24 views

Uploaded by kumutha

intro

save

You are on page 1of 47

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION TO MATTER

AND MEASUREMENT

2

CONTENTS

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Classification of Matter

1.3 Properties of Matter

1.4 Units of Measurement

1.5 Uncertainty in Measurement

1.6 Dimensional Analysis

3

Learning outcomes:

Able to differentiate between the three states

of matter.

Able to distinguish between elements,

compounds and mixtures.

Able to distinguish between physical and

chemical properties.

Able to use and convert different units of

measurement.

4

1.1 Introduction

Chemistry is the study of properties of

materials and changes they undergo.

Central role in science and technology.

Has a high impact on our daily living, e.g.

health and medicine, energy and environment,

materials and technology and food and

agriculture.

Able to contribute to problem solving analysis.

5

1.2 Classification of Matter

Matter

Physical material - anything that has mass and

occupies space.

Classifications of Matters

Matter can be classified according to its:

Physical state (solid, liquid or gas)

Composition (element, compound or mixture)

6

Classification

of Matter

Physical State Composition

Gas

Liquid

Solid

Pure

substance

Mixture

Element

Compound

Homogeneous

Heterogeneous

7

1.2.1 State of Matter (Physical

State)

Gas

no fixed volume/shape

easy to compress/expand

molecules are far apart

move at high speed

often collide

8

Cont: 1.2.1 State of Matter

(Physical State)

Liquid

volume independent of

container

slightly compressible

molecules closer than gas

move rapidly but

can slide over each other

9

Cont: 1.2.1 State of Matter

(Physical State)

Solid

defined volume & shape

Incompressible

molecules packed closely in

definite arrangement/rigid

shape

10

1.2.2 Composition

Pure Substance

Matter with fixed composition and distinct

properties, E.g H

2

O , NaCl

(i) Elements

- simplest form of matter

- cannot be decomposed into simpler substances

by chemical means i.e only one kind of element

- can exist as atoms or molecules

11

Cont: 1.2.2 Composition

114 elements identified

Each given a unique name organized in a Periodic

Table

12

Cont: 1.2.2 Composition

(ii) Compounds

- substance composed of atoms of two or more

elements in fixed proportions

- can be separated only by chemical means

- exist as molecules (H

2

O, CO

2

)

- properties are different from the

elemental properties

13

Cont: 1.2.2 Composition

Mixture

Combination of two or more substances, in which

each substance retains its own chemical identity.

(i) A Homogeneous mixture:

components uniformly mixed

(one phase) e.g. air

also called solutions (gaseous,

liquid, solid solutions)

14

Cont: 1.2.2 Composition

(ii) A Heterogeneous mixture:

components are not distributed uniformly (more

than one phase)

e.g. sand & rocks

sugar & sand

Separating Mixtures (by physical means):

basic techniques: filtration, floatation, crystallization,

distillation, extraction and chromatography.

15

1.3 Properties of Matter

Properties of matter can be grouped into two

categories:

Physical properties : measured and observed

without changing the composition or identity of a

substance. e.g. color, odor, density, melting point,

boiling point.

Chemical properties : describe how substances

react or change to form different substances.

e.g. hydrogen burning in oxygen.

16

Cont: 1.3 Properties of Matter

Properties of substance can be divided into two

additional categories:

Intensive properties

Do not depend on the amount of the sample

present. e.g. temperature, melting point, density.

Extensive properties

Depends on quantity present. e.g. mass, volume.

17

1.3.1 Physical and Chemical

Changes

Changes in matter can involve either

chemical or physical changes.

Physical change : substance changes physical

appearance but not composition. e.g. changes of

state :

liquid gas solid liquid

Chemical change : substance transform into a

chemically different substance i.e. identify

changes. e.g. decomposition of water.

18

1.4 Units of Measurement

SI Units

1960 : All scientific units use Systme International

dUnits (SI Units).

