Power Amplifier Design

TriQuint MMIC Design Training

AWR Confidential

Summary • An Example of a 2.5 GHz Amplifier to Show:
– – – – – – – – – –
2 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential

Setting hotkeys and customizing the AWRDE Creating and editing schematics and layouts Using TriQuint DRC and LVS Simulation and tuning Optimization and using statistics Nonlinear noise analysis and contributors Routing iNets Automated Circuit Extraction (ACE) Axiem System analysis

Slide Notation
• This class is a step by step tutorial on the AWR Design Environment. • Complete instructions are provided in the text and in the screen shots / pictures on each slide • The graphic below is always shown on slides where there is interaction with the Project, Elements, or Layout tabs of the AWR project manager. The correct tab for the required action is always selected indicating to the user where the items they are looking for are located.

3 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential

5 GHz PA Amplifier Target Design .2.

Target Design • 3-D view of the target design 5 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

Loading Libraries (PDK’s) .

it must be installed on your computer (this procedure is how all PDK’s in the AWRDE are installed) • Browse to the installer file (TQOR_TQPEDi_1_1_2x_xx.Libraries .msi) in the folder that was provided to the class and run the installer • Accept all the default settings Note: Your PDK version number will be different.Installing • Before using a PDK (Process Design Kit). 7 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

you can choose the specific version of the PDK you would like to use 8 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .Libraries • Start the AWRDE and read in a process definition by choosing File > New With Library > TQOR_TQPED • If you already had other versions installed.

Project Save • Save your project using File > Save Project As • Choose any project name… 9 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

5” for the Start frequency and check the box next to Single Point Click Apply before clicking OK 10 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .Project Frequencies • • • • Go to Options > Project Options Click on the Frequencies tab Enter “2.

Setting Hotkeys .

Hotkeys • Add a couple of custom hot keys by choosing Tools > Hotkeys Note: We can customize: • Hotkeys • Toolbars • Menubars 12 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

and Alt keys in addition to letters to make a hotkey. Ctrl. 13 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .Hotkeys . choose Window and then select WindowTileHorizontal Click in the “Press the new hotkeys” field and then press the “H” key Leave Standard as the editor Press the Assign button Also assign the “V” key to “WindowTileVertical” Also assign the “R” key to “EditRotateRight” (under Edit category) Note: You can use the Shift.2 • • • • • • For Categories.

Creating And Editing Schematics (Unified Database / Editing Layouts) .

New Circuit Schematics • Go to the Project tab and make a new circuit schematic named “IV_Test” by right-clicking on Circuit Schematics and choosing New Schematic Note: It is generally a good idea not to use spaces. Use the underscore “_” instead. esp. with artwork cells. 15 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

16 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .RC in a blank spot of the toolbar browser area to see the choices. Equations Toolbar Standard Toolbar Schematic Design Toolbar Tip: There is a Schematic and Layout view associated with every circuit schematic.Layout View of Schematic • Open the layout view of the schematic by clicking on the View Layout button Note: There are several toolbar menus .

Clean Workspace • Tile the schematic and layout views by using the new “H” hotkey (or select Window > Tile Horizontal) Note: You can change the color of the layout background using a built-in script Scripts > Global Scripts > Examples > Toggle_Layout_Color 17 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

Element Placement • • • Elements are found on the Elements tab Element categories appear in the top of the pane. elements appear in the bottom Elements are placed by dragging from the bottom pane to the schematic and then letting go of the mouse – this pulls up a ghost image that can then be placed Elements tab 18 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

the element view can be changed by rightclicking in the lower pane of the “Elements” tab – Show Details is a common setting.Element View • Like Windows Explorer. 19 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential . Tip: The classification of the elements in the element browser is the same as in the Element catalog. Tip: You can get help on any element by RC > Element Help.

Element Placement • Elements can also be placed using the Element button • You can also use the built-in hotkey Ctrl + L • This will bring up the “Add Circuit Element” dialog Note: Use Ctrl + click on the column header to change the field on which you search • With this dialog. you can find an element by typing in its name or searching by keyword in the description 20 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

Element Rotation • Prior to placement. • Vertical axis . elements can be rotated with the right mouse button Tip: You can also flip the elements about their horizontal axes using: • Horizontal axis .Shift + right mouse button. 21 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .Ctrl + right mouse button.

Element Categories
• Elements for this exercise can be found in the following categories:

Libraries > *TQOR TQPED > PHEMT >TOM3 > PHEMT_Instances > TQPED_EHSS_T3_Inst
MeasDevice > IV > IVCURVE • Ports, Grounds, and Subcircuits can be found on the tool bar (Schematic Design Toolbar)

Tip: Hot Keys • Port – Ctrl+P • Ground – Ctrl+G • Subcircuit – Ctrl+K
22 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential

Test Bench Assembly
• Assemble the schematic shown below
Note: The circled parameters are NOT using default values. Watch the schematic layout as you change the W and NG parameters.
TQPED_EHSS_T3i ID=EHSSi1 W=100 NG=20 TQPED_EHSS_T3_MB=EHSS_T3

2 1

IVCURVE ID=IV1 VSWEEP_start=0 V VSWEEP_stop=8 V VSWEEP_step=1 V VSTEP_start=0 V VSTEP_stop=1 V VSTEP_step=0.1 V

3

Swp

Step

23 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential

Test Bench Assembly

24 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential

Creating Graphs and Adding Measurements (Using Simulation) .

Adding Graphs • Add a new rectangular graph named “IV_Curves” by rightclicking on Graphs and choosing New Graph 26 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

Adding Measurements • Add a new measurement to the graph by right-clicking on the graph and choosing Add Measurement • Choose “Measurement Type” Nonlinear > Current and “Measurement” IVCurve and note that it points to IV_Test 27 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

Aplac • Copying measurements is a quick way to add similar measurements to the same graph or other graphs • You can copy a measurement by dragging an existing measurement onto the top of the graph icon • This method of copying works with Schematics. EM Structures. 28 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential . etc. System Diagrams. Yield Goals. Data Files.Duplicating Measurement . Optimization Goals.

it can be edited by double-clicking on it • Change one of the IVCurve measurements so that it uses the APLAC DC simulator and click OK 29 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .Aplac • Once the Measurement copy is created.Duplicating Measurement .

