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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION TO MATTER
AND MEASUREMENT




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CONTENTS

1.1 Introduction
1.2 Classification of Matter
1.3 Properties of Matter
1.4 Units of Measurement
1.5 Uncertainty in Measurement
1.6 Dimensional Analysis




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Learning outcomes:

Able to differentiate between the three states
of matter.
Able to distinguish between elements,
compounds and mixtures.
Able to distinguish between physical and
chemical properties.
Able to use and convert different units of
measurement.




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1.1 Introduction
Chemistry is the study of properties of
materials and changes they undergo.
Central role in science and technology.
Has a high impact on our daily living, e.g.
health and medicine, energy and environment,
materials and technology and food and
agriculture.
Able to contribute to problem solving analysis.





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1.2 Classification of Matter
Matter
Physical material - anything that has mass and
occupies space.

Classifications of Matters
Matter can be classified according to its:
Physical state (solid, liquid or gas)
Composition (element, compound or mixture)




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Classification
of Matter
Physical State Composition
Gas
Liquid
Solid
Pure
substance
Mixture
Element
Compound
Homogeneous
Heterogeneous


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1.2.1 State of Matter (Physical
State)
Gas
no fixed volume/shape
easy to compress/expand
molecules are far apart
move at high speed
often collide





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Cont: 1.2.1 State of Matter
(Physical State)
Liquid
volume independent of
container
slightly compressible
molecules closer than gas
move rapidly but
can slide over each other





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Cont: 1.2.1 State of Matter
(Physical State)
Solid
defined volume & shape
Incompressible
molecules packed closely in
definite arrangement/rigid
shape





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1.2.2 Composition
Pure Substance
Matter with fixed composition and distinct
properties, E.g H
2
O , NaCl

(i) Elements
- simplest form of matter
- cannot be decomposed into simpler substances
by chemical means i.e only one kind of element
- can exist as atoms or molecules




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Cont: 1.2.2 Composition

114 elements identified
Each given a unique name organized in a Periodic
Table



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Cont: 1.2.2 Composition
(ii) Compounds
- substance composed of atoms of two or more
elements in fixed proportions
- can be separated only by chemical means
- exist as molecules (H
2
O, CO
2
)
- properties are different from the
elemental properties







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Cont: 1.2.2 Composition
Mixture
Combination of two or more substances, in which
each substance retains its own chemical identity.

(i) A Homogeneous mixture:
components uniformly mixed
(one phase) e.g. air
also called solutions (gaseous,
liquid, solid solutions)





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Cont: 1.2.2 Composition
(ii) A Heterogeneous mixture:
components are not distributed uniformly (more
than one phase)
e.g. sand & rocks
sugar & sand


Separating Mixtures (by physical means):
basic techniques: filtration, floatation, crystallization,
distillation, extraction and chromatography.




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1.3 Properties of Matter
Properties of matter can be grouped into two
categories:
Physical properties : measured and observed
without changing the composition or identity of a
substance. e.g. color, odor, density, melting point,
boiling point.
Chemical properties : describe how substances
react or change to form different substances.
e.g. hydrogen burning in oxygen.




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Cont: 1.3 Properties of Matter
Properties of substance can be divided into two
additional categories:

Intensive properties
Do not depend on the amount of the sample
present. e.g. temperature, melting point, density.
Extensive properties
Depends on quantity present. e.g. mass, volume.




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1.3.1 Physical and Chemical
Changes
Changes in matter can involve either
chemical or physical changes.
Physical change : substance changes physical
appearance but not composition. e.g. changes of
state :
liquid gas solid liquid
Chemical change : substance transform into a
chemically different substance i.e. identify
changes. e.g. decomposition of water.




