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Chapter 6: What’s Normal?

**Stats in Your World
**

BOCK & MARIANO

+ Ch. 6

What’s Normal?

Learning Objectives

**After this chapter, you should be able to…
**

**MEASURE position using percentiles
**

INTERPRET cumulative relative frequency graphs MEASURE position using z-scores TRANSFORM data DEFINE and DESCRIBE density curves

+ Ch. 6

What’s Normal

Learning Objectives (cont’d)

DESCRIBE and APPLY the 68-95-99.7 Rule DESCRIBE the standard Normal Distribution PERFORM Normal distribution calculations ASSESS Normality

Definition: The pth percentile of a distribution is the value with p percent of the observations less than it. the values in the round to theTo nearest integer. find the percentile. Example Deja earned a score of 86 on her test. What is the of thescore two students who earned an 80? + Describing Location in a Distribution Measuring Position: Percentiles . you should Her score greater than 21 of the 25 What percentile is the who earned a 72? percentile. scores 7 5777899 a 93? are below hers. so person if you get a decimal. calculate the percent of84%. How did she perform relative to the rest of the class? 6 If two 7 observations have thewas same value. they will be at the same Percentiles should be whole numbers. 7 2334 observations. or of the What is the percentile isof the person who earned distribution that are below both values. Deja is at the 84th 8 00123334 8 56 569 9 03 percentile inpercentile the class’s test distribution. Since 21 the 25. One way to describe the location of a value in a distribution is to tell what percent of observations are less than it.

This is why we need to incorporate a measure of spread (standard deviation) to have a really good understanding of how far above the mean she is. Deja might be just barely above average or really far above average. Depending on the spread of the distribution.Just knowing that Deja is 6 points above average doesn’t tell you much about her location in the distribution. + Describing Location in a Distribution Measuring Position: Percentiles .

The stemplot below shows the number of wins for each of the 30 Major League Baseball teams in 2009. + Describing Location in a Distribution Measuring Position: Percentiles . who won 103 games. who both won 65 games. who won 92 games. 3) The Kansas City Royals and Cleveland Indians. 2) The New York Yankees. Find the percentiles for the following teams: 1) The Colorado Rockies.

the standardized value of x is: x mean z standard deviation A standardized value is often called a z-score. The class mean is 80 and the standard deviation is 6.07. What is her standardized score? x mean 86 80 z 0. and in what direction.07 + Describing Location in a Distribution Measuring Position: z-Scores . Deja earned a score of 86 on her test. A z-score tells us how many standard deviations from the mean an observation falls. Definition: If x is an observation from a distribution that has known mean and standard deviation.99 standard deviation 6.

5 + Describing Location in a Distribution . The class mean was 80 and the standard deviation was 6. On which test did Deja perform better relative to the rest of her class? 86 80 z stats 6.07 z stats 0. The chemistry scores had a fairly symmetric distribution with a mean 76 and standard deviation of 4. Using z-scores for Comparison We can use z-scores to compare the position of individuals in different distributions. She earned a score of 82 on her chemistry test.07. Example Deja earned a score of 86 on her statistics test.99 82 76 zchem 4 zchem 1.

with 70 wins. Now go back to Slide 6 and find and interpret the z-scores for the following teams: a) The New York Yankees with 103 wins. Using z-scores for Comparison We can use z-scores to compare the position of individuals in different distributions. + Describing Location in a Distribution . b) The New York Mets.

5 inches. 1) Find and interpret the z-score of the student who is 65 inches tall. His height translates to a z-score of -0. What is the mean of the team members’ heights? + Describing Location in a Distribution . The standard deviation of basketball team members is 3. 2) Find and interpret the z-score of the student who is 74 inches tall.85 in the team’s height distribution. CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING Ms. 3) The student who is 76 inches tall is on the basketball team. Raskin’s Statistics class recorded their heights on a dotplot.

What grade earns that phone call? + Describing Location in a Distribution .0. what is your z-score? Your best friend got a 76. CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING On one test your class achieved an average grade of 80 with a standard deviation of 8 points.5? Ms. Raskin calls home whenever a student’s z-score is worse than -2. What is her z-score? What test grade has a z-score of +1. 1) 2) 3) 4) If you got a 96.