30 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .Simulation • Press the lightening bolt (Analyze) button to see the results.

Using Tuning .

Once a parameter is selected for tuning it will turn blue • Use tune tool to select parameters for tuning. Equations Toolbar 32 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .Tune Setup • Tune on the circuit by going back to the IV_Test schematic window and using the Tune Tool to select the W and NG parameters on the eHEMT.

Note: The Aplac and standard HB results change simultaneously 33 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .Tuning • Press the Tune button and use the sliders to vary W and NG and see the effect on the simulation results on the graph.

Tuning • Open the layout view of the “IV_Test” schematic • Also open a 3D layout view by clicking on the View 3D Layout button • Use your Tile Horizontal or Tile Vertical hotkeys to tile all four windows • Now tune on W and NG to see all four windows update simultaneously • Hold down the Ctrl key to see the layout views update real time 34 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

Tuning 35 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

Markers and Traces • Makers can be added to graphs by right-clicking on the graph and choosing Add Marker • The built-in hotkey for this is Ctrl+M • Add a marker at 4V VDS and 240 mA IDS • You can search for a specific point on a graph by right-clicking on the marker text and choosing Marker Search 36 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

Markers and Traces • If we select the trace where 4V. we can see the gate voltage on the bottom left of the screen 37 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential . 240mA lies and hold down the mouse button.

Building the Amplifier .

Create a New Schematic • Create a new schematic and name it “1Stage_Amp” • This schematic will need the following elements that can all be found under Libraries > *TQOR TQPED – Capacitors > Lumped > TQPED_CAPA (x3) – PHEMT >TOM3> PHEMT_Instances > TQPED_EHSS_T3_Inst (x2) – Resistors > Lumped > TQPED_RESW (x6) – Spirals > TQPED_MRIND (x1) – Vias and Pads > TQPED_SVIA (x3) – Vias and Pads > TQPED_PAD (x3) • These are standard elements – Ports > Port (x2) (Can also use Ctrl+P) – Ports > PORT_NAME (x1) 39 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

Look at the “\” on the symbol .5 um L=125. 40 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .8 pF A=1 W=66 um L=66 um TQPED_MRIND2 ID=L1 W=25 um S=20 um N=6 L1=145 um L2=150 um UNDERWIDTH=40 um LVS_IND="5" LT=Plated MSUB= SNAME="TQPED_MRIND" 1 2 1 TQPED_EHSS_T3i ID=EHSSi1 W=100 NG=20 TQPED_EHSS_T3_MB=EHSS_T3 PORT P=2 Z=50 Ohm PIN_ID=RF_OUT 3 TQPED_CAPA ID=C2 C=2.5 um TQPED_RESW ID=R2 R=100 Ohm W=5 um L=10 um TYPE=NiCr TQPED_SVIA ID=V3 W=90 um L=90 um Note: The orientation of the capacitors is important.that is pin 1.1Stage_Amp Schematic – Full View TQPED_PAD ID=VG TQPED_PAD ID=RF_IN TQPED_PAD ID=RF_OUT 1 1 TQPED_RESW ID=R4 R=2760/4 Ohm W=5 um TYPE=NiCr TQPED_RESW ID=R6 R=2760/4 Ohm W=5 um TYPE=NiCr VG_CHIP PORT P=1 Z=50 Ohm PIN_ID=RF_IN TQPED_CAPA ID=C1 C=2.8 pF A=1 TQPED_RESW ID=R1 R=2760/4 Ohm W=5 um TYPE=NiCr TQPED_RESW ID=R5 R=2760/4 Ohm W=5 um TYPE=NiCr TQPED_SVIA ID=V1 W=90 um L=90 um TQPED_SVIA ID=V2 W=90 um L=90 um 2 TQPED_EHSS_T3i ID=EHSSi2 1 W=10 NG=1 TQPED_EHSS_T3_MB=EHSS_T3 TQPED_RESW ID=R3 R=1000 Ohm W=50 um TYPE=HVR 3 TQPED_CAPA ID=C3 C=10 pF A=1 W=125.

1Stage_Amp Schematic – Resistor Bank TQPED_PAD ID=VG TQPED_PAD ID=RF_IN Hint: Use your new hotkey “R” to rotate the elements after placing them. 1 1 TQPED_RESW ID=R4 R=2760/4 Ohm W=5 um TYPE=NiCr TQPED_RESW ID=R6 R=2760/4 Ohm W=5 um TYPE=NiCr VG_CHIP PORT P=1 Z=50 Ohm PIN_ID=RF_IN TQPED_ ID=C1 C=2. Also. use copy and paste for multiple elements that are the same.8 p A=1 W=66 u L=66 um TQPED_RESW ID=R1 R=2760/4 Ohm W=5 um TYPE=NiCr TQPED_RESW ID=R5 R=2760/4 Ohm W=5 um TYPE=NiCr 41 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential TQPED_EHSS_T3i 2 TQPED_RESW .

1Stage_Amp Schematic – Active Bias TQPED_RESW ID=R1 R=2760/4 Ohm W=5 um TYPE=NiCr TQPED_RESW ID=R5 R=2760/4 Ohm W=5 um TYPE=NiCr PORT P=1 Z=50 Ohm PIN_ID=RF_IN T ID C A 2 TQPED_EHSS_T3i ID=EHSSi2 1 W=10 NG=1 TQPED_EHSS_T3_MB=EHSS_T3 TQPED_RESW ID=R3 R=1000 Ohm W=50 um TYPE=HVR 3 TQPED_CAPA ID=C3 C=10 pF A=1 W=125.5 um TQPED_RESW ID=R2 R=100 Ohm W=5 um L=10 um TYPE=NiCr TQPED_SVIA ID=V3 W=90 um L=90 um 42 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .5 um L=125.