Seven base units :

Physical Quantity Name of Unit Abbreviation

Mass Kilogram Kg

Length Meter m

Time Second s (sec)

Electric current Ampere A

Temperature Kelvin K

Luminous intensity Candela cd

Amount of substance Mole mol

1.4 Units of Measurement

19

1.4.1 Length and Mass

SI base unit of length : meter (m)

1 m = 1.0936 yards

Mass :A measure of the amount of material in an

object.

SI base unit of mass : kilogram (kg)

1 kg = 2.2 pounds

20

1.4.2 Temperature

Temperature is a measure of hotness or coldness

of an object

3 temperature scales are currently in use:

(i)

O

F (degrees Fahrenheit)

(ii)

O

C (degrees Celsius)

(iii) K (Kelvin)

Scientific studies commonly used

Celsius and Kelvin scales

21

Cont: 1.4.2 Temperature

Kelvin (SI Unit)

Based on properties of gases

0 K is the lowest temperature that can be

attained theoretically (absolute zero)

0 K = -273.15C

22

Temperature

scale

Properties of water at sea level

Freezing point Boiling point

Fahrenheit, F 32 212

Celcius, C 0 100

Kelvin, K 273.15 373.15

23

Cont: 1.4.2 Temperature

Temperature conversions

K = 0C + 273.15

C = K - 273.15

( )

( ) 32

9

5

32

5

9

=

+ =

F C

C F

24

1.4.3 Volume

SI unit of volume = (unit of length)

3

= m

3

Generally, chemists work with much smaller

volumes:

cm

3

, mL or cc

1 cm

3

= 1 mL = 1 10

-6

m

3

1000 cm

3

= 1 L

*Note: liter (L) is not an SI unit

1 dm

3

= 1 10

-3

m

3

25

1.4.4 Density

Widely used to characterize substances.

Defined as mass divided by volume, d = mass (m)

volume (V)

Unit : g/cm

3

Varies with temperature because volume changes

with temperature.

Can be used as a conversion factor to change mass

to volume and vice versa.

Common units :

g/mL for liquid, g/cm

3

for solid, g/L for gas.

26

1.5 Uncertainty in Measurement

Objectives

i. Determine the number of significant figures in

a measured quantity.

ii. Express the result of a calculation with the

proper number of significant figures.

27

Cont: 1.5 Uncertainty in

Measurement

Two types of numbers:

(i) Exact numbers - those that have defined

values or integers resulting from counting

numbers of objects. e.g. exactly 1000g in a

kilogram, exactly 2.54 in an inch.

(ii) Inexact numbers - those that obtained

from measurements and require judgement.

Uncertainties exist in their values.

Note : Uncertainties always exist in measured

quantities.

28

1.5.1 Precision and Accuracy

Precision - how well measured quantities agree

with each other.

Accuracy - how well measured quantities agree

with the true value.

29

Cont: 1.5.1 Precision and

Accuracy

Good precision

Good accuracy

Good precision

Poor accuracy

Poor precision

Good accuracy

Poor precision

Poor accuracy

30

Cont: 1.5.1 Precision and

Accuracy

The standard deviation,s is a precision estimate

based on the area score where:

x

i

- i-th measurement

is the average measurement

N is the number of measurements

N

x x

s

i

i

=

2

) (

31

1.5.2 Significant Figures

Measured quantities (inexact) are generally

reported in such a way that the last digit is the

first uncertain digit. (2.2405g)

All certain digits and the first uncertain digit are

referred to as significant figures.

Rules:

(i) Non-zero numbers are always significant

e.g. 2.86 : has three significant figures.

32

Cont: 1.5.2 Significant Figures

(ii) Zeros between non-zero numbers are always

significant. E.g. 1205 has four significant figures.

(iii) Zeros before the first non-zero digit are not

significant. E.g. 0.003 : has one significant figure.

(iv) Zeros at the end of a number after a decimal

place are significant.. E.g. 0.0020 : has two

significant figures.