Those cereals average 7.5 grams. CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING In the last chapter.6 grams of sugar per serving with a standard deviation of 4. with a z-score of -0. we made boxplots for the number of calories and the fiber content in 23 kinds of Kellogg’s cereals.87! How many grams of sugar are in one serving? 3) Product 19 is very low in sugar. Now think about the sugar content. 1) Find the z-scores for the following cereals and describe what the z-score tells you about that cereal: 1) Frosted Flakes: 11g of sugar 2) Apple Jacks: 14g of sugar 3) Crispix: 3g of sugar 2) The z-score for Honey Smacks’ sugar content is a very high 3.8. How many grams of sugar are in a serving of this cereal? + Describing Location in a Distribution .

+ Describing Location in a Distribution . The mean fiber content for these cereals is 2. Which is more remarkable – the calorie content or the fiber content? Explain.2 grams.7 grams per serving with a standard deviation of 3. CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING The calorie content for 23 varieties of Kellogg’s cereals averages 109 calories per serving with a standard deviation of 22. A serving of Kellogg’s All-Bran with Extra Fiber has a very low 50 calories and a very high 14 grams of fiber.2 calories.

Raskin has just announced that the lower of your two test scores will be dropped (JK!) You got a 90 on Test 1 and an 80 on Test 2. If the mean on the first test was 88 with a standard deviation of 4 and the mean on the second was 75 with a standard deviation of 5. CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING Ms. She standardizes the scores in order to decide which is the lower one. which one will be dropped? Is this fair? + Describing Location in a Distribution . You’re all set to drop the 80 until she announces that she grades on a curve.

Times for the two events are added together. who won the gold medal with a combined time of 189.35 seconds. On which race did he do better compared with the competition? + Describing Location in a Distribution . CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING The men’s combined skiing event in the winter Olympics consists of two races: a downhill and a slalom. In the 2006 Winter Olympics.8356 seconds. the mean slalom time was 94. skied the slalom in 87.42 seconds. and the skier with the lowest total time wins.93 seconds and the downhill in 101.2714 seconds with a standard deviation of 1. Ted Ligety of the United States.

This is due to many factors. CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING A single-season home run record for Major League Baseball has been set just 3 times since Babe Ruth hit 60 home runs in 1927. dimensions of the parks. In an absolute sense. and possible use of performance-enhancing drugs. since he hit the most home runs in a single season. this may not be true. we should see how these performances rate relative to those of other hitters during the same year. Baseball historians suggest that hitting a home un has been easier in some eras than others. including quality of batters. in a relative sense. However. hardness of the baseball. To make a fair comparison. + Describing Location in a Distribution . Barry Bonds had the best performance of these four players. quality of pitchers.

CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING Compute the standardized scores for each performance. Which player had the most outstanding performance relative to his peers? + Describing Location in a Distribution .

A data value that sits right at the mean has a z-score of 0. + Normal Distributions That z-score jont: . A z-score of 1 means that the data value is 1 standard deviation above the mean. A z-score gives us an indication of how unusual a value is because it tells us how far it is from the mean. A z-score of -1 means that the data value is 1 standard deviation below the mean.

but there is a model that shows up over and over in Statistics. This model is called the Normal Model. the more unusual it is. There is no universal standard for z-scores. How far from 0 does a z-score have to be to be interesting or unusual? There is no universal standard. statistician + Normal Distributions What happens when a z-score is REALLY BIG? . but some are useful! -George Box. All models are wrong. but the larger (+/-) a z-score is.

Statisticians call them Normal models. Normal models are appropriate for distributions whose shapes are unimodel and roughly symmetric All Normal curves are symmetric. showing the mean µ and standard deviation σ. You may have heard of “bell-shaped curves”. + Normal Distributions Normal Distributions . single-peaked. Two Normal curves. and bellshaped A Specific Normal curve is described by giving its mean µ and standard deviation σ.

+ Normal Distributions . etc.). Many statistical inference procedures are based on Normal distributions. Any particular Normal distribution is completely specified by two numbers: its mean µ and standard deviation σ.σ). Normal distributions are good approximations of the results of many kinds of chance outcomes. •The mean of a Normal distribution is the center of the symmetric Normal curve. •We abbreviate the Normal distribution with mean µ and standard deviation σ as N(µ. Normal distributions are good descriptions for some distributions of real data (test scores. characteristics of biological populations. •The standard deviation is the distance from the center to the change-of-curvature points on either side. Normal Definition: Distributions A Normal distribution is described by a Normal density curve.