8 pF A=1 TQPED_SVIA ID=V1 W=90 um L=90 um TQPED_SVIA ID=V2 W=90 um L=90 um TQPED_RESW ID=R3 R=1000 Ohm W=50 um TYPE=HVR QPED_CAPA D=C3 =10 pF =1 43 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .8 pF A=1 W=66 um L=66 um PORT P=1 Z=50 Ohm PIN_ID=RF_IN 2 1 TQPED_EHSS_T3i ID=EHSSi1 W=100 NG=20 TQPED_EHSS_T3_MB=EHSS_T3 PORT P=2 Z=50 Ohm PIN_ID=RF_OUT 3 TQPED_CAPA ID=C2 C=2.1Stage_Amp Schematic – Active Bias TQPED_PAD ID=RF_IN TQPED_PAD ID=RF_OUT See next slides for details on setting inductor parameters TQPED_MRIND2 ID=L1 W=25 um S=20 um N=6 L1=145 um L2=150 um UNDERWIDTH=40 um LVS_IND="5" LT=Plated MSUB= SNAME="TQPED_MRIND" 1 1 ED_RESW R6 760/4 Ohm 5 um E=NiCr TQPED_CAPA ID=C1 C=2.

Secondary Parameters • You will need to modify some of the secondary parameters of the inductor • Right-click on the inductor symbol and choose Properties • Click on the Show Secondary button to expose all the parameters • You will need to add a PIN_ID parameter to Port 2 called “RF_OUT” 44 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

Secondary Parameters • Make sure the parameters of your inductor match these: 45 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

Schematic Layout .Placement .

1 um • Choose Options > Layout Options • Change the grid spacing to “0.Amplifier Layout • We want to make the layout snap 0.1” um 47 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

Amplifier Layout • Open the layout view of the “1Stage_Amp” schematic. It might look something like this (a mess) 48 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

gds from your Training folder 49 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .Importing GDSII Libraries • Import a GDSII library into AWRDE by switching to the Layout tab and right-clicking on Cell Libraries > Import GDSII Library • Import Class_Lib.

click on the Layout tab and click on the Cell Library called Class_Lib • Toward the lower left corner.Amplifier Layout • With your schematic layout view open. you will see a Layout Cell called Class_Lib • Drag this cell into the layout window Click here Then drag from here 50 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

Amplifier Layout • The schematic layout should now look like this 51 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

Amplifier Layout • • • Place all your components so they match the footprints given in the artwork cell (use Ctrl key while dragging to enable snap models) This will be demonstrated You will notice that you end up missing three “RF OUT” bondpads 52 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

Vector Instance • • • Open the schematic view of the amplifier Right click on the TQPED_PAD called “RF_OUT” and choose Properties Click on the Vector tab and enter “[0:3]” 53 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

Busses are denoted by thick wires Double-click on the wire name to edit and change it from “B1[0:3]” to “B1” TQPED_PAD ID=RF_OUT[0:3] TQPED_PAD ID=RF_OUT[0:3] 1 1 2 1 B1[0:3] TQPED_EHSS_T3i ID=EHSSi1 W=100 NG=20 TQPED_EHSS_T3_MB=EHSS_T3 PORT P=2 Z=50 Ohm PIN_ID=RF_OUT 1 2 B1 TQPED_EHSS_T3i ID=EHSSi1 W=100 NG=20 TQPED_EHSS_T3_MB=EHSS_T3 PORT P=2 Z=50 Ohm PIN_ID=RF_OUT 3 3 54 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .Vector Instance • • • After creating a vector instance the schematic wire will default to be a “bus” instead of a wire. not connected to individual bus lines. This is not what we want as all the bond pads should be shorted to each other.

The layout should now look something like this: • 55 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .Vector Instance • • • Open the layout view of the schematic. select the footprint artwork cell and delete it (Ctrl + Shift in conjunction with Left Mouse Click provides “cycle select” capability. and you will now see 4 instances of the “RF_OUT” bond pad Place these appropriately When finished. which might be needed to select the artwork cell).

Associating Artwork with Schematic Elements • Open the schematic view of the amplifier • Open the properties dialog of Port 2 • Click on the Layout tab and select RECT_PIN 56 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

Associating Artwork with Schematic Elements • Open the layout view of the amplifier • Find the layout for Port 2. right-click on it and select Shape Properties • Change the Line Type to “Metal2” 57 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

Associating Artwork with Schematic Elements • • • Move and stretch the RECT_PIN so it encompasses all the RF_OUT pads To stretch the RECT_PIN. double-click on it to bring up the drag handles Use the Ctrl key to snap the corners of the RECT_PIN to the corners of the pads 58 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

Associating Artwork with Schematic Elements • • • Repeat the same steps for both the PORT 1 and VG_CHIP elements. this time using the RECT_PIN layout to “overlap” their corresponding individual TQPED_PAD layouts This time leave the Line Type at Metal0 in the Shape Properties dialog Hold down Ctrl to snap to corners 59 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

and edit the parameters to match what is below: TQPED_TEXT ID=T3 TEXT="Example\nPED Amp" XSPACE=10 um YSPACE=10 um SIZE=Large TQOR TEXT 60 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .Adding Text to Layout • • • • Open the schematic view of the amplifier Click on the Elements tab Browse for TQPED_TEXT under Libraries > *TQOR TQPED > Shortcuts > Text Drag the TQPED_TEXT element into the schematic.

Adding Text to Layout • Open the layout view of the amplifier • Put the text wherever you like 61 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

Changing Layout Parameters
• It is possible to change some parameters of certain PDK elements that only affect their layout • Right-click on the large cap on the bottom left of the amplifier and select Shape Properties • Click on the Parameters tab and change M1Top from “0” to “1” . Notice how the layout changed. • Do the same for the other two caps

62 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential

Changing Layout Parameters
• We also want to change some of the shape properties of the larger eHEMT device. • Change DFING_LT, SFING_LT, and DPAD_LT from “0” to “2” • Change GPAD_LT from “0” to “1”

63 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential

Schematic Layout - Routing

iNet Routing • iNets are intelligent paths that can be used to draw electrical connectivity in layout • The linetype and default width of the iNet is controlled in the Routing Properties dialog • Bring up this dialog by clicking on the Show Routing Properties button 65 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

double-click on any red ratline 66 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .iNet Routing • Change the default width to “70” um and make sure the Line type is set to “Metal0” • To activate the iNet routing mode.

left-click at the center of the RF_IN pad (the cursor will snap to the center of the pad) • Move the mouse to the left and double-click on the center of the nearest capacitor 67 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .iNet Routing • To start routing.

the ratline disappears • Repeat this procedure by connecting the two smaller capacitors with a 70um net on Metal1 • To change the line type mid-route.iNet Routing • Notice when the route is complete. 68 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential . hit Ctrl+Shift and roll the mouse wheel • Then connect the center capacitor to the larger capacitor with a 70um net on Metal0.

iNet Routing
• Continue routing until you have a layout that looks something like this:

69 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential

Shape iNets
• For the traces that connect the large eHEMT to the rest of the MMIC, instead of using standard iNets, we will use shape iNets • Draw a rectangle on Metal1 that connects the gate of the device to the inductor and the HVR resistor • To draw the rectangle, first click on the Layout tab and select the Metal1 draw layer. • Next, click on the Draw Rectangle button and draw the rectangle.