33

Cont: 1.5.2 Significant Figures

(v) Zeros at the end of a number before a

decimal place are ambiguous.

E.g. 100: has one significant number unless

otherwise stated. If it is determined from counting

objects, it has three significant figures.

Method - Scientific notation removes the ambiguity of

knowing how many significant figures a number

possesses.

34

Cont: 1.5.2 Significant Figures

Example:

(i) 225, 2.25 10

2

: three significant figures (s.f.).

(ii) 10.004, 1.0004 10

4

: five s.f.

(iii) 0.0025, 2.5 10

-3

: two s.f.

(iv) 0.002500, 2.500 10

-3

: four s.f.

(v) 14 100.0, 1.41000 x 10

4

: six s.f.

(vi) 14100, 1.4100 10

4

, 1.41 10

4

, 1.410 10

4

:

could have three, four or five s.f. - need knowledge.

35

1.5.3 Significant Figures in

Calculations

1.5.3.1 Addition (+) and Subtraction (-)

Result must be reported to the least number of

decimal places.

E.g. 20.4 g - 3.322 g = 17.1 g

Other Examples:The final answer should have the

same uncertainty, with the greatest uncertainty.

(i) 325.24 (uncertainty = 0.01)

21.4 (uncertainty = 0.1)

+ 145 (uncertainty = 1)

491.64 Answer : 492

36

Cont:1.5.3.1 Addition (+) and

Subtraction (-)

Other Examples:

(ii) 12.25 + 1.32 + 1.2 = 14.77

1.2 has the greatest uncertainty ( 0.1) the

answer must be rounded to one digit to the

right of the decimal point. Answer : 14.8

(iii) 13.7325 - 14.21 = -0.4775, Answer: -0.48

37

1.5.3.2 Multiplication () and

Division ()

Result must be to the least number of significant

figures.

E.g. 6.221 cm 5.2 cm = 32 cm

2

To round off the final calculated answer so that it

has the same number of significant figures as the

least certain number.

Other Example:

(i) 1.256 2.42 = 3.03952

The least certain/precise number is 2.42 3

significant figures(s.f.). The answer must be

rounded to the 3 s.f.: 3.04

38

Cont: 1.5.3.2 Multiplication ()

and Division ()

Other Examples:

(ii) 16.231 2.20750 = 7.352661

The least precise number is 16.231 (5 s.f.).

Answer is 5 s.f. : 7.3527

(iii) (1.1)(2.62)(13.5278) 2.650 = 14.712121

The least precise number is 1.1 (2 s.f.).

Answer must be rounded to 2 s.f. : 15

39

1.5.3.3 Rules for Rounding Off

Numbers

(i) When the figures immediately following the

last digit to be retained is less than 5, the last

digit unchanged.

e.g. 6.4362 to be rounded off to four significant

figures : 6.436

(ii) When the figure immediately following the last

digit to be retained is greater than 5, increase the

last retained figure by 1.

e.g 6.4366 to be rounded off to four significant

figures : 6.437

40

Cont: 1.5.3.3 Rules for Rounding

Off Numbers

(iii) When the figure immediately following the last

digit to be retained is 5, the last figure to be

retained is increased by 1, whether it is odd or

even.

e.g. 2.145 becomes 2.15 if three significant figures

are to be retained.

(iv) When a calculation involves an intermediate

answer, retain at least one additional digit past the

number of significant figures.

41

1.6 Dimensional Analysis

Objective: To be able to convert different

measurement units by using dimensional analysis.

Dimensional Analysis is the algebraic process

of changing from one system of units to another.

Conversion factors are used.

A conversion factor is a fraction whose numerator

and denominator are the same quantity expressed

in different units.

Given units are being multiplied and divided to

give the desired units.

42

Cont: 1.6 Dimensional Analysis

Desired unit = given unit conversion factor

conversion factor

In dimensional analysis, always ask three

questions:

(i) What data are given?

