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Professor A G Constantinides 1

Finite Wordlength Effects

Finite register lengths and A/D converters
cause errors in:-
(i) Input quantisation.
(ii) Coefficient (or multiplier)
quantisation
(iii) Products of multiplication truncated
or rounded due to machine length
Professor A G Constantinides 2
Finite Wordlength Effects
Quantisation

Q
Output
Input
2
) (
2
,
Q
k e
Q
o i
s s
) (k e
i
) (k e
o
Professor A G Constantinides 3
Finite Wordlength Effects
The pdf for e using rounding

Noise power
or
2
Q

2
Q
Q
1
}
= =

2
2
2 2 2
} { ). (
Q
Q
e E de e p e o
12
2
2
Q
= o
Professor A G Constantinides 4
Finite Wordlength Effects
Let input signal be sinusoidal of unity
amplitude. Then total signal power

If b bits used for binary then
so that
Hence

or dB
2
1
= P
b
Q 2 2 =
3 2
2 2 b
= o
b
P
2 2
2 .
2
3
+
= o
b 6 8 . 1 SNR + =
Professor A G Constantinides 5
Finite Wordlength Effects
Consider a simple example of finite
precision on the coefficients a,b of second
order system with poles

where

2 1
1
1
) (

+
=
bz az
z H
u

j
e

2 2 1
. . cos 2 1
1
) (

+
=
z z
z H
u
2
= b
u cos 2 = a
Professor A G Constantinides 6
Finite Wordlength Effects

bit pattern
000 0 0
001 0.125 0.354
010 0.25 0.5
011 0.375 0.611
100 0.5 0.707
101 0.625 0.791
110 0.75 0.866
111 0.875 0.935
1.0 1.0 1.0
2
, cos 2 u

Professor A G Constantinides 7
Finite Wordlength Effects
Finite wordlength computations

+
INPUT
OUTPU
T
+
+
Professor A G Constantinides 8
Limit-cycles; "Effective Pole"

Observe that for

instability occurs when
i.e. poles are
(i) either on unit circle when complex
(ii) or one real pole is outside unit
circle.
Instability under the "effective pole" model
is considered as follows
) 1 (
1
) (
2
2
1
1

+ +
=
z b z b
z H
1
2
b
Professor A G Constantinides 9
Finite Wordlength Effects
In the time domain with

With for instability we have
indistinguishable from
Where is quantisation

) (
) (
) (
z X
z Y
z H =
) 2 ( ) 1 ( ) ( ) (
2 1
= n y b n y b n x n y
1
2
b
| | ) 2 (
2
n y b Q ) 2 ( n y
| | Q
Professor A G Constantinides 10
Finite Wordlength Effects
With rounding, therefore we have

are indistinguishable (for integers)
or
Hence

With both positive and negative numbers

5 . 0 ) 2 (
2
n y b ) 2 ( n y
) 2 ( 5 . 0 ) 2 (
2
= n y n y b
2
1
5 . 0
) 2 (
b
n y

=
2
1
5 . 0
) 2 (
b
n y

=
Professor A G Constantinides 11
Finite Wordlength Effects
The range of integers

constitutes a set of integers that cannot be
individually distinguished as separate or from the
asymptotic system behaviour.
The band of integers

is known as the "deadband".
In the second order system, under rounding, the
output assumes a cyclic set of values of the
deadband. This is a limit-cycle.

2
1
5 . 0
b

|
|
.
|

\
|

2 2
1
5 . 0
,
1
5 . 0
b b
Professor A G Constantinides 12
Finite Wordlength Effects
Consider the transfer function

if poles are complex then impulse response
is given by

) 1 (
1
) (
2
2
1
1

+ +
=
z b z b
z G
2 2 1 1
=
k k k k
y b y b x y
k
h
| | u
u

) 1 ( sin .
sin
+ = k h
k
k
Professor A G Constantinides 13
Finite Wordlength Effects
Where
If then the response is sinusiodal
with frequency

Thus product quantisation causes instability
implying an "effective .
2
b =
|
.
|

\
|
=

2
1
1
2
cos
b
b
u
1
2
= b
|
.
|

\
|

=

2
cos
1
1
1
b
T
e
1
2
= b
Professor A G Constantinides 14
Finite Wordlength Effects
Consider infinite precision computations for
2 1
9 . 0