70 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential

Shape iNets
• The rectangle should look like this:

71 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential

• Then right-click and select Associate Net Routes • Notice that the ratlines disappear 72 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential . select the rectangle and one of the ratlines.Shape iNets • While holding down Shift.

Shape iNets • Repeat the same procedure for the drain connection. 73 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential . but this time draw a 6-sided polygon using the Draw Polygon button • This time use Metal2 Hint: Use the Ctrl key to snap to vertices.

74 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential . There should be no ratlines.Shape iNets • This is what the completed layout should look like.

Schematic Layout .Verification .

Verification • Run a quick DRC / LVS on this complete design • Choose Scripts > Global Scripts > Run_TQOR_ICED_v8 76 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

• Choose ICED DRC only (note that mailDRC is supported).Verification . • Press OK 77 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .DRC • Start by browsing to the paths of ICED and the TriQuint verification project (should be the same as shown below).

• When finished choose DRC > Clear DRC errors. 78 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .Verification . double-click on errors to zoom in on them.DRC • After the DRC is complete the errors will appear in the AWRDE DRC Error Viewer. • If desired. • Tile out the DRC error window and the Layout Window.

LVS • Re-run the script. • Click OK 79 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential . this time choosing ICED LVS only.Verification . • Note that all paths and options are remembered on subsequent runs so browsing is not necessary.

• Tile out the LVS error window. 80 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .LVS • After the LVS is complete the errors will appear in the AWRDE LVS Error Viewer. the Layout Window and the Schematic Window. • When finished chose DRC > Clear LVS errors. which cross probes between the schematic and layout.Verification .

Load Pull Analysis .

either press the “Subcircuit” button or use Ctrl+K SUBCKT ID=S1 NET="1Stage_Amp" VG_CHIP=VG_CHIP 1 RF_OUT 82 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .Load Pull • Create a new schematic called “Load_Pull” • We want to place an instance of “1Stage_Amp” into the Load_Pull schematic. • To insert a subcircuit into a schematic.

and choose Properties • Click on the Symbol tab • Change the number of nodes to “2” and click on AMP@system.Changing Symbols • We want to change the symbol for the 1Stage_Amp subcircuit to something more meaningful • Right-click on the 1Stage_Amp subcircuit.syf in the list of symbols 83 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

5 Ang=0 Deg Zo=50 Ohm PORT1 P=1 Z=50 Ohm Pwr=12 dBm 1 2 3:Bias PORT P=2 Z=50 Ohm DCVS ID=V2 V=VG V DCVS ID=V1 V=VD V Hint: This element is an NCONN. and NCONN names are case-sensitive 84 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .Load Pull • Create the schematic shown below • Use Ctrl+L to find the elements by the element name VG_CHIP SUBCKT ID=S1 NET="1Stage_Amp" VG_CHIP=VG_CHIP LTUNER2 ID=TU1 Mag=0.

and since they will most likely be used in more that one place. • Click on the Equation button to enter values for VG and VD • When entering equations. it will be easiest to define them globally • Double-click on Global Definitions in the Project browser. if you click Shift+Enter you can enter the next equation on a new line Note: Variables are case-sensitive 85 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .Global Definitions • VG and VD need to be defined.

Adding DC Annotations • To make sure the active device is being biased properly. click on the Annotation button • This will bring up the Add Annotation dialog which is very similar to the Add Measurement dialog • Select DCIA and click Apply • Select DCVA_N and click OK • Don’t forget to change the simulator to Aplac DC 86 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential . we need to add DC annotations • With the “Load_Pull” schematic open.

24 V 0.28 V 0.717 V 0 mA 0.8 pF A=1 3 TQPED_SVIA TQPED_SVIA ID=V2 0.DC Annotations • Click on the Simulate button to make the DC annotations appear on the schematic • Select the “1Stage_Amp” subcircuit and click on the Edit Subcircuit button to descend into the subcircuit • Note that the annotations are also included in the subcircuit TQPED_PAD ID=VG TQPED_PAD ID=RF_IN TQPED_PAD ID=RF_OUT[0:3] 1 VG_CHIP 2.8 V 0 mA 1 0 mA 1 #1: 0 V #2: 0 V #3: 0 V #0: 0 mA #1: 0 mA TQPED_EHSS_T3i #2: 0 mA ID=EHSSi1 #3: 0 mA W=100 1.87e-6 mA 0.721 V 3 0.749 mA TQPED_CAPA ID=C3 C=10 pF A=1 TQPED_RESW ID=R6 R=100 Ohm W=5 um TYPE=NiCr 0 mA TQPED_SVIA ID=V1 W=90 um L=90 um 0.753 mA 0V 0 mA 0.753 mA 1.717 V 0.753 mA TQPED_CAPA ID=C1 C=2.753 mA 0.749 mA TQPED_TEXT ID=T1 TEXT="Example\nPED Amp" XSPACE=10 um YSPACE=10 um SIZE=Large TQOR TEXT 87 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .749 mA 0.8 pF A=1 TQPED_MRIND2 ID=L1 W=25 um S=20 um N=6 LVS_IND="5" NG=20 TQPED_EHSS_T3_MB=EHSS_T3 B1[0:3] 2 3.00403 mA PORT P=2 Z=50 Ohm PIN_ID=RF_OUT TQPED_RESW ID=R1 R=1000 Ohm W=50 um TYPE=HVR TQPED_CAPA ID=C2 C=2.7 V 253 mA 1 2.075 V 0.00403 mA 0.65e-5 V 0 mA TQPED_EHSS_T3i ID=EHSSi2 W=10 NG=1 TQPED_EHSS_T3_MB=EHSS_T3 2 1 6.76 V TQPED_RESW ID=R2 R=2760/4 Ohm W=5 um TYPE=NiCr TQPED_RESW ID=R3 R=2760/4 Ohm W=5 um TYPE=NiCr TQPED_RESW ID=R4 R=2760/4 Ohm W=5 um TYPE=NiCr TQPED_RESW ID=R5 R=2760/4 Ohm W=5 um TYPE=NiCr PORT P=1 Z=50 Ohm 0.749 mA 0.00278 V ID=V3 W=90 um 253 mA W=90 um L=90 um L=90 um 127 mA 127 mA 1.

