2
Q
Q
1
}
= =
2
2
2 2 2
} { ). (
Q
Q
e E de e p e o
12
2
2
Q
= o
Professor A G Constantinides 4
Finite Wordlength Effects
Let input signal be sinusoidal of unity
amplitude. Then total signal power
If b bits used for binary then
so that
Hence
or dB
2
1
= P
b
Q 2 2 =
3 2
2 2 b
= o
b
P
2 2
2 .
2
3
+
= o
b 6 8 . 1 SNR + =
Professor A G Constantinides 5
Finite Wordlength Effects
Consider a simple example of finite
precision on the coefficients a,b of second
order system with poles
where
2 1
1
1
) (
+
=
bz az
z H
u
j
e
2 2 1
. . cos 2 1
1
) (
+
=
z z
z H
u
2
= b
u cos 2 = a
Professor A G Constantinides 6
Finite Wordlength Effects
bit pattern
000 0 0
001 0.125 0.354
010 0.25 0.5
011 0.375 0.611
100 0.5 0.707
101 0.625 0.791
110 0.75 0.866
111 0.875 0.935
1.0 1.0 1.0
2
, cos 2 u
Professor A G Constantinides 7
Finite Wordlength Effects
Finite wordlength computations
+
INPUT
OUTPU
T
+
+
Professor A G Constantinides 8
Limitcycles; "Effective Pole"
Model; Deadband
Observe that for
instability occurs when
i.e. poles are
(i) either on unit circle when complex
(ii) or one real pole is outside unit
circle.
Instability under the "effective pole" model
is considered as follows
) 1 (
1
) (
2
2
1
1
+ +
=
z b z b
z H
1
2
b
Professor A G Constantinides 9
Finite Wordlength Effects
In the time domain with
With for instability we have
indistinguishable from
Where is quantisation
) (
) (
) (
z X
z Y
z H =
) 2 ( ) 1 ( ) ( ) (
2 1
= n y b n y b n x n y
1
2
b
  ) 2 (
2
n y b Q ) 2 ( n y
  Q
Professor A G Constantinides 10
Finite Wordlength Effects
With rounding, therefore we have
are indistinguishable (for integers)
or
Hence
With both positive and negative numbers
5 . 0 ) 2 (
2
n y b ) 2 ( n y
) 2 ( 5 . 0 ) 2 (
2
= n y n y b
2
1
5 . 0
) 2 (
b
n y
=
2
1
5 . 0
) 2 (
b
n y
=
Professor A G Constantinides 11
Finite Wordlength Effects
The range of integers
constitutes a set of integers that cannot be
individually distinguished as separate or from the
asymptotic system behaviour.
The band of integers
is known as the "deadband".
In the second order system, under rounding, the
output assumes a cyclic set of values of the
deadband. This is a limitcycle.
2
1
5 . 0
b


.

\

2 2
1
5 . 0
,
1
5 . 0
b b
Professor A G Constantinides 12
Finite Wordlength Effects
Consider the transfer function
if poles are complex then impulse response
is given by
) 1 (
1
) (
2
2
1
1
+ +
=
z b z b
z G
2 2 1 1
=
k k k k
y b y b x y
k
h
  u
u
) 1 ( sin .
sin
+ = k h
k
k
Professor A G Constantinides 13
Finite Wordlength Effects
Where
If then the response is sinusiodal
with frequency
Thus product quantisation causes instability
implying an "effective .
2
b =

.

\

=
2
1
1
2
cos
b
b
u
1
2
= b

.

