -maintain the stable internal environment within a living organism.

Support -support the structure of a cell (90% of the protoplasm is made up of water)

are

functions

Nucleic Acids
Complex macromolecules which store genetic information in the form of code.

Transmission of genetic information. Store genetic information

2 types

DNA nucleotides
structure

RNA
structure
Single-stranded nucleic acid. Found in the cytoplasm, ribosomes and its nucleus.

structure
A double-stranded nucleic acid, with the two strands of polynucleotides twisted around each other to form a double helix. Found in nucleus of a cell.

function
Genetic material that organisms inherit from their parents. Store information regarding its own replication and the order in which amino acids are linked to make a protein.

function
Messenger RNA carries DNAs genetic code into the cytoplasm and directs the synthesis of proteins.

Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen. Most proteins also contain sulphur and phosphorus.

Elements

Protein

Main function

Build new cells for growth and renew damaged tissues and store energy.

Amino acids
2 types 2X

dipeptide
equation

Essential amino acids (20)

Non-essential amino acids (11)

Linear sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain

Amino acids that cannot be synthesised by the body. Can only be obtained from a healthy diet.

Amino acids that can be synthesised by the body.

Polypeptide chain that is coiled to form alpha-helix or folded into beta-pleated.

Animal protein

Plant protein

The helix chains or beta-pleated sheets are folded into a 3D shape of polypeptide chain. Hormones, enzymes, plasma protein, antibodies

Long chain

First class protein (contain all the essential amino acids)

Second class protein


(do not contain all the essential amino acids)

polypeptide
2 classes

Two or more tertiary structure polypeptide chains are arranged to form a large and complex protein molecule.

Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Ratio of H and O is 2:1

Elements

Carbohydrates

Main function

3 types

characteristics Simple sugar C6H12O6 combine with proteins and lipids to form ________ & ______ respectively 3 types
Glucose (grape sugar) Fructose (in fruits / honey) Galactose (in milk)

characteristics Double sugar / complex sugars. Consists of 2 monosaccharides joined together through condensation
Equation
Sucrose

characteristics
Hundreds or thousands of monosaccharides linked through condensation to form a long chain of molecules. Insoluble in water Do not taste sweet. Do not crystallise.

3 types

3 types

formula

Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.

Elements

Lipids
5 main types

Main function

Source of energy and energy storage.

Fats
Solid at room temperature

Oils
liquid at room temperature

Waxes
structure

Steroids
Main component of plasma membrane

Long chain molecules / water proof.

plant
Equation Found on the cuticles of the epidermis of leaves, fruits and seeds of some plants.

Cholesterol
Major component in plasma membrane.

animal

Testosterone
Male sex hormone.

Fatty acids

Sebum that is excreted from oil glands in the skin contains wax that soften the skin.

Oestrogen, progesteron
Female sex hormones.

The Differences between saturated fats and unsaturated fats


Saturated Fats
Do not have any double bonds. The presence of double bonds between carbon atoms in fatty acids

Differences

Unsaturated Fats
Have at least one double bond between the carbon atoms.

Cannot form any chemical bonds with other atoms or react with additional hydrogen atoms. Solid Contain more cholesterol. Animal fats like butter

Ability to react with an additional hydrogen atom Condition at room temperature Cholesterol level Examples

Able to react with additional hydrogen atoms. (with one double bond are called monounsaturated fats) Liquid Contain less cholesterol Vegetable oils like corn oil and palm oil.