We are going to use APLAC. Make sure this is PORT_2 Change simulator to Aplac HB Don’t forget to check dBm 88 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential . there must be a measurement for the parameter we are trying to optimize • Add a rectangular graph called “LoadPull Pout” and add the following measurement to it.Load Pull Wizard • In order to conduct load pull.

Load Pull Wizard • To start the Load Pull Wizard. expand the Wizards node in the Project browser and double-click on AWR Load Pull Wizard • You will get this dialog 89 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

and the Radius to “0. the Center Ang to “180”.Load Pull Wizard • Click on the Add button to choose a measurement • We only have one measurement.4” • Click on Coarse and click Set Center and Radius (very important) • The Smith Chart will update to show the points that will be swept 90 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .5”. so the choice is easy • Name the data file “Pout_Data” • Change the Center Mag to “0.

Load Pull Wizard • Click Simulate to start the load pull sweep 91 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

25 92 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential . choose Modify Measurement. you will see a Smith Chart with load pull contours • To get rid of “extra” contours. and increase the Contour Min value to 23 or 24 • You may also want to change the Countour Step to 0. right-click on the graph.Load Pull Wizard • When the simulation is complete. select the LPCS measurement.

Load Pull Wizard • Add a measurement to the Smith Chart called “LPCSMAX” and click Simulate to update the plot • Add a marker to the LPCSMAX point 93 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

the graph needs to be re-normalized to 50 Ohms • Open the graph properties dialog and click on the Markers tab • Change Z or Y display to be “Denormalized to 50.0 Ohms” 94 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .Re-Normalizing Graph • To get a more meaningful impedance value from the Smith Chart.

Re-Normalizing Graph • Now click on the Traces tab and change the weight of the second trace to make the marker more bold 95 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

Load Pull Wizard • The marker will look like this after denormalization 96 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

Creating And Editing Schematics (Part 2) Simple Output Match .

Populating a New Schematic • Create a new schematic called “Output_Match”.7 nH CAP ID=C1 C=100 pF CAP ID=C2 C=2 pF PORT P=2 Z=50 Ohm 98 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential . VD_MODULE IND ID=L1 L=4 nH PORT P=1 Z=50 Ohm IND ID=L2 L=1.

Tuning the Output Match • Add an S11 measurement of the Output_Match circuit to the “Load Pull Data Contour Graph” 99 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

Tuning the Output Match • Simulate. and the graph should look like this 100 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

Nonlinear Simulation .

Adding Subcircuits • Create another new schematic called “Packaged_Amp” • Associate the new schematic with the AWR_Module LPF • Insert “1Stage_Amp” and “Output_Match” subcircuits into the schematic SUBCKT ID=S1 NET="1Stage_Amp" VG_CHIP=VG_CHIP SUBCKT ID=S2 NET="Output_Match" VD_MODULE=VD_MODULE 1 RF_OUT 1 2 102 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

1 Ohm L=0.Approximating Bondwires • • • • Change the symbol for the 1Stage_Amp subcircuit like we did before Now we want to add equivalent bondwire models to the schematic using the SRL elements (Elements > Inductors > SRL) Change the R and L values of the SRL element to match what is below This element is called NCONN and is located under Interconnects GND_MODULE VD_MODULE VG_MODULE VG_CHIP SRL ID=LbondVCC1 R=0.7 nH PORT P=1 Z=50 Ohm SUBCKT ID=S1 NET="1Stage_Amp" VG_CHIP=VG_CHIP SUBCKT ID=S2 NET="Output_Match" VD_MODULE=VD_MODULE 1 SRL ID=LbondIn1 R=0.07 Ohm L=0.7 nH 2 PORT P=2 Z=50 Ohm 103 SRL ID=LbondOut1 R=0.1 Ohm L=0.3 nH TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

. Xn VD_MODULE SUBCKT ID=S1 NET="Packaged_Amp" GND_MODULE=GND_MODULE VD_MODULE=VD_MODULE VG_MODULE=VG_MODULE DCVS ID=V1 V=VD V PORT P=2 Z=50 Ohm DCVS ID=V2 V=VG V VG_MODULE GND_MODULE PORT1 P=1 Z=50 Ohm Pwr=Pin dBm 104 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .Nonlinear Test Bench • • • Create a new Schematic named “Power_Sweep” Insert the “Packaged_Amp” subcircuit and change the symbol to look like a two-port amp Populate the schematic so it looks like this: SWPVAR ID=SWP1 VarName="Pin" Values=stepped(0.1) UnitType=None Don’t forget quotation marks.12. Xo Pin=12 . . Pin must be explicitly defined.

Nonlinear Test Bench • Add DC voltage and current annotations to the Power_Sweep schematic • Click on the “Packaged_Amp” subcircuit. and click the Edit Subcircuit button • • Click on the “1Stage_Amp” subcircuit. and click the Edit Subcircuit button again Zoom in on the active device to make sure it is biased properly 105 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

Nonlinear Measurement • We now want to create a plot of Pout vs Pin • Create a new rectangular graph called “Power Sweep” • Add the following measurement to the graph 106 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

Nonlinear Measurement • Click Simulate and your graph should look like this: • Duplicate the Pcomp measurement using the “drag and drop” technique 107 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

Nonlinear Measurement • Modify the new measurement to measure power gain These are NOT the default values 108 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

Nonlinear Measurement • Simulate. and your graph will look like this 109 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

The “PlotVs” Measurement makes it easy to plot any single measurement vs. Output Power first make a new rectangular graph and then add the measurement shown below. 110 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential . another.Plotting One Measurement Vs Another • • • To plot Gain vs. In this case the plot uses the existing Output Power and Gain measurements.