(ii) What quantity do we need?

(iii) What conversion factors are available to

take us from what are given to what we need?

) unit given (

) unit desired (

43

Example 1

Quantity 1 in. = 2.54 cm yields two conversion

factors

2.54 cm and 1 in.

1 in. 2.54 cm

Convert 5.08 cm to in. and 4.00 in. to cm

5.08 cm 1 in. = 2.00 in.

2.54 cm

4.00 in. 2.54 cm = 10.2 cm

1 in.

44

Example 2

Convert 6.23 ft

3

to the appropriate SI unit.

ft

3

to m

3

and 3.272 ft = 1m

(1 ft )

3

= (1m)

3

(3.272ft)

3

6.23 ft

3

= 6.23 ft

3

(1m)

3

= 0.178 m

3

(3.272ft)

3

45

Exercise 1.1

A persons average daily intake of glucose is

0.0833 pound. What is this mass in milligrams?

( 1 lb = 453.6 g)

lb 1

g 6 . 453

Answer: 3.78 x 10

-4

mg

lb g mg

0.0833 lb x x =

g 1

mg 1000

46

END of CHAPTER 1

47

- Reading Questions Page 57, 59, And 60Uploaded byEamon Barkhordarian
- Form 4 Q2 PaperUploaded byYusrina Md Yusof
- bits ii family letterUploaded byapi-265648312
- Basic Mathematics 2011-QNUploaded byEmanuel John Bango Emazee
- Sig Fig PracticeUploaded byMuhammadSultan
- fractions_bookletUploaded byJai Jay Jay
- Fraction Number LineUploaded bySourabh Dhavala
- beyond the basic productivity tools templateUploaded byapi-346732326
- Chapter 01Uploaded byKaye Tomas
- Math for ScienceUploaded byAndre P
- API 570 ProblemsUploaded byMohammed Abdul Moqeet
- jresv77Bn3-4p111Uploaded bykgrhoads
- Electronics Mathematics for MarinesUploaded byKenny Tsao
- Oracle Apps Order Management - Overview of Price Lists _ Oracle AppsUploaded byraj
- Entering Algebra PacketUploaded bybesp63
- mathematics-frameworkUploaded byapi-289190212
- sequential ipg - v1 (pdf)Uploaded byapi-290390998
- Math Squizz AdvanceUploaded byshahul
- PercentagesUploaded bysafaribrowser
- auto cad dc machine drawingsUploaded byGanesh Kondabattula
- representing decimals lessonUploaded byapi-316883676
- lesson6decomposingfractionsUploaded byapi-300871680
- Mathematics-Trigonometry1.pdfUploaded bylen2000
- 06CAContentStandardsUploaded bySarah Guillen
- math lesson plan term iii finalUploaded byapi-364884959
- rphMT6Uploaded byAliman Aliamat
- Math for Scientists: Refreshing the EssentialsUploaded byAlexandru Toncu
- SSC Combined Higher Level Exam 2012- Previous PaperUploaded by9290010274
- fractionsanddecimalsUploaded byapi-324641737
- Part I Introduce the Lesson and Focus on the Learning Needs of the ClassroomUploaded byKristin Wang