+ =
k k k k
y y x y
0 ; 0
10
0
= =
=
k x
x
k
-10 -5 0 5 10
-10
-8
-6
-4
-2
0
2
4
6
8
10
Professor A G Constantinides 15
Finite Wordlength Effects
Now the same operation with integer
precision
-10 -5 0 5 10
-10
-8
-6
-4
-2
0
2
4
6
8
10
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Finite Wordlength Effects

Notice that with infinite precision the
response converges to the origin

With finite precision the reponse does not
converge to the origin but assumes
cyclically a set of values the Limit Cycle
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Finite Wordlength Effects
Assume , .. are not
correlated, random processes etc.

Hence total output noise power

Where and
{ } ) (
1
k e { } ) (
2
k e

=

=0
2 2 2
0
) (
k
i e i
k h o o
12
2
2 Q
e
= o
| |

+
= + =

=

0
2
2
2
2
2
02
2
01
2
0
sin
) 1 ( sin
.
12
2
. 2
k
k
b
k
u
u
o o o
b
Q

= 2
| |
0 ;
sin
) 1 ( sin
. ) ( ) (
2 1
>
+
= = k
k
k h k h
k
u
u

Professor A G Constantinides 18
Finite Wordlength Effects

ie
(

+
+
=

u

o
2 cos 2 1
1
.
1
1
6
2
2 4 2
2 2
2
0
b
Professor A G Constantinides 19
Finite Wordlength Effects

For FFT
A(n)
B(n)
B(n+1)
B(n+1)
-
A(n)
B(n+1)
B(n)W(n)
B(n)
A(n+1)
) ( ). ( ) ( ) 1 (
) ( ). ( ) ( ) 1 (
n B n W n A n B
n B n W n A n A
= +
+ = +
W(n)
Professor A G Constantinides 20
Finite Wordlength Effects
FFT

AVERAGE GROWTH: 1/2 BIT/PASS
2 ) 1 ( ) 1 (
2 2
= + + + n B n A
) ( 2 ) (
) ( 2 ) 1 (
2 2
n A n A
n A n A
=
= +
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Finite Wordlength Effects
FFT

PEAK GROWTH: 1.21.. BITS/PASS
IMAG
REAL
1.0
1.0
-1.0
-1.0
.... 414 . 2 ) ( ) ( 0 . 1
) (
) 1 (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 1 (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 1 (
= + <
+
+ < +
+ = +
n S n C
n A
n A
n S n B n C n B n A n A
n S n B n C n B n A n A
x
x
y x x x
y x x x
Professor A G Constantinides 22
Finite Wordlength Effects
Linear modelling of product quantisation

Modelled as
x(n) ) (
~
n x
x(n)
q(n)
+
) ( ) ( ) (
~
n q n x n x + =
| | Q
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Finite Wordlength Effects
For rounding operations q(n) is uniform
distributed between , and where Q is
the quantisation step (i.e. in a wordlength of
bits with sign magnitude representation or
mod 2, ).
A discrete-time system with quantisation at
the output of each multiplier may be
considered as a multi-input linear system
2
Q

2
Q
b
Q

= 2
Professor A G Constantinides 24
Finite Wordlength Effects

Then

where is the impulse response of the
system from the output of the multiplier
to y(n).
h(n)
) ( )... ( )... (
2 1
n q n q n q
p
{ } ) (n x { } ) (n y

=
=

=
p
r r
r n h r q r n h r x n y
1 0 0
) ( ). ( ) ( ). ( ) (

) (n h

Professor A G Constantinides 25
Finite Wordlength Effects
For zero input i.e. we can write

where is the maximum of
which is not more than

ie

n n x = , 0 ) (

s
=

=
p
r
r n h q n y
1 0
) ( . ) (

q
r r q , , ) (

2
Q

s
=

=
p
n
r n h
Q
n y
1 0
) ( .
2
) (

Professor A G Constantinides 26
Finite Wordlength Effects
However

And hence

ie we can estimate the maximum swing at
the output from the system parameters and
quantisation level

s

= 0 0
) ( ) (
n n
n h n h

s

=0
) ( .
2
) (
n
n h
pQ
n y