7 Rule In the Normal distribution with mean µ and standard deviation σ: •Approximately 68% of the observations fall within σ of µ.7% of the observations fall within 3σ of µ. Definition: The 68-95-99.7 Rule . they all have properties in common.Although there are many Normal curves. + Normal Distributions The 68-95-99. •Approximately 99. •Approximately 95% of the observations fall within 2σ of µ.

94? + Normal Distributions Example . Suppose the distribution is N(6. Indiana. a) b) c) Sketch the Normal density curve for this distribution.The distribution of Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS) vocabulary scores for 7th grade students in Gary.84.29 and 9. is close to Normal. What percent of ITBS vocabulary scores are less than 3. 1.55).74? What percent of the scores are between 5.

a) Sketch the Normal density curve for this distribution.5. 2.The distribution of heights of young women aged 18 – 24 is approximately Normal: N(64. b) What percent of young women have heights greater than 67 inches? What percent of young women have heights between 67 and 72 inches? c) + Normal Distributions Example .5).

a farmer notes that the eggs produced by his chickens have a mean weight of 60g and a standard deviation of 15g.0 hours and the standard deviation is 6. what percent of the farmer’s eggs will be classified as “small”? Eggs are classified as “jumbo” if their weight is 90g or more. within what time interval will 95% of the clean-up times fall? Over a long period of time. Assuming a Normal distribution. What percent of the farmer’s eggs will be “jumbo”? + Normal Distributions .8 hours. If eggs are classified by weight and “small” eggs are those having a weight of less than 45g. CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING The average clean-up time for a crew of a medium-sized firm is 84.

The average Dutch man is 184cm tall – just over 6 feet! The standard deviation of men’s heights is about 8cm. what percentage of all Dutch men should be over 2 meters (6’6”) tall? + Normal Distributions . use the 6895-99. Based on this model. CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING As a group. Label the axis clearly and indicate appropriate percentages.7 rule to sketch a model for the heights of Dutch men. the Dutch are among the tallest people in the world. Assuming the distribution is approximately Normal.

with a standard deviation of 2 minutes. Suppose a Normal model is appropriate for the distributions of driving times. Based on the 68-95-99. on average. CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING Let’s say it takes you 20 minutes. to drive to school.7 Rule: About how often will it take you between 18 and 22 minutes to get to school? How often will you arrive at school in less than 22 minutes? How often will it take you more than 24 minutes? + Normal Distributions .

CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING In the 2006 Winter Olympics men’s combined event. Jean Baptiste Grange of France skied the slalom in 88. about how many of the 35 skiers finishing the event would you expect skied the slalom faster than Jean-Baptiste? + Normal Distributions . If a Normal model is useful in describing slalom times.46 seconds – about 1 standard deviation faster than the mean.

Use the 68-95-99. CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING Scores on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale for the 20-34 year old age group are normally distributed with a mean of 110 and standard deviation of 25.7 rule to determine what percent of people score… Above 110 Above 150 Below 85 Below 185 + Normal Distributions .

+ Normal Distributions . CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING EPA fuel economy estimates for automobiles tested recently predicted a mean of 24.2 for highway driving. Assume a Normal model to determine… The range of gas mileage for the central 68% of cars The percent of autos getting more than 31 mpg The percent of autos getting between 31 and 37.2mpg Why you shouldn’t use these numbers to predict driving in-town gas mileage.8mpg and a standard deviation of 6.

This new distribution is called the Standard Normal Distribution. + Normal Distributions The Standard Normal Distribution . We can standardize these data by changing to z-scores: z = (x . All Normal distributions are the same if we measure in units of size σ from the mean µ as center. then so does the new variable z.µ)/ σ. If the variable we standardize has a Normal distribution.

σ) with mean µ and standard deviation σ. Definition: The standard Normal distribution is the Normal distribution with mean 0 and standard deviation 1. If a variable x has any Normal distribution N(µ. All Normal distributions are the same if we measure in units of size σ from the mean µ as center. + Normal Distributions The Standard Normal Distribution .1). then the standardized variable z x - has the standard Normal distribution. N(0.