- Vcb3022 Vdb3032 Design of Steel Structures (Jan 2016)Uploaded bykumutha
- March15 Tdb2073 Tcb2073 Structured Programming & Database SystemUploaded bykumutha
- 06_InfluenceLineMaxUploaded byahmed_gamal2011
- May14tcb 2073 Structured Programming and DatabaseUploaded bykumutha
- mandarin part 1 notesUploaded bykumutha
- Vdb3032 Design of Steel Structures ( May 2016)Uploaded bykumutha
- Persuasive Making the impossible possibleUploaded bykumutha
- Tcb 2073 Structured Programming & DatabaseUploaded byYusuf Iskandar
- Tbb1073 Tcb2073 Sept 13 Structured Programming, Structured Programming and DatabaseUploaded byVinot Esan
- Sept12 Tcb2073 Tbb1073 Structured Programming and DatabaseUploaded bykumutha
- Sept14 Tcb2073 Structured Programming and Database SystemUploaded bykumutha
- 14. Tdb2073 Tcb2073 Structured Programming & Database SystemUploaded bykumutha
- mandarin notes part 2Uploaded bykumutha
- July10tbb 1073 Structured Programming & DatabaseUploaded bykumutha
- Uniqueness And Problem faced by Taj MahalUploaded bykumutha
- EM Tutorial 1 2015Uploaded bykumutha
- Assignment - I Statics and DynamicsUploaded bykumutha
- Program Week9Lab2Uploaded bykumutha
- Program Week9Lab2Uploaded bykumutha
- Bab 5 Tamadun CinaUploaded bykumutha
- Poster PresentationUploaded bykumutha
- Bab 5 Tamadun Cina v1Uploaded bykumutha
- Bab 4 Tamadun IndiaUploaded bykumutha
- CompassUploaded bykumutha
- Bab 3 Tamadun MelayuUploaded bykumutha
- Special Incentive Payment to January 2014 Foundation StudentsUploaded bykumutha
- Something to RememberUploaded bykumutha
- Reassessment of St Francis Dam FailureUploaded bykumutha
- Bab 6 Isu-Isu Semasa Dan Masa DepanUploaded bykumutha
- Bab 1 Pengenalan Ilmu Ketamadunan Jan 2014Uploaded bykumutha

- Ins Zabudowy V131 005-PlUploaded byAdam
- Cummins INCAL Cals ReleasedUploaded byRafael Fávaro
- Problema Quinto PuntoUploaded byXimena Domínguez
- Caderno de Harmonia No. 6 - Turi ColluraUploaded byAndrea Da Silva Livramento
- #EBA_U1_EA_OMBM.xlsxUploaded byDon Omar Hunter Shades
- Química - Pré-Vestibular Impacto - Exercícios Extras - SoluçõesUploaded byDouglas Silva
- Especificaciones Tecnicas Sistema de Desague OkUploaded byCorporaciones Amc Sac Constructora
- 1.Analytical Modelling.fullUploaded byTJPRC Publications
- Freno Dinamico 2013-BUploaded byRoland Caixa
- Los sistemas estelares mas cercanos al sistema estelar SolUploaded byCarlosRguez
- Reference card Netbeans JavaUploaded byVTR Ravi Kumar
- theories_of_failure.pptUploaded byshahzadwains
- AirPrime - Diversity and MIMO Second Antenna - Application Note - 2174008 - Rev2.0Uploaded byJoaquin Andres Boilet Huerta
- New in CncKad V12Uploaded byRoman Jambrek
- flight_test.pdfUploaded byyh1.yu
- DIAPOSITIVAS DE INVESTIGACIÓN IUploaded bycsb523
- FAO - Canning - Sterilization - Packing of Meat ProductsUploaded bySatya Pradeep Pulakurthi
- Solution Chap 25Uploaded bygaferopr
- Lecture 7Uploaded byASADISMAEEL
- EdaUploaded byAngelitoRevilla
- Coarse RootUploaded byFibo Adhitya
- 3 Cert Energ_software Ce3x Cap 3. Panel de InstalacionesUploaded byGrupo Byr
- LAB 3 Sistemas de ControlUploaded byGian Soriano M
- xtr101Uploaded byNieto Tapias Deivis
- Oracle Vendor Managed Inventory With SuppliersUploaded byAhmed Forsan
- aplicação supervisorio.pdfUploaded byErlon Carvalho
- topicos-especiais-ecsrUploaded byIngrid berru
- Modelo - Informe de Laboratorio de Fisica General 31018Uploaded byJesús García
- E-TN-SWD-CSA-A23.3-94-008Uploaded bytomxxx34
- sir_explanationUploaded bySathish Srinivasan