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A method for obtaining lower bounds

What is an Adversary? A Second Algorithm Which Intercepts Access to Data Structures Constructs the input data only as needed Attempts to make original algorithm work as hard as possible Analyze Adversary to obtain lower bound .

it can never say later that x[2]<x[1].Important Restriction Although data is created dynamically. . it must return consistent results. If it replies that x[1]<x[2].

Max and Min Keep values and status codes for all keys Codes: N-never used W-won once but never lost L-lost once but never won WL-won and lost at least once Key values will be arranged to make answers to come out right .

W W.WL. WL.L N/C N/C N/C 2 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 N.L L.L WL. W.W x<y WL.L.W.WL x>y L.WL Consistent .W x>y L.N x>y WL.N x<y W.L.When comparing x and y Status ResponseNewStat Info W.L x>y W.N x>y W. WL.L W.N x>y L. L.WL WL.

Accumulating Information 2n-2 bits of information are required to solve the problem All keys except one must lose.N pairs gives n/2 comparisons and n bits of info n-2 additional bits are required one comparison each is needed . all keys except one must win Comparing N.

) Upper bound is given by the following – Compare elements pairwise. put losers in one pile. min of losers – This gives 3n/2-2 comparisons The algorithm is optimal .Results 3n/2-2 comparisons are needed (This is a lower bound. winners in another pile – Find max of winners.

Largest and Second Largest Second Largest must have lost to largest Second Largest is Max of those compared to largest Tournament method gives n-1+lg n comparisons for finding largest and second largest .

Second Largest: Adversary All keys are assigned weights w[i] Weights are all initialized to 1 Adversary replies are based on weights .

When x is compared to y Weights w[x]>w[y] w[x]=w[y]>0 w[y]>w[x] w[x]=w[y]=0 Reply x>y x>y y>x Consistent Changes w[x]:=w[x]+w[y]. w[y]:=0. w[x]:=w[x]+w[y]. w[x]:=0. None . w[y]:=0. w[y]:=w[y]+w[x].

Accumulation of Weight Solution of the problem requires all weight to be accumulated with one key All other keys must have weight zero Since weight accumulates to highest weight. weight can at most double with each comparison lg n comparisons are required to accumulate all weight .

Results The largest key must be compared with lg n other keys Finding the second largest requires at least lg n comparisons after finding the largest This is a lower bound The tournament algorithm is optimal .

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