The table entry for each value z is the area under the curve to the left of z.81) = .7580 .02 .7611 .8159 .8212 P(z < 0.7881 .01 . Definition: The Standard Normal Table Table A is a table of areas under the standard Normal curve.7642 .81. we can find areas under any Normal curve from a single table.00 .8186 .7910 + Normal Distributions . We can use Table A: Z 0.7 0.8 0. The Standard Normal Table Because all Normal distributions are the same when we standardize.7939 . Suppose we want to find the proportion of observations from the standard Normal distribution that are less than 0.9 .7910 .

3146 = 0.1056+0.6854 + Normal Distributions .Example Finding Areas Under the Standard Normal Curve Find the proportion of observations from the standard Normal distribution that are between -1.(0.81. Can you find the same proportion using a different approach? 1 .25 and 0.2090) = 1 – 0.

+ Normal Distributions .78.Example Finding Areas Under the Standard Normal Curve Find the proportion of observations from the standard Normal distribution that are greater than -1.

9370 is for the area to the left of z = 1. The area to the right of z = 1.53.53 standard deviations above the mean.53 is 1 – 0.Example Finding Areas Under the Standard Normal Curve Find the proportion of observations in a Normal distribution that are more than 1.9370 = 0. The table entry 0.0630 + Normal Distributions .

58 and z = 1.79.6823 – = + Normal Distributions . Area to the left of z = 1.58 is 0.79 is 0.Example Finding Areas Under the Standard Normal Curve Find the proportion of observations in a Normal distribution that are between 0.79 is 0.58 and 1.9633 Area to the left of z = -0.2810 Area between z = 0.

shading the appropriate area. finding the z-scores. Answer each of these questions by sketching a Normal model. CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING Remember those tall Dutch men? Their mean height was 184cm and the standard deviation was 8cm. What percent of Dutch men should be less than 190cm tall? What percent of Dutch men should be between 170 and 180cm tall? What fraction of Dutch men should be over 198cm tall? + Normal Distributions . and using the table to determine the percentage.

What z-score represents the first quartile in a Normal Model? + Normal Distributions . Working Backward: Finding z-scores from Percentiles Sometimes we start with areas and need to find the corresponding z-score or even the original data value.

The lowest 40% of the distribution The highest 30% of the distribution The highest 2% of the distribution The middle 30% of the distribution + Normal Distributions . shade the area described. Working Backward: Finding z-scores from Percentiles For each. 2. 4. 3. sketch the standard Normal distribution. and find the z-score cutpoints 1.

Working Backward: Finding z-scores from Percentiles To Find a z-score from a percentile: 1. and the standard deviation into the formula: z = (x – μ)/σ 3.Solve for x + Normal Distributions .Plug the z-score.Look for the percentile (as a decimal) in the middle of the z-table. the mean. 2.

and then determining the cutpoint height. Remember that their mean height was 184cm and the standard deviation was 8cm. 1. shading the appropriate area. Answer each of these questions by sketching a Normal model. Going Back to those Dutch men Let’s think about the Normal model for the heights of Dutch men one more time.How tall are the middle 50% of Dutch men? + Normal Distributions .How tall are the shortest 20% of Dutch men? 3. finding the cutpoint z-score.How tall are the tallest 10% of all Dutch men? 2.

•Use Table A and the fact that the total area under the curve is 1 to find the required area under the standard Normal curve. •Standardize x to restate the problem in terms of a standard Normal variable z. Normal Distribution Calculations How to Solve Problems Involving Normal Distributions State: Express the problem in terms of the observed variable x. Conclude: Write your conclusion in the context of the problem. + Normal Distributions . Plan: Draw a picture of the distribution and shade the area of interest under the curve. Do: Perform calculations.

0.304 2.63 8 When x = 325.4440.63 and the area to the left of z=0.5517 = 0.13 8 325 . What percent of Tiger’s drives travel between 305 and 325 yards? When x = 305.9957 – 0. we can find the area to the left of z=2. 8).13. z = Using Table A. the distance the ball travels can be described by N(304. Normal Distribution Calculations When Tiger Woods hits his driver. + Normal Distributions . About 44% of Tiger’s drives travel between 305 and 325 yards. z = 305 .304 0.

