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1. Staffing Concept
2. Features of Staffing 3. Manpower Planning 4. Manpower Planning Process 5. Recruitment and Selection

6. Training and Development

7. Performance Appraisal

Staffing basically involves matching jobs and individuals. This may require a number of functions like manpower planning, recruitment, selection, training and development, performance appraisal, promotion, transfer, etc.

Staffing Staffing is the process of matching the jobs with capable people. It is concerned with the selection, placement, growth and development of people in an organization. It involves the determination of what personnel are needed, in what quantity and of what quality. It is developmentoriented as it tries to maintain and develop employees through appropriate training and compensation programmes.

Features of Staffing

Staffing involves people 2. Staffing is development-oriented 3. Staffing is continuous 4. Staffing is a three step process:
1. 2.


Hiring the right kind of people Developing their skills through training, and Maintaining them by creating favorable conditions of work

Manpower Planning

Manpower planning is the processincluding forecasting, developing, implementing, and controlling-by which a firm ensures that it has the right number of people and right kind of people, at the right place at the right time, doing things for which they are economically most suitable

Features of Manpower Planning

Manpower planning is a comprehensive process which includes various aspects of manpower management. All these aspects try to ensure availability of right people in the organisation 2. It involves determination of future needs of manpower in the light of organization planning and structure.

Objectives of Manpower Planning

Manpower planning enables an organization to forecast its manpower requirement. 2. Manpower planning helps the organization to match its manpower with skills necessary for achieving its objectives. 3. Manpower planning helps the organization to know how its personnel are employed and how


Systematic manpower planning facilitates similar approach in other aspects of staffing such as recruitment, selection, training and development, promotion, performance appraisal etc. because all