Childhood Language Impairments

Childhood Language Impairments: Overview
• Characteristics of Language Impairment • Associated Disorders & Related Causes
– – – – – – – – Early expressive language delay Specific Language Impairment Learning Disabilities Cognitive Disability (Intellectual and Developmental Disability I & DD) Autism/ PDD Neglect and Abuse Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Traumatic Brain Injury

Disorder vs Delay • Delay: Behind in development. just at a slower rate – Eventually catches up with peers • Disorder: A true impairment – _____________________________________ (but are definitely behind in some areas of language) – _____________________________________ . ___________________________________ – Follows normal course of development.

Characteristics of Language Impairments/ Disorders • Heterogeneous group • May be developmental or acquired • May affect – Expressive Language = __________________ and/or – Receptive Language = ___________________ .

Associated Disorders and Related Causes • • • • • • • • Early Expressive Language Delay Specific Language Impairment Learning Disabilities I & DD Autism/PDD Neglect and Abuse Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Traumatic brain injury .

Early Expressive Language Delay • • • • • • “Late Talkers” Slow vocabulary development ________________________________ No obvious biological factors Receptive language is usually OK Some continue to have language problems. some don‟t .

Specific Language Impairment (SLI) • _______________________________ – Performance is within normal limits for: • • • • Motor skills Intelligence (non-verbal) Hearing Physical status .

content. use • Usually affects both receptive and expressive language (but not always) . __________________ • Can affect all areas of language: form.SLI cont‟d • Language performance is significantly poorer than ____________________ • More than just delay.

writing. or mathematical abilities – This is a BROAD term – (does not have to be a communication disorder) • Male to female ratio = ____ • One type: Many have language-learning disability – _______________________________________ . speaking. reasoning.Learning Disabilities • Difficulties in listening. reading.

Cognitive Disability (I & DD) • Definition – __________________________________ ________________________ – Related limitations in skills of daily living • Diverse population • Classification based on _____ .

Cognitive Disability (I & DD) • Varied causes – ______________________ • • • • Genetic and chromosomal abnormalities Maternal infection during pregnancy Nutritional/metabolic Extreme prematurely – ________________________ • Lack of stimulation • Poor nutrition – _____________ .

Cognitive Disability (I & DD) • May have language delay or disorder – Language comprehension and/or production below cognitive level ______________________ – Form • ___________________________ • Syntax – ___________________________ – Content • ___________________________ – Use • Presence of lower cognitive functioning may influence attitudes and affect interactions with others • Importance of early intervention .

Cognitive Disability (I & DD) Social Stigma Quote from a woman with a severe communication disorder. more commonly. Doesn‟t that freak you out?” . disrespectful way‟ . we don't even need to. „I was treated like I‟m retarded‟] and everybody knows what we mean. re: mental retardation: “What upsets me is that the infantilizing. infantilizing. disrespectful treatment of people who are „mentally challenged‟ is so commonplace that we don't even say „I was treated in a belittling.. Claire Scott. We can say „I was treated like I was mentally challenged‟ [or. belittling..

• Autism spectrum disorders • Cause is unknown – Genetics a factor Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) • Deficit in ability to establish & maintain social relationships .

Autism cont‟d • Language disorder – Form • Varies. on continuum from no expressive language to very good language form – Content • Some have limited vocabulary • ___________________ • ___________________ – Use • Available language _____________________________ • Pragmatic skills are greatly affected: ___________________________ • Poor eye contact .

Autism cont‟d • Ritualistic behavior – _____________________ – Stereotypic behaviors • Typically have strong visual skills – Make use of this in tx – Schedule Board .

Neglect and Abuse • ____________________________________ __________________________ • __________________________ – Less talkative – Fewer conversational skills .

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) • Observed in children of chronically alcoholic mothers (or binge drinking) • 1 out of every 500-600 births • Fetus is especially vulnerable to maternal alcoholic consumption during ____________________________ .

FAS cont‟d • Growth in the facial region often affected – widely set eyes – wide flat nose .

FAS cont‟d • May show near normal intelligence to profound mental retardation • ______ of children with FAS show speech-language problems • All aspects of language may be affected • Often have associated – ____________________________ – _________________________ .

Brain Injury • Approximately 1 million children and adolescents in US are affected • Auto accidents are leading cause • Difficulties with ______________________________ .