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Artificial Intelligence Module CS364

Introduction to Artificial Intelligence CS364

05th September 2006 Dr Bogdan L. Vrusias


b.vrusias@surrey.ac.uk

Artificial Intelligence Module CS364

Fundamental Questions of AI
(Alan Turing asked:) Is there thought without experience? Is there mind without communication? Is there language without living? Is there intelligence without life?

Can machines think?

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Artificial Intelligence Module CS364

CS364 Aims
The aim of this module is:
This module aims to demonstrate a variety of techniques for capturing human knowledge and represent it in a computer, in a way that enables the machine to reason over the data represented, and mimic the human ability to deal with incomplete or uncertain data.

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Artificial Intelligence Module CS364

CS364 Outcomes
At the end of the module students should be able to:
Describe methods for acquiring human knowledge. Evaluate which of the acquisition methods would be most appropriate in a given situation. Describe techniques for representing acquired knowledge in a way that facilitates automated reasoning over the knowledge. Categorise and evaluate AI techniques according to different criteria such as applicability and ease of use, and intelligently participate in the selection of the appropriate techniques and tools, to solve simple problems. Use the presented techniques in practice to develop an intelligent system.

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Artificial Intelligence Module CS364

CS364 Content I
Knowledge-Based Intelligent Systems
Intelligent machines and what they can do. Artificial intelligence from the Dark Ages to knowledge-based systems What is knowledge? Knowledge representation techniques Rules as a knowledge representation technique

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Artificial Intelligence Module CS364

CS364 Content II
Uncertainty Management in Expert Systems
Introduction to uncertainty Bayesian reasoning Certainty factors theory and evidential reasoning Comparison of Bayesian reasoning and certainty factors

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Artificial Intelligence Module CS364

CS364 Content III


Fuzzy Expert Systems
Introduction to fuzzy thinking Fuzzy sets Linguistic variables and hedges Operations of fuzzy sets Fuzzy rules Fuzzy inference Building a fuzzy expert system

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Artificial Intelligence Module CS364

CS364 Content IV
Machine Learning
Introduction to learning Introduction to Artificial Neural Networks Introduction to Evolutionary Computation

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Artificial Intelligence Module CS364

CS364 Content V
Knowledge Engineering and Data Mining
Introduction to knowledge engineering How to find the tools that will work for my problem Data mining and knowledge discovery

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Artificial Intelligence Module CS364

Assessment Pattern
Unit(s) of Assessment Weighting Towards Module Mark (%)

Coursework Verbal Examination (based on the coursework) Examination

25 15 60

Qualifying Condition(s) A weighted aggregate mark of 40% is required to pass the module.

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Artificial Intelligence Module CS364

Coursework
The students are expected to participate in an individual project focused on studying the architecture and behaviour of an AI system. Students may use a pre-existing program (shell) or write their own.
Can use Skilab, Octave, or Matlab tool, Prolog, CLIPS but, there are web sites which contain AI freeware and the students are expected to make the most of this freeware.

The student is expected to write an individual 5-page (max) report on his or her study, not exceeding 1500 words.
More details will be give at appropriate time.
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Artificial Intelligence Module CS364

Methods of Teaching/Learning
The module will consist of 26 hours of lectures, and 4 practical tutorial hours. NOTE: Attending lectures is VERY important!

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Artificial Intelligence Module CS364

On-line Resources
CS364 main resource
http://www.cs.surrey.ac.uk/teaching/cs364 NOTE: Make sure you check the module website regularly!

The WWWW (i.e http://www.google.com !!!)

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Artificial Intelligence Module CS364

Selected Texts
The main course book for this module that contains most of the theoretical material is:
Negnevitsky, Michael (2004), Artificial Intelligence A Guide to Intelligent Systems (Second Edition), Harlow, UK, Addison Wesley, ISBN: 0321204662.

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Artificial Intelligence Module CS364

Selected Texts II
Other recommended books are:
Luger, G.F (2004) Artificial Intelligence: Structures & Strategies for Complex Problem Solving (Fifth Edition). London: Addison-Wesley, ISBN: 0321263189.

Callan, Rob (2003), Artificial Intelligence, Basingstoke, Hampshire, UK, Palgrave MacMillan, ISBN: 0333801369.

Winston, Patrick H. (1992), Artificial Intelligence (Third Edition), Reading (MASS): Addison-Wesley Publishers Co, ISBN: 0201533774.

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Artificial Intelligence Module CS364

Learning contract for us all


Punctuality No disruption of others learning Mobile phones! Be wise...! Availability (office MTI):
Check the office, check google calendar

Communication: email and the student hours

Fun

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Artificial Intelligence Module CS364

Discussion
Can machines think? Can machines see? How does a human mind work? Is it magic? Can non-humans have minds? Can machines replace a human worker? Are intelligent machines good or bad for humans? Would you trust one?

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Artificial Intelligence Module CS364

What is Intelligence?
Intelligence is the ability to understand and learn things. Intelligence is the ability to think and understand instead of doing things by instinct or automatically. (Essential English Dictionary, Collins, London, 1990). Intelligence is the ability to learn and understand, to solve problems and to make decisions.

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Artificial Intelligence Module CS364

What is Artificial Intelligence?


The goal of artificial intelligence (AI) as a science is to make machines do things that would require intelligence if done by humans. AI is a branch of computing science that deals with the specification, design and implementation of information systems that have some knowledge related to the enterprise in which the information systems are situated. Such systems are designed per se (masing2) to be responsive to the needs of their end-users.
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Turing Imitation Game


The British mathematician Alan Turing, over fifty years ago, inventing a game, the Turing Imitation Game. The imitation game originally included two phases:

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Turing Imitation Game Phase 1


In the first phase, an interrogator, a man and a woman are each placed in separate rooms. The interrogators objective is to work out who is the man and who is the woman by questioning them. The man should attempt to deceive/dishonest the interrogator that he is the woman, while the woman has to convince the interrogator that she is the woman.

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Turing Imitation Game Phase 2


In the second phase of the game, the man is replaced by a computer programmed to deceive the interrogator as the man did. It would even be programmed to make mistakes and provide fuzzy answers in the way a human would. If the computer can fool the interrogator as often as the man did, we may say this computer has passed the intelligent behaviour test.

Second Phase

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Turing Remarks
By maintaining communication between the human and the machine via terminals, the test gives us an objective standard view on intelligence. A program thought intelligent in some narrow area of expertise is evaluated by comparing its performance with the performance of a human expert. To build an intelligent computer system, we have to capture, organise and use human expert knowledge in some narrow area of expertise.
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Some AI Examples
Please check the following websites on your free time:
http://www.generation5.org/jdk/demos.asp http://www.aridolan.com/ofiles/eFloys.html http://www.aridolan.com/ofiles/iFloys.html http://www.arch.usyd.edu.au/~rob/#applets http://www.softrise.co.uk/srl/old/caworld.html http://people.clarkson.edu/~esazonov/neural_fuzzy/loadsway/LoadSway.htm http://www.iit.nrc.ca/IR_public/fuzzy/FuzzyTruck.html http://www.pandorabots.com/pandora/talk?botid=f5d922d97e345aa1

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Closing
Questions??? Remarks??? Comments!!! Evaluation!

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