The variable x has a Normal distribution with μ = 115 and σ = 6. We want the proportion of first serves with x ≥ 120. z = 0. This means that the area to the right of z = 0.2033.83 shows us that the area less than z = -.83 is 0.7967.83 6 x = 120 z = 0. + Normal Distributions .83 is 1 – 0. About what proportion of his first serves would you expect to exceed 120mph? State: Let x = the speed of Nadal’s first serve. Conclude: About 20% of Nadal’s first serves will travel more than 120mph. Normal Distribution Calculations In the 2008 Wimbledon tennis tournament. Plan: 120 -115 Do : When x =120.83 Looking up a z-score of 0. Rafael Nadal averaged 115 miles per hour on his first serves: N(115. 6).7967 = 0.

The variable x has a Normal distribution with μ = 115 and σ = 6. Conclude: About 20% of Nadal’s first serves will travel between 100 and 110mph.83 Looking up a z-score of -2.83 shows us that between z = -2.1971.2033 – 0. 100 -115 Do : When x =100.83 is 0. Thus. + Normal Distributions .5 6 110 115 When x = 110. Normal Distribution Calculations In the 2008 Wimbledon tennis tournament.83 x = 100 z = -2. z = 2. Looking the area less than z = -0. 6). the area up a z-score of -0.0062.50 is 0.83 is 0. We want the proportion of first serves with x ≥ 120.50 x = 110 z = -0. About what proportion of his first serves are between 100 and 110mph? State: Let x = the speed of Nadal’s first serve. Rafael Nadal averaged 115 miles per hour on his first serves: N(115.2033.0062 = 0.50 shows us that the area less than z = -2.50 and z = 0. z 6 0.

the distribution of blood cholesterol is approximately Normal: N(170. 30). What is the first quartile of the distribution of blood cholesterol? + Normal Distributions . For 14-year-old boys. Normal Distribution Calculations: Cholesterol in Teenage Boys High levels of cholesterol in the blood increase the risk of heart disease.

CHECK

YOUR UNDERSTANDING

High levels of cholesterol in the blood increase the risk of heart disease. For 14-year-old boys, the distribution of blood cholesterol is approximately Normal: N(170, 30). Cholesterol levels above 240mg/dL may require medical attention. What percent of 14-year-old boys have more than 240mg/dL of cholesterol? What percent of 14-year-old boys have blood cholesterol between 200 and 240 mg/dL?

+

Normal Distributions

Assessing

Normality

The Normal distributions provide good models for some distributions of real data. Many statistical inference procedures are based on the assumption that the population is approximately Normally distributed. Consequently, we need a strategy for assessing Normality.

Plot the data. •Make a dotplot, stemplot, or histogram and see if the graph is approximately symmetric and bell-shaped. Check whether the data follow the 68-95-99.7 rule. •Count how many observations fall within one, two, and three standard deviations of the mean and check to see if these percents are close to the 68%, 95%, and 99.7% targets for a Normal distribution.

+

Normal Distributions

Most software packages can construct Normal probability plots. These plots are constructed by plotting each observation in a data set against its corresponding percentile’s z-score. Interpreting Normal Probability Plots

If the points on a Normal probability plot lie close to a straight line, the plot indicates that the data are Normal. Systematic deviations from a straight line indicate a non-Normal distribution. Outliers appear as points that are far away from the overall pattern of the plot.

+

Normal Distributions

Normal

Probability Plots

Example Assessing Normality Find the proportion of observations from the standard Normal distribution that are between -1.2090) = 1 – 0.6854 + Normal Distributions .1056+0.3146 = 0.81. Can you find the same proportion using a different approach? 1 .(0.25 and 0.

1056+0.225 + Normal Distributions .2090) = 1 – 0. 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 3 0 0 1 2 1 3 3 0 0 2 3 5 3 4 2 2 5 5 4 4 2 6 6 6 4 4 6 6 7 4 5 7 8 7 8 5 7 9 6 7 8 9 9 3 7 7 1 .6854 Key: 4|1 = 4.3146 = 0.1% Mean = 8.682 StDev = 2. Below is a histogram showing the data. Assessing Normality: Is Unemployment 4 5 1 0 5 Normal? At right are the data on unemployment rates in the 50 states in November. 2009.(0.

Mean = 8.457 to 10.232 to 13. and 99.007 to 15.682 StDev = 2. 95%.7% targets for a Normal distribution.225 + Normal Distributions .907 4.357 36/50 = 72% 48/50 = 96% 50/50 = 100% Normal? Refer to the table at right: These percents are quite close to the 68%.132 2. Assessing Normality: Is Unemployment Mean ± 1SD Mean ± 2SD Mean ± 3SD 6.