Plotting One Measurement Vs Another • The “PlotVs” plot is shown below. 111 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

Using MPROBE • AWR has a unique measurement probe called MPROBE that allows the user to make virtually any kind of measurement on their circuit and have the results update real-time Open the 1Stage_Amp circuit and place an MPROBE at the gate of the output eHEMT To place an MPROBE. click on the Measurement Probe button TQPED_PAD ID=RF_OUT[0:3] • • 1 M_PROBE ID=VP1 2 B1 TQPED_EHSS_T3i ID=EHSSi1 W=100 NG=20 TQPED_EHSS_T3_MB=EHSS_T3 PORT P=2 Z=50 Ohm PIN_ID=RF_OUT 1 3 TQPED_SVIA ID=V2 W=90 um L=90 um TQPED_SVIA ID=V3 W=90 um L=90 um 112 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

SWP1” Note: Do NOT click OK before continuing to the next slide 113 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .Using MPROBE • • • • • Add a new rectangular graph called “Waveforms” Open the “Add Measurement” dialog and choose the Vtime measurement under Nonlinear > Voltage Choose Power_Sweep as the “Data Source Name” Choose M_PROBE.VP1 as the “Measurement Component” Choose Plot all traces for “Sweep Freq” and choose Pin=13 for “SWPVAR.

Using MPROBE • Click Apply. then add the equivalent measurement using Itime under Nonlinear > Current 114 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

Using MPROBE • Your graph should look like this 115 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

Using MPROBE • • Open the Graph Properties and click on the Measurements tab Click the AutoStack button 116 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

Using MPROBE • Your graph will now look like this 117 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

Using MPROBE • • Now with only the 1Stage_Amp schematic and the Waveforms graph tiled horizontally. start moving the MPROBE around in the schematic. Note: the MPROBE must be placed within 1 grid space of an element node for it to work 118 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

Using MPROBE • • • MPROBE also has a dynamic mode Right-click on the MRPOBE and select Dynamic Probe Now you can click anywhere in the circuit and even ascend/descend hierarchy • Disable the time-domain measurements when done 119 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

Nonlinear Noise Analysis .

let’s create a noise analysis test bench Using the same “drag and drop” technique used to duplicate a measurement.Nonlinear Noise Analysis – Duplicate Schematic • • Before running Noise Analysis. duplicate the “Power_Sweep” schematic and rename it to “Noise_Sweep” 121 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

Nonlinear Noise Analysis – NLNOISE Block • Open the Noise_Sweep schematic and delete the SWPVAR block • Using the Add Element button (or Ctrl + L).5 SUBCKT ID=S1 NET="Packaged_Amp" GND_MODULE=GND_MODULE VD_MODULE=VD_MODULE VG_MODULE=VG_MODULE VD_MODULE VG_MODULE GND_Module PORT1 P=1 Z=50 Ohm Pwr=Pin dBm DCVS ID=V1 V=VD V PORT P=2 Z=50 Ohm DCVS ID=V2 V=VG V 122 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential . add an NLNOISE block to the schematic NLNOISE ID=NS1 PortTo=2 PortFrom=1 NFstart=0.1 GHz NFend=0.2 GHz NFsteps=5 SwpType=LINEAR LSTone={1} SSTone=2 Pin=12.

Nonlinear Noise Analysis – NLNOISE Block • Modify the NLNOISE block so the parameters match what is shown below
NLNOISE ID=NS1 PortTo=2 PortFrom=1 NFstart=0.01 GHz NFend=0.01 GHz NFsteps=1 SwpType=LINEAR LSTone=1 SSTone=2

123 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential

Nonlinear Noise Analysis – NOIS Parameter
• Open the 1Stage_Amp schematic and double-click on one of the eHEMT devices • Click on the Parameters tab and click Show Secondary • Change the NOIS parameter to “1”

• Repeat the same steps for the other eHEMT device
124 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential

Nonlinear Noise Analysis - Measurement
• Create a new rectangular graph and name it “NL Noise”

• Right-click on the graph and choose Add New Measurement

125 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential

and make sure to check the dBm box 126 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .Measurement • Choose NPo_NL_BW under Nonlinear > Noise • Select Noise_Sweep as the source • Change the Measurement Bandwidth to “30e3”.Nonlinear Noise Analysis . change the Simulator to APLAC HB.

Nonlinear Noise Analysis .Measurement • Click Simulate to see the results on the graph 127 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

Nonlinear Noise Analysis – Noise Contributors • Click Scripts > Global Scripts > NL_Noise_APLAC (Main) • Choose Noise Power and Both then click OK 128 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

click on the Info tab in the Status window and search for • Click on the links to bring up lists of the nonlinear noise contributors 129 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .Nonlinear Noise Analysis – Noise Contributors • This will run the Nonlinear Noise Contributors script through the APLAC native noise simulator • When the simulation is complete.

Nonlinear Noise Analysis – Noise Contributors • Disable the Nonlinear Noise Measurement when done 130 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

Yield Analysis .

we need to import a script with a special histogram function • Click on the Scripting Editor button to open the scripting editor • Right-click where you see your project name in the scripting editor’s Project browser.Yield Analysis • Before running Yield Analysis.bas in C:\Training_Extra\Scripts • Close the scripting editor and save the project 132 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential . and choose Import • Browse to Equations.

• Go to the Power_Sweep Schematic and change the step size on the “Pin” sweep to 5. . let’s trim down the number of simulation points. . Xn 133 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .5) UnitType=None Xo . SWPVAR ID=SWP1 VarName="Pin" Values=stepped(0.Yield Analysis • Before running Yield Analysis.12.

1)|)[X.3] Pout: Pout=Pout+30 Note: See next slide for details on adding the “Pout” Output Equation 134 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .Adding Equations For Histograms • Add the following equations to Output Equations by double-clicking on Output Equations in the Project Browser • Note that 30 is added to Pout to convert from dBW to dBm Output Equation Regular Equations Pout = Power_Sweep:DB(|Pcomp(PORT_2.

not Plot all Values 135 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .Adding Equations For Histograms • When adding the Pout Measurement Equation note that the input power sweep is set to Pin = 10 dBm.