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1.4 Units of Measurement
SI Units
1960 : All scientific units use Systme International
dUnits (SI Units).
Seven base units :



Physical Quantity Name of Unit Abbreviation
Mass Kilogram Kg
Length Meter m
Time Second s (sec)
Electric current Ampere A
Temperature Kelvin K
Luminous intensity Candela cd
Amount of substance Mole mol
1.4 Units of Measurement


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1.4.1 Length and Mass
SI base unit of length : meter (m)
1 m = 1.0936 yards
Mass :A measure of the amount of material in an
object.
SI base unit of mass : kilogram (kg)
1 kg = 2.2 pounds





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1.4.2 Temperature
Temperature is a measure of hotness or coldness
of an object
3 temperature scales are currently in use:
(i)
O
F (degrees Fahrenheit)
(ii)
O
C (degrees Celsius)
(iii) K (Kelvin)
Scientific studies commonly used
Celsius and Kelvin scales




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Cont: 1.4.2 Temperature
Kelvin (SI Unit)
Based on properties of gases
0 K is the lowest temperature that can be
attained theoretically (absolute zero)
0 K = -273.15C


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Temperature
scale
Properties of water at sea level
Freezing point Boiling point
Fahrenheit, F 32 212
Celcius, C 0 100
Kelvin, K 273.15 373.15


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Cont: 1.4.2 Temperature
Temperature conversions
K = 0C + 273.15
C = K - 273.15



( )
( ) 32
9
5
32
5
9
=
+ =
F C
C F


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1.4.3 Volume
SI unit of volume = (unit of length)
3
= m
3

Generally, chemists work with much smaller
volumes:
cm
3
, mL or cc
1 cm
3
= 1 mL = 1 10
-6
m
3

1000 cm
3
= 1 L
*Note: liter (L) is not an SI unit
1 dm
3
= 1 10
-3
m
3




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1.4.4 Density
Widely used to characterize substances.
Defined as mass divided by volume, d = mass (m)
volume (V)
Unit : g/cm
3

Varies with temperature because volume changes
with temperature.
Can be used as a conversion factor to change mass
to volume and vice versa.
Common units :
g/mL for liquid, g/cm
3
for solid, g/L for gas.




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1.5 Uncertainty in Measurement
Objectives

i. Determine the number of significant figures in
a measured quantity.

ii. Express the result of a calculation with the
proper number of significant figures.





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Cont: 1.5 Uncertainty in
Measurement
Two types of numbers:
(i) Exact numbers - those that have defined
values or integers resulting from counting
numbers of objects. e.g. exactly 1000g in a
kilogram, exactly 2.54 in an inch.
(ii) Inexact numbers - those that obtained
from measurements and require judgement.
Uncertainties exist in their values.
Note : Uncertainties always exist in measured
quantities.




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1.5.1 Precision and Accuracy

Precision - how well measured quantities agree
with each other.

Accuracy - how well measured quantities agree
with the true value.






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Cont: 1.5.1 Precision and
Accuracy



Good precision
Good accuracy
Good precision
Poor accuracy
Poor precision
Good accuracy
Poor precision
Poor accuracy


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Cont: 1.5.1 Precision and
Accuracy
The standard deviation,s is a precision estimate
based on the area score where:

x
i
- i-th measurement
is the average measurement
N is the number of measurements




N
x x
s
i
i

=
2
) (


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1.5.2 Significant Figures
Measured quantities (inexact) are generally
reported in such a way that the last digit is the
first uncertain digit. (2.2405g)
All certain digits and the first uncertain digit are
referred to as significant figures.

Rules:
(i) Non-zero numbers are always significant
e.g. 2.86 : has three significant figures.




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Cont: 1.5.2 Significant Figures
(ii) Zeros between non-zero numbers are always
significant. E.g. 1205 has four significant figures.

(iii) Zeros before the first non-zero digit are not
significant. E.g. 0.003 : has one significant figure.

(iv) Zeros at the end of a number after a decimal
place are significant.. E.g. 0.0020 : has two
significant figures.




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Cont: 1.5.2 Significant Figures
(v) Zeros at the end of a number before a
decimal place are ambiguous.
E.g. 100: has one significant number unless
otherwise stated. If it is determined from counting
objects, it has three significant figures.

Method - Scientific notation removes the ambiguity of
knowing how many significant figures a number
possesses.




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Cont: 1.5.2 Significant Figures
Example:

(i) 225, 2.25 10
2
: three significant figures (s.f.).
(ii) 10.004, 1.0004 10
4
: five s.f.
(iii) 0.0025, 2.5 10
-3
: two s.f.
(iv) 0.002500, 2.500 10
-3
: four s.f.
(v) 14 100.0, 1.41000 x 10
4
: six s.f.
(vi) 14100, 1.4100 10
4
, 1.41 10
4
, 1.410 10
4
:
could have three, four or five s.f. - need knowledge.