23 3.23 3.12 3.98 0.27 3.2 2.92 3 3. Assessing Normality: Were last year’s Seniors’ GPAs Normal? 0.28 2.38 3.28 2.31 2.93 3.04 2.79 1.46 3.13 3.34 3.79 4.79 2.78 2.11 3.48 3.36 3.55 2.79 Mean ± 1SD Mean ± 2SD Mean ± 3SD + Normal Distributions .77 2.28 2.53 2.84 3.39 2.15 1.92 2.81 2 2 2.78 0.5 3.63 2.83 1.88 3.89 2.86 3.8 2.93 3.29 2.

22 1.06 2.75 2.04 4.35 3.23 3.75 4.31 3.45 2.37 3.99 3.48 Mean = 2.99 2. Assessing Normality: Are your GPAs Normal? 1.45 1.11 3.49 1.06 4.45 3. = 0.63 1.46 2.36 1.03 2.83 2.94 2.26 2.64 2.39 1.53 2.60 1.95 1.70 St.49 2.94 2.55 3.41 2.80 2.51 2.33 4.95 2 2 2.44 2.81 Mean ± 1SD Mean ± 2SD Mean ± 3SD + Normal Distributions .31 3.16 3.14 3.83 2.Dev.27 3.

7 15.1 15.0 17.4 Mean ± 1SD Mean ± 2SD Mean ± 3SD + Normal Distributions .1 15.9 14.8 16.2 16.5 16.5 14.9 14.6 17.0 16. (source: Consumer Reports. May 2010) Are the data close to Normal? 12.3 15.3 16.2 15.4 14.3 16.2 13.6 15.0 16.2 15.5 17.3 15.3 16.7 15.8 17.6 15.4 14.6 16.4 16. Assessing Normality: No Space in the Fridge? The measurements listed below describe the useable capacity (in cubic feet) of a sample of 36 side-by-side refrigerators.2 16.6 17.0 18.5 14.6 17.

Measure its length to the nearest cm. Raskin will give you a Twizzler. Are Twizzlers Normal? Mean ± 1SD Mean ± 2SD Mean ± 3SD + Normal Distributions . Assessing Normality: Are Twizzlers Normal? Ms.

+ Normal Distributions . What Can Go Wrong? • Don’t use a Normal model when the distribution is not unimodal and symmetric.

•Don’t round your results in the middle of a calculation. Both mean and standard deviation can be distorted by outliers. What Can Go Wrong? •Don’t use the mean and standard deviation when outliers are present. •Don’t worry about minor differences in results. •Don’t round off too soon. + Normal Distributions .

6 Normal Distributions Summary In this chapter.+ Ch. The mean µ and standard deviation σ completely specify a Normal distribution N(µ. . symmetric density curves called Normal curves. and three standard deviations of the mean. and σ is the distance from µ to the change-of-curvature points on either side. The mean is the center of the curve.7 Rule. which describes what percent of observations lie within one. All Normal distributions obey the 68-95-99. two. we learned that… The Normal Distributions are described by a special family of bellshaped.σ).

To assess Normality for a given set of data. 6 Normal Distributions Summary (cont’d) All Normal distributions are the same when measurements are standardized.7 rule. By standardizing. We can also construct and interpret a Normal probability plot. . The standard Normal distribution has mean µ=0 and standard deviation σ=1. We then check how well the data fits the 68-95-99. we first observe its shape. Table A gives percentiles for the standard Normal curve.+ Ch. we can use Table A to determine the percentile for a given z-score or the z-score corresponding to a given percentile in any Normal distribution.

Transforming data can affect the shape. especially when changing units of measurement. It is common to transform data. A cumulative relative frequency graph allows us to examine location within a distribution. .+ Ch. We can sometimes describe the overall pattern of a distribution by a density curve (an idealized description of a distribution that smooths out the irregularities in the actual data). 6 Describing Location in a Distribution Summary (cont’d) There are two ways of describing an individual’s location within a distribution – the percentile and z-score. center. and spread of a distribution.

+ Looking Ahead… In the next Chapter… We’ll learn how to describe relationships between two quantitative variables We’ll study Scatterplots and correlation Least-squares regression .

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