• The YieldHist() function is used to plot yield histograms. 0. dataFileName) x=YieldHist( Pout. binStop. binStart. binStep. YieldHist(value.Adding Equations For Histograms • Add the following text and equation to Output Equations. "Pout_10dBm_In") 136 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .25. 30. 20.

Note that “x” by itself has no meaning. 137 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential . but this measurement causes the histogram to update during each Monte Carlo Iteration.Adding Graph For Histograms • • • Add a Graph called “Generate Histogram” Add a measurement that plots the value of “x” from the Output Equation added on the previous slide.

TQPED_PROC ID=TQPED KIS=1 KVPD=0 KVPE=0 KEGCS=1 KMIM=1 KRNI=1 KRSH=1.TriQuint Process Yield Analysis • • For TriQuint libraries all yield analysis is controlled by the PROCESS block on the Global Definitions Page Double-click on it to see the different variables and their yield analysis setup.008 KRHV=1 KHSILK=0 KHMILK=0 KHSPLK=1 KHMPLK=1 MODEL 138 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

Statistics tab for the individual components or substrates. yield setup is done in the “Element Options” dialog. set up the series “L” in the Output_Match schematic as a 10% part with Gaussian distribution edit as follows. For example.Standard Component Yield Analysis • • For all other components. IND ID=L2 L=1.905 nH 139 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

but are under the Yield Analysis node.Running Yield Analysis • • • • Yield Goals are set up the same as Optimization Goals used previously. Choose Simulate > Yield Analysis to bring up the Yield Simulation control. They are not required to run yield and look at the performance variation. 140 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential . Change the Maximum Iterations to “50” and press the Start button.

Viewing Monte Carlo Traces • As the Yield Analysis runs (may take a bit on slow training machines and with a power sweep) the performance variation is displayed on the graphs. 141 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

Make the changes shown below. 142 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .Viewing Monte Carlo Traces • • The Graph Properties (right-click on the graph and choose Properties) control this display on the Yield Data tab.

Viewing Monte Carlo Traces • Now the Graph will only show the minimum and maximum performance. 143 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

Column 1 is the input power and column 2 is the output power.Plotting Histograms • • • Make a new Graph called “Pout Histogram” Add a PlotCol Measurement to this Graph as shown below. 144 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential . This measurement is plotting the histogram data from the YieldHist() equation that is now stored in the Pout_10dBm_In data file.

choose Properties. click on the Traces tab. 145 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential . and change the “Type” to Histogram The data is very coarse because only 50 simulations were run.Plotting Histograms • • Right-click on the graph.

Plotting Histograms • Disable all measurements on the “Pout Histogram” and “Generate Histogram” graphs by right-clicking on the graphs in the Project browser and choosing Disable All Measurements 146 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

Click on Clear in the Yield Analysis window 147 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .Resetting Trace Properties • • Return to any Graph Properties that were adjusted and recheck “Show traces” and “All traces” on the Yield Data tab.

Yield Analysis • Reset the Power_Sweep Schematic SWPVAR block to use 1 dB steps.12. . . SWPVAR ID=SWP1 VarName="Pin" Values=stepped(0. Xn 148 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .1) UnitType=None Xo .

Automated Circuit Extraction (ACE) .

The EXTRACT Block • Open the schematic and layout views of the 1Stage_Amp schematic and tile them • Insert an EXTRACT block using the element finder • Change the settings to match what is below EXTRACT ID=EX1 EM_Doc="EM_Extract_Nets" Name="EM_Extract" Simulator=ACE X_Cell_Size=1 um Y_Cell_Size=1 um STACKUP="TQPED_STACK" Override_Options=Yes Hierarchy=On Name of the extracted EM structure Name of the group of extracted elements Simulator of choice X and Y grid size Which STACKUP to use (in Global Defs) Should the extraction happen if this is in hierarchy? 150 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

The STACKUP • Open the Global Definitions • Double-click on the TQPED STACKUP element • The Material Defs. tab is where all the different materials used in the stackup are defined 151 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

The STACKUP • The Dielectric Layers tab defines the thickness of each layer and allows you to scale the way they are drawn so the 3D view of the EM structure is easier to see 152 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

vias.The STACKUP • The Materials tab defines the thickness of material (conductors. etc) 153 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

The STACKUP • The EM Layer Mapping tab defines which EM layer each drawing layer maps to. as well as which material it uses 154 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

The STACKUP • Click on the Line Type tab to see how each line type is mapped into the EM structure 155 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

ACE Extraction – Selecting iNets • Close the Global Definitions window and return to the layout view of 1Stage_Amp • Select the blue iNet connecting the capacitors to the spiral inductor • Right-click and choose Element Properties 156 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

NOTE: You can use Shift to multi-select nets 157 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .ACE Extraction – Selecting iNets • • Click on the “Model Options” tab and check the box next to “Enable” That means this net is now included in the extract group called “EM_Extract” • Repeat the same procedure for all the other iNets we routed (not the shapes).

ACE Extraction – Selecting iNets • Click once one the EXTRACT block to highlight the selected nets in both the schematic and layout views 158 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

ACE Extraction • Click Simulate and a window will pop up showing a 2D view of the extracted traces • Click on the “View EM 3D Layout” button to get a better view of the extracted nets 159 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

ACE Extraction • 3D view of extracted nets 160 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

or make it larger so the extracted elements are easier to view 161 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .ACE Extraction – 3D Annotation • Click on the EM Annotation button to bring up the Add Annotation dialog • Choose ERC > EXT_CKT3D as the measurement • You can leave the symbol at its default value of “10e-6”.

ACE Extraction – 3D Annotation • Click Simulate and your 3D view will now show the extracted components 162 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

and note the change in the 3D EM view 163 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential . open the schematic view of 1Stage_Amp Double-click on the EXTRACT block and click on the ACE tab Change Max Coupled Dist to “20” um Click Simulate.ACE Extraction – Coupling • • • • • We may want to include coupling effects in our simulation results To “turn on” coupling.

ACE Extraction – Coupling 164 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

ACE Extraction • You can enable and disable the EXTRACT block to compare the simulation results with and without the traces extracted • To see a netlist representation of what is being extracted. open the Status window and click on the link that looks like this: • This will show you a netlist of every element that was used in the extracted document 165 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

disable the EXTRACT block on the schematic. Press Ctrl + F on the graph to freeze the traces. and re-simulate to compare the results with and without the extraction. • 166 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .EM Extraction – Verify Results • • The graphs now show the “merged” results that include the ACE simulations. RE-ENABLE THE EXTRACT BLOCK ON THE SCHEMATIC WHEN DONE.