\

=
2
cos
1
1
1
b
T
e
1
2
= b
Professor A G Constantinides 14
Finite Wordlength Effects
Consider infinite precision computations for
2 1
9 . 0
+ =
k k k k
y y x y
0 ; 0
10
0
= =
=
k x
x
k
10 5 0 5 10
10
8
6
4
2
0
2
4
6
8
10
Professor A G Constantinides 15
Finite Wordlength Effects
Now the same operation with integer
precision
10 5 0 5 10
10
8
6
4
2
0
2
4
6
8
10
Professor A G Constantinides 16
Finite Wordlength Effects
Notice that with infinite precision the
response converges to the origin
With finite precision the reponse does not
converge to the origin but assumes
cyclically a set of values the Limit Cycle
Professor A G Constantinides 17
Finite Wordlength Effects
Assume , .. are not
correlated, random processes etc.
Hence total output noise power
Where and
{ } ) (
1
k e { } ) (
2
k e
=
=0
2 2 2
0
) (
k
i e i
k h o o
12
2
2 Q
e
= o
 
+
= + =
=
0
2
2
2
2
2
02
2
01
2
0
sin
) 1 ( sin
.
12
2
. 2
k
k
b
k
u
u
o o o
b
Q
= 2
 
0 ;
sin
) 1 ( sin
. ) ( ) (
2 1
>
+
= = k
k
k h k h
k
u
u
Professor A G Constantinides 18
Finite Wordlength Effects
ie
(
+
+
=
u
o
2 cos 2 1
1
.
1
1
6
2
2 4 2
2 2
2
0
b
Professor A G Constantinides 19
Finite Wordlength Effects
For FFT
A(n)
B(n)
B(n+1)
B(n+1)

A(n)
B(n+1)
B(n)W(n)
B(n)
A(n+1)
) ( ). ( ) ( ) 1 (
) ( ). ( ) ( ) 1 (
n B n W n A n B
n B n W n A n A
= +
+ = +
W(n)
Professor A G Constantinides 20
Finite Wordlength Effects
FFT
AVERAGE GROWTH: 1/2 BIT/PASS
2 ) 1 ( ) 1 (
2 2
= + + + n B n A
) ( 2 ) (
) ( 2 ) 1 (
2 2
n A n A
n A n A
=
= +
Professor A G Constantinides 21
Finite Wordlength Effects
FFT
PEAK GROWTH: 1.21.. BITS/PASS
IMAG
REAL
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
.... 414 . 2 ) ( ) ( 0 . 1
) (
) 1 (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 1 (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 1 (
= + <
+
+ < +
+ = +
n S n C
n A
n A
n S n B n C n B n A n A
n S n B n C n B n A n A
x
x
y x x x
y x x x
Professor A G Constantinides 22
Finite Wordlength Effects
Linear modelling of product quantisation
Modelled as
x(n) ) (
~
n x
x(n)
q(n)
+
) ( ) ( ) (
~
n q n x n x + =
  Q
Professor A G Constantinides 23
Finite Wordlength Effects
For rounding operations q(n) is uniform
distributed between , and where Q is
the quantisation step (i.e. in a wordlength of
bits with sign magnitude representation or
mod 2, ).
A discretetime system with quantisation at
the output of each multiplier may be
considered as a multiinput linear system
2
Q
2
Q
b
Q
= 2
Professor A G Constantinides 24
Finite Wordlength Effects
Then
where is the impulse response of the
system from the output of the multiplier
to y(n).
h(n)
) ( )... ( )... (
2 1
n q n q n q
p
{ } ) (n x { } ) (n y
=
=
=
p
r r
r n h r q r n h r x n y
1 0 0
) ( ). ( ) ( ). ( ) (
) (n h
Professor A G Constantinides 25
Finite Wordlength Effects
For zero input i.e. we can write
where is the maximum of
which is not more than
ie
n n x = , 0 ) (
s
=
=
p
r
r n h q n y
1 0
) ( . ) (
q
r r q , , ) (
2
Q
s
=
=
p
n
r n h
Q
n y
1 0
) ( .
2
) (
Professor A G Constantinides 26
Finite Wordlength Effects
However
And hence
ie we can estimate the maximum swing at
the output from the system parameters and
quantisation level
s
= 0 0
) ( ) (
n n
n h n h
s
=0
) ( .
2
) (
n
n h
pQ
n y
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