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1.5.3 Significant Figures in
Calculations
1.5.3.1 Addition (+) and Subtraction (-)
Result must be reported to the least number of
decimal places.
E.g. 20.4 g - 3.322 g = 17.1 g
Other Examples:The final answer should have the
same uncertainty, with the greatest uncertainty.
(i) 325.24 (uncertainty = 0.01)
21.4 (uncertainty = 0.1)
+ 145 (uncertainty = 1)
491.64 Answer : 492




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Cont:1.5.3.1 Addition (+) and
Subtraction (-)
Other Examples:

(ii) 12.25 + 1.32 + 1.2 = 14.77
1.2 has the greatest uncertainty ( 0.1) the
answer must be rounded to one digit to the
right of the decimal point. Answer : 14.8

(iii) 13.7325 - 14.21 = -0.4775, Answer: -0.48





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1.5.3.2 Multiplication () and
Division ()
Result must be to the least number of significant
figures.
E.g. 6.221 cm 5.2 cm = 32 cm
2
To round off the final calculated answer so that it
has the same number of significant figures as the
least certain number.
Other Example:
(i) 1.256 2.42 = 3.03952
The least certain/precise number is 2.42 3
significant figures(s.f.). The answer must be
rounded to the 3 s.f.: 3.04




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Cont: 1.5.3.2 Multiplication ()
and Division ()
Other Examples:

(ii) 16.231 2.20750 = 7.352661
The least precise number is 16.231 (5 s.f.).
Answer is 5 s.f. : 7.3527

(iii) (1.1)(2.62)(13.5278) 2.650 = 14.712121
The least precise number is 1.1 (2 s.f.).
Answer must be rounded to 2 s.f. : 15




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1.5.3.3 Rules for Rounding Off
Numbers
(i) When the figures immediately following the
last digit to be retained is less than 5, the last
digit unchanged.
e.g. 6.4362 to be rounded off to four significant
figures : 6.436
(ii) When the figure immediately following the last
digit to be retained is greater than 5, increase the
last retained figure by 1.
e.g 6.4366 to be rounded off to four significant
figures : 6.437




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Cont: 1.5.3.3 Rules for Rounding
Off Numbers
(iii) When the figure immediately following the last
digit to be retained is 5, the last figure to be
retained is increased by 1, whether it is odd or
even.
e.g. 2.145 becomes 2.15 if three significant figures
are to be retained.

(iv) When a calculation involves an intermediate
answer, retain at least one additional digit past the
number of significant figures.



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1.6 Dimensional Analysis
Objective: To be able to convert different
measurement units by using dimensional analysis.
Dimensional Analysis is the algebraic process
of changing from one system of units to another.
Conversion factors are used.
A conversion factor is a fraction whose numerator
and denominator are the same quantity expressed
in different units.
Given units are being multiplied and divided to
give the desired units.




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Cont: 1.6 Dimensional Analysis
Desired unit = given unit conversion factor
conversion factor

In dimensional analysis, always ask three
questions:
(i) What data are given?
(ii) What quantity do we need?
(iii) What conversion factors are available to
take us from what are given to what we need?



) unit given (
) unit desired (


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Example 1
Quantity 1 in. = 2.54 cm yields two conversion
factors
2.54 cm and 1 in.
1 in. 2.54 cm
Convert 5.08 cm to in. and 4.00 in. to cm
5.08 cm 1 in. = 2.00 in.
2.54 cm
4.00 in. 2.54 cm = 10.2 cm
1 in.




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Example 2
Convert 6.23 ft
3
to the appropriate SI unit.
ft
3
to m
3
and 3.272 ft = 1m

(1 ft )
3
= (1m)
3

(3.272ft)
3


6.23 ft
3
= 6.23 ft
3
(1m)
3
= 0.178 m
3

(3.272ft)
3






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Exercise 1.1
A persons average daily intake of glucose is
0.0833 pound. What is this mass in milligrams?
( 1 lb = 453.6 g)


lb 1
g 6 . 453


Answer: 3.78 x 10
-4
mg
lb g mg
0.0833 lb x x =
g 1
mg 1000


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END of CHAPTER 1




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