Electromagnetic Extraction Using Axiem .

The EXTRACT Block • • • Use AXIEM to make a better model for the inductor Insert a new EXTRACT block in “1Stage_Amp” using the Element Finder Change the settings to match what is below Name of the extracted EM structure Name of the group of extracted elements Simulator of choice X and Y grid size Which STACKUP to use (in Global Defs) Should the extraction happen if this is in hierarchy EXTRACT ID=EX2 EM_Doc="EM_Extract_Ind" Name="EM_Extract_Ind" Simulator=AXIEM X_Cell_Size=10 um Y_Cell_Size=10 um STACKUP="TQPED_STACK" Override_Options=Yes Hierarchy=On 168 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

EXTRACT Frequencies • Double-click on the EXTRACT block and change the settings on each tab. For fast simulation on the training machines some simplified settings are used. and don’t forget the Apply button! • 169 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential . Set the Frequencies to go from DC to 12.5 GHz (5 harmonics) as shown.

EXTRACT Mesh Settings • Set the Mesh settings as shown 170 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

EXTRACT Axiem Settings • Set the Axiem settings as shown 171 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

Double-click on the inductor in the schematic. go to the Model Options tab. enable it for extraction and set the Group name to “EM_Extract_Ind” TQPED_MRIND2 ID=L2 W=25 um S=20 um N=6 L1=145 um L2=150 um UNDERWIDTH=40 um LVS_IND="5" LT=Plated MSUB= SNAME="TQPED_MRIND" Double-click 172 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .Axiem Extraction – Selecting iNets • • Similar to adding the nets to the ACE Extract group the inductor needs to be added to an Extract group.

Axiem Extraction – Selecting iNets • Click once one the EXTRACT block to make sure that it is associated with the inductor. 173 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

174 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential . Change the Opacity to 0. it will kick off an EM simulation of the inductor using Axiem This will obviously take longer than our ACE extraction because it is a full EM simulation When it is done simulating. open the 3D view of the extracted document Add a mesh annotation by clicking on the EM Annotation button and selecting Planar EM > EM_MESH_F.Axiem • • • • Now when you simulate.EM Extraction .5.

Y. and drag the arrows to rotate the plane • Some of the hotkeys for manipulating the cut plane are – Change cut axis: X. or Z – Flip cut axis: Shift + X. or Z 175 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential . click on the Use cut plane button • Drag the cut plane to move it.EM Extraction – Cut Planes • With the 3D view of the EM structure open. Y.

EM Extraction – Verify Results • • The graphs now show the “merged” results that include the ACE and Axiem simulations. Press Ctrl + F on the graph to freeze the traces. • 176 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential . and re-simulate to compare the results with and without the extraction. disable the EXTRACT blocks on the schematic. RE-ENABLE THE EXTRACT BLOCK ON THE SCHEMATIC WHEN DONE.

System Simulation ACPR and EVM .

Copying Schematics • Copy the “Power_Sweep” schematic by dragging and dropping it on the “Circuit Schematics” node in the “Project” tab. • Note the new schematic is named “Power_Sweep_1” 178 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

Renaming Schematics • Rename “Power_Sweep_1” to “System_Test_Bench” 179 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

Making a System Test Bench • On the System_Test_Bench delete the SWPVAR block • Replace the PORT1 element with a PORT_PS1 • Set the port power sweep to go from -30 dBm to 10 dBm in steps of 1 dB VD_MODULE SUBCKT ID=S1 NET="Packaged_Amp" GND_MODULE=GND_MODULE VD_MODULE=VD_MODULE VG_MODULE=VG_MODULE DCVS ID=V1 V=VD V PORT P=2 Z=50 Ohm DCVS ID=V2 V=VG V VG_MODULE GND_MODULE PORT_PS1 P=1 Z=50 Ohm PStart=-30 dBm PStop=10 dBm PStep=1 dB 180 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

New System Diagrams • Now go back to the “Project” tab and make a new System Diagram named “EDGE_Test_Bench” by right-clicking on System Diagrams and choosing New System Diagram 181 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

182 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential . • This instantiates the module circuit into the System Diagram.Instantiate Module in System • On the Elements tab find System_Test_Bench under Subcircuits > NL_S and place it on the “EDGE_Test_Bench”.

MPSK_SRC ID=A1 MOD=8-PSK OUTLVL=PWR OLVLTYP=Avg.Build Up System • Build the remainder of the circuit as shown below.708e5 CTRFRQ=2.3 PLSLN= VSA ID=M1 VARNAME="PWR" VALUES=PWR_SWEEP SWPCNT=2.5e4 PWR=5 PWR_SWEEP=stepped(-5. Power (dBm) RATE=2.12.5 GHz TP CDNG=Gray ID=IN PLSTYP=GMSK BUFSZ= ALPHA=0.1) SRC MEAS NL_S ID=S1 NET="System_Test_Bench" NOISE=Auto TP ID=OUT MEAS SRC VSA ID=M2 VARNAME="" VALUES=0 183 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

One measurement is high side (+250kHz) ACPR and one is low side (-250kHz) 184 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .ACPR Graph • • Make a new graph named “ACPR” and add the two measurements shown.

EVM Graph • Make a new graph named “EVM” and add the measurement shown. 185 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

Spectrum Graph • • Make a new graph named “Spectrum” and add the measurements shown Note that one measurement is input spectrum (TP.IN) and one is output spectrum (TP. Don’t forget to check dBm.OUT). 186 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

System Simulator • Tile the system diagram and graphs as shown and press the Run/Stop System Simulators button to start a new power sweep 187 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .

5 GHz Amplifier and learned how to: – Set hotkeys and customize the AWRDE – Create and edit schematics and layouts – Use TQ DRC and LVS – Simulate and tune – Optimize and use statistics – Use nonlinear noise analysis and contributors – Route iNets – Use ACE and Axiem in the “extraction flow” – Use system analysis (VSS) 188 TriQuint MMIC PA Design – AWR Confidential .Conclusion • We created a 2.