Sociologi dalam Seni & Desain

Materi

Pengenalan Sosiologi dalam Seni dan Desain  Budaya dan Masyarakat  Sosialisasi dan Interaksi Sosial

Sosiologi dalam Seni dan Desain

Sumbangan Sosiologi

Memberi pemahaman tentang permasalahan sosial dan pola-pola perilaku Membantu memahami cara kerja sistem sosial yang dialami di kehidupan kita.
◦ Struktur-struktur sosial (bagaimana masyarakat terorganisasi lewat aturanaturan tentang bagaimana orang saling berelasi dan juga bagaimana mengelola kehidupan sosialnya) ◦ Proses-proses sosial (bagaimana masyarakat berfungsi dan proses tersebut berjalan secara tertentu lewat cara yang bahkan sering tanpa disadari)

Mulai dari keluarga tempat manusia dilahirkan. dan bagaimana tatanan tersebut mempengaruhi hidup kita. lewat sekolah. 5). termasuk tentang bagaimana tatanan tersebut diciptakan. 5). dan bermain. kita hidup dalam rajutan yang saling kait mengkait dalam tatanan sosial Fokus sosiologi terhadap tatanan tersebut. kerja.PEMAHAMAN SOSIOLOGI   Mengenal Sosiologi berawal dari premis dasar bahwa kehidupan manusia adalah kehidupan sosial (Rebach and Bruhn 2001. bagaimana tatanan tersebut berubah. pensiun dan bahkan ketika kumpul bersama untuk memperingati arwah. memberi peluang dan pilihan hidup bagi kita (Rebach and Bruhn 2001. . Kebanyakan manusia secara ajeg terlibat dalam interaksi bersama sesamanya.

Jadi Secara harafiah sosiologi berarti ilmu tentang persahabatan (Abercrombie. and Turner 2000. Secara resmi istilah Sosiologi diperkenalkan oleh Auguste Comte (1798–1857). dan perilaku kolektif dari relasi-relasi sosial. struktur. interaksi.Etimologi Sosiologi Istilah sociology berasal dari kata Latin word socius (companion) dan kata Yunani logos (study of ). Definisi yang lebih luas dari yang harafiah kurang lebih berarti: studi ilmiah tentang perkembangan. 333). Hill.‖ . Filsuf Perancis yang digelari ―Bapak Sosiologi.

atau guru. o Sebagai macam-macam iklan mulai sepatu olahraga sampai bagaimana membantu orang kelaparan  . Membantu memahami megapa kita mempersepsi dunia dan cara kita mempersepsin ya : Kita dibanjiri oleh informasi dalam berbagai bentuknya tentang: bagaimana kita. oSebagai hukum dan peraturan yang ditetapkan agama dan politik.Sumbangan Sosiologi 1. dan dunia di seputar kita.  Pesan/informasi tersebut hadir dalam berbagai bentuk: o sebagai macam-macam tuntunan hidup dari orang tua. berada bersama dan bagaimana seharusnya berada bersama.

 sumber-sumber pesan tersebut.  jperan kita dalam memproduksi pesan.Jadi. Sosiologi membantu kita dalam: mempelajari berbagai jenis pesan/ informasi yang terus menerus kita terima. mengabadikannya dan mengubahnya.  .  bagaimana serta mengapa pesanpesan tersebut mempengaruhi kita.

negara. . ◦ Bagaimana berbagai kelompok terbentuk.. Sosiologi mencari: ◦ Struktur sosial apa dan proses mana yang penting bagi berbagai kelompok. dunia). ◦ Maka dapat membantu kelompok dalam mencari perhatian bersama. cara berbicara. memahami perspektif kelompok lain. dll. di dalam dan di antara kebudayaan dan masyarakat. kebiasaan. meskipun media massa sering memperlihatkan perbedaan. Membantu mengindentif ikasi apa saja yang kita miliki bersama. meskipun orang berbeda dalam hal:   Pandangan sosiologi tersebut penting . TETAPI: ada yang sama yaitu: tipe kekuatan sosial yang membentuk kehidupan mereka.Sumbangan Sosiologi 2. kepercayaan. dapat berbeda cara berpakaian. . dan mencari jalan untuk kebaikan bersama. dan dipengaruhi masyarakat.  Sosiologi mengetahui bahwa: ◦ Orang dapat tinggal di tempat berbeda (kota.

memashaminya. kalau kita memiliki perspektif sosiologis. kita dapat: ◦ lebih efektif dalam mengambil tindakan ketika kita tidak suka terhadap apa yang terjadi. mengkritknya. ◦ Lebih mampu ikut serta dalam membentuk masa depan kita dan orang lain. Membantu memahami mengapa dan bagaimana masyarakat berubah. menjelaskannya.Sumbangan Sosiologi 3. Karena itu.   Sosiologi adalah bidang ilmu yang mempertanyakan secara terus menerus kondisi kemanusiaan. (Restivo 1991. . 4). dan meningkatkannya.

Kaitan antara Sosiologi dan Psikologi Disiplin ilmu sosial Psikologi Fokus bidang ilmu Perspektif individualistik Perhatian yang sama dengan Sosiologi Penyesuaian dengan situasi hidup Perbedaan Fokus dengan Sosiologi Pengaruh eksternal pada individu .

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craft dan desain Seni murni craft disain •Ekspresi pribadi •Inovasi visual •Memperkaya pengalaman estetika •subjektivitas • Craftmanship • Workmanship • Unik • Trial & error • Problem solving of need • fungsi dan daya pakai • proses desain • produksi • nilai keindahan tersendiri • objektivitas tty-metdes 12 .Perbedaan antara seni murni.

berpikir lateral dan pengalaman  Merupakan proses pengambilan keputusan yang rasional dan dapat dipertanggung jawabkan  tty-metdes 13 .desain Hasil karya melalui sebuah proses yang melibatkan berbagai disiplin ilmu dan merupakan hasil kerja koordinatif  Proses yang melibatkan penelitian ( guna mengetahui kebutuhan masyarakat pengguna)  Merupakan proses kreatif yang melibatkan unsur kemampuan.

Desain sebagai salah satu unsur dalam memenuhi kebutuhan manusia manusia DESAIN kegiatan tuntutan kebutuhan tty-metdes 14 .

iklim dan waktu tty-metdes 15 . karakter. efisiensi.informasi kegiatan. interaksi sosial dan budaya .perilaku.Desain merupakan hasil dari proses penelitian . struktur.informasi lingkungan Non teknis . sifat .topografi.kualitas kenyamanan.informasi proyek . keamanan.hirarki.karakteristik demografi. privasi masyarakat Faktor eksternal .sistem yg digunakan Teknis .aspek legal: peraturan . klasifikasi sosial .informasi pemakai informasi desainer . kebutuhan dan kapasitas .

memunculkan ide dan kemampuan berpikir lateral (secara menyeluruh). Untuk itu desainer harus memiliki pengalaman. memunculkan berbagai alternatif pemecahan. berpikir lateral dan pengalaman Proses kreatif yang berlangsung selama mendesain harus disertai dengan kemampuan desainer dalam mengolah informasi. Persepsi thd masalah • Pengenalan masalah First insight Preparation Incubation • Antisipasi Penyusunan tahapan pemikiran • Mengerti masalah • pencarian solusi Pengendalian pemikiran Aksi dari dalam pikiran illumination Verification Pemunculan ide Penilaian yang kritis penguraian. Pengalaman diperoleh dari lingkungan pendidikan. pengujian dan pengembangan tty-metdes 16 .Desain merupakan hasil proses kreatif yang melibatkan unsur kemampuan. keterampilan. kehidupan sosial budaya dan hubungan sosial masyarakat.

bertindak. organisasi apa yang dibentuk. hukum yang dibuat. dan memiliki segala hal yang terdapat dalam interaksi antar manusia:  ◦ membentuk cara pandang manusia terhadap dunia di sekitarnya. bagaimana berbicara. menentukan nilai. apa yang dinilai cantik atau jelek. ◦ Berdampak pada cara manusia berpikir. apa yang dimakan. perilaku. dan berbagai barang/produk dalam hidup bersama dan mencirikan cara hidup sebuah kelompok.  Lebih dari sekadar hal-hal yang diciptakan manusia. kepercayaan. apa yang dipakai. dll. . ritual apa yang dijalani.BUDAYA DAN MASYARAKAT Budaya dan Tipe Budaya Kebudayaan: terdiri dari segala ide. bagaimana dan apa yang disembah.

dan institusi/lembaga sosial. makanan.  Kebudayaan material. karya seni. kendaraan. penemuan-penemuan.BUDAYA DAN TIPE BUDAYA Tipe Budaya Kebudayaan material: meliputi segala hal yang dapat terlihat yang dibuat oleh manusia dari hasil interaksi di antara mereka: contohnya. nilai. sofware. kepercayaan. komputer. seperti teknologi. Volti 2001).  . Jika hal itu terjadi. alat-alat. Antara lain: ide. pakaian. bangunan. buku. bahasa. perilaku. dapat lebih cepat berubah daripada kebudayaan non-material. dimana terdapat gap yaitu berbagai aspek perubahaan kebudayaan yang berbeda dalam berbagai tingkat (Ogburn 1964.  Kebudayaan non-material: terdiri dari segala hal yang tak terlihat yang diciptakan manusia dari hasil interaksi di antara mereka. akan terdapat cultural lag. dll.

dan seni (fine arts). Examples of popular culture include fast-food restaurants. for several reasons. Unlike high culture. and pursued by large numbers of people across all social classes. or they may be located in exclusive locations that are largely inaccessible without special membership or hefty financial resources. dansa (cotillions or debutante balls). These activities may not be available to everyone. and best-selling novels . Kebudayaan Rendah: popular culture consists of activities that are widespread in a culture. with mass accessibility and appeal. rock concerts. television situation comedies. They may be too expensive. special preparation or knowledge may be important in understanding or fully appreciating these activities.BUDAYA DAN TIPE BUDAYA Tipe Budaya   Kebudayaan Tinggi: High culture terdiri dari hal-hal yang pada umumnya diasosiasikan dengan eli sosial. Contoh Kebudayaan Tinggi antara lain: adalah opera. pencicipan anggur. Additionally. musik klasik dan kesusasteraan.

But the individual is also indispensable to society because by his activity and ingenuity he creates all the material values. Hill. Palestinian society defies any strictly defined territorial boundaries (Abercrombie. 330). . and transportation technologies all make culture sharing and convergence possible across the globe.SOCIETY A society consists of people who interact and share a common culture. 233–34).  Dropping this geographic aspect of the definition of society allows a more accurate and complex understanding of all that a society is.  Some definitions of society (particularly older ones) specify that interaction occurs within some shared boundary.  ―Society is indispensable to the individual because it possesses at a given moment an accumulation of values. the whole fund of civilization‖ (Thomas and Thomas 1928. and Turner 2000. Increasing globalization and the rapid expansion of communication. of plans and materials which the child could never accumulate alone . For example. information. . .

the major social organizations formed to meet our human needs  social structure. the way a society is organized around the regulated ways people interrelat.SOCIAL STRUCTURE Society includes our social institutions.e and organize social life .

a toddler. Being a female. Individuals had to do something to become each of these things. Being a law-school student. Ascribed statuses are positions involuntarily acquired through birth. a brother. Status Set & Master Status . square dancer. a son. a Caucasian. architect. or shoplifter are all achieved statuses. or a princess are all ascribed statuses. parent.STATUS statuses are established social positions Achieved statuses are those positions acquired through personal effort.

role set. Role strain occurs when two or more roles associated with a single status are in conflict. Long work hours may make attending her child’s school plays or teacher conferences difficult.PERAN A role is a behavior expected of someone in a particular status. This requires balancing expectations. who is also a mother. may find it difficult to devote the long work hours required of her job and concurrently fulfill the expectations of being a parent. all of the roles that go with a single status.  Role conflict The roles for different statuses the person holds may conflict with each other. For example.  . Our doctor. the doctor may find it difficult to give patients all the time she would like to during appointments while holding to her appointment schedule and seeing the number of patients she must see daily to meet the financial obligations of the clinic.

 Norms constitute the shared rules or expectations specifying appropriate behaviors in various situations.ASPEK BUDAYA cultural values.  . object. It can represent. or even an event. emotions. represents. beliefs. attitudes. values. These symbols can be verbal or written. norms.  A symbol is something that stands for. symbols. culturally defined ideas about what is important. word. or events. Sharing symbols can help build a sense of unity an commitment among people. A symbol can be anything. or signifies something else in a particular culture. ideas. and language Values.  Language is a system of symbols that allows communication among members of a culture. It can be a gesture. for example.

DIVERSITY       A subculture is a smaller culture within a dominant culture that has a way of life distinguished in some important way from that dominant culture. peaceful. multiculturalism—a recognition of and respect for cultural differences. A culture that opposes patterns of the dominant culture is known as a counterculture.judge other cultures by those cultures’ own standards .judging other cultures by the standards of one’s own culture. self-exploration lifestyle. The process of a cultural group losing its identity and being absorbed into the dominant culture is known as assimilation. hippies advocated dropping out of the mainstream culture into a communal. In the 1960s. Ethnocentrism . Cultural relativism. Countercultures are often youth-oriented (Spates 1976). Multiculturalism allows much of the dominant culture to be shared while valuing some traditions of various subgroups.

larger groups in which all members do not interact directly and have relationships that are not permanent . ◦ secondary groups. ◦ society provides a sort of mirror.Charles Horton Cooley (1864– 1929).‖ that reflects to us who we are.SOSIALISASI DAN INTERAKSI SOSIAL Teori Sosialisasi  the looking-glass self . We form our self image on the basis of how we think others see us. 184). ◦ This concept consists of three major parts:  ―the imagination of our appearance to the other person.  the imagination of [the] judgment of that appearance. intimate face-to-face interaction and cooperation. We come to think o ourselves in terms of how we imagine others see us.  and some sort of self-feeling. ◦ Primary groups are those small groups in which all the members have enduring. or ―looking-glass. such as pride or mortification‖ (Cooley 1964.

enabling us to see ourselves as we perceive society sees us.  The core of socialization in Mead’s concept is role taking. .SOSIALISASI DAN INTERAKSI SOSIAL Teori Sosialisasi The I and Me  George Herbert Mead (1863–1931)developed a concept of the self that was central to our understanding of the socialization process and the development of symbolic interactionism. creative actor. I can then fashion new actions and reactions in response to my perception of how others have appraised Me. reflecting and acting on the reactions of others. and others will appraise that behavior. it will reflect on Me. ◦ We have a mental conversation with ourselves that guides our behaviors that goes like this:  When I do something.  ◦ The I is a spontaneous. or the ability to take the role of others in social interaction. we are not born with a ―self. impulsive. ◦ The Me is the part of us that conforms.  To Mead (1934).‖ We develop a self through social experience and interaction.  There are two phases to this self that we form: the I and the Me.

SOSIALISASI DAN INTERAKSI SOSIAL Teori Sosialisasi Personality and Social Development  Sigmund Freud (1856–1939). the ego. ◦ Freud (1950) moved beyond Cooley’s and Mead’s focus on conscious perceptions. profiled below. identifying the importance of the unconscious mind.  ◦ early socialization is critically important to personality development and to managing natural desires that promote selfinterest rather than social interests. and the superego.  Freud (1950) saw personality as divided into three parts: the id. is both complex and controversial made important contributions to our understanding of socialization. ◦ the importance of internalizing norms and values. .

1928. understand. Children do what meets their needs to stay out of trouble. Gilligan. It influences the way we approach social relationships. Ward.SOSIALISASI DAN INTERAKSI SOSIAL Teori Sosialisasi     ognitive development that examined how children develop the ability to learn. theory of moral development ( Lawrence Kohlberg). moral development also occurs in stages. understand reality. 1930. Piaget felt that humans develop through four stages as they learn to use language. According to Kohlberg (1984). and then think abstractly. They learn to make causal connections and reason out alternatives. As young teens. Considering gender. discover how and why things work as they do. she argues that boys and girls use different principles in moral reasoning. How socialization impacts this moral reasoning has been the subject of further research by psychologist Carol Gilligan (1982. and engage in logical thought. people are socialized into meeting socially accepted norms and values. Gender-role socialization impacts us throughout our lives. to understand others’standpoints and develop an abstract sense of fairness. through learning. . and Taylor 1989). Boys tend to focus on justice. whereas girls tend to focus on caring and responsibility. Some adults are then able to engage in abstract ethical reasoning. gender-role socialization. Jean Piaget (1896–1980). even our jobs. 1932). leisure activities. Social experience is a vital role throughout this development (Piaget 1926. These principles reflect the process of learning to take on socially approved roles for males and females. considering not only ―right‖ and ―wrong‖ but the reasons for these positions. A corresponding theory of moral development examined how people progress from the selfcenteredness of a small child.

language. and social skills. values. cultural knowledge. In othe words. Our families are our initial teachers of behaviors. . and religious background. They are also central to gender role socialization (Fenstermaker Berk 1985). race and ethnicity. The family into which we are born provides us social characteristics such as social class. they provide our primary socialization.SOSIALISASI DAN INTERAKSI SOSIAL Proses Sosialisasi  the family is the first and most important location for socialization (an agent of socialization).

ethnicities. they enter a bureaucracy where they are expected to learn how to be a student (Gracey 2001). flag. In addition to families. Formal and informal institutional activities such as recess periods and games socialize children into culturally approved gender roles (e. Best 1983. but also in a hidden curriculum that encourages conformity to the norms. and value systems. values. schools also contribute to gender-role socialization. and beliefs held by wider society. . stand in line. Block 1983. Thorne and Luria 1986). These secondary-group interactions with schoolmates and staff are different than the primary-group interactions they have had with their families. say the Pledge of Allegiance to the U. and in some schools. Students learn to speak with proper grammar.SOSIALISASI DAN INTERAKSI SOSIAL Proses Sosialisasi   In schools.g. students are exposed to a variety of different experiences. wait their turn. social classes. perhaps for the first time. They interact with people of different races. When children enter school. They will be educated not only in academic skills. religions.S..

social class. Friends are a major source of information about sexuality for adolescents. with boys in particular pressing each other to talk about sexual prowess and ―scoring‖ (Sprecher and McKinney 1993). and interests. and views of self (Eder 1995). Peers become especially important in adolescence. Parents. Theories that address peer socialization are often used to explain adolescent deviance (see chapter 6). and clothing choices. however. such as their long-term goals (Davies and Kandel 1981). those of similar age. They influence students’ study habits (Bogler and Somech 2002).SOSIALISASI DAN INTERAKSI SOSIAL Proses Sosialisasi  peer groups. music. Pressure from peers encourages teens to engage insexual intercourse. and they have a greater influence on dating choices than do adults (Wood et al. 2002). Peer settings allow children to engage in activities outside of parental control and other adult supervision. have influence over many of the ―big‖ areas in adolescents’ lives. .

. and values through the media. beliefs. televised medical dramas and documentaries about medical procedures). magazines.g. We are exposed to a variety of behaviors. They include newspapers. whether or not we have ever met a team of emergency room physicians or observed surgery. and television.. These media are pervasive throughout society. For example. radio. we develop expectations about these people and situations based on media portrayals (e. are also important in the socialization process. impersonal communications that are directed in a one-way flow to a large audience. We also obtain many of our views about society and how things are or should be through the mass media.SOSIALISASI DAN INTERAKSI SOSIAL Proses Sosialisasi  Mass media. ideas. movies.

However. It occurs in any group we wish to join or use as a reference group. What they find may be unexpected. It’s not specific to the workplace. loss of the worker role is less of a problem to retirees than other issues such as health or income (e. This leaves some retirees in a ―roleless‖ role. we anticipate how to fit in with classmates. This occurs as they interact with their peers and attempt to fit in with their mentors and established colleagues.. They learn and adopt the behavior and attitudes of the group they desire or expect to join. Many workers look forward to being able to leave their jobs and move on to another position or leisurely activities. Palmore et al. at least to some degree. or members of a sports team we join (see Chapter 5). and most retirees experience their retirement years positively (Atchley 2000.SOSIALISASI DAN INTERAKSI SOSIAL Proses Sosialisasi  Anticipatory socialization. a potential spouse’s family. . For example. Crowley 1985). Social expectations for retirees are not as clearly defined as for other stages in the life course.g. Retirement from paid work also continues the socialization process. 1985. Solomon and Szwabo 1994). Anticipatory socialization occurs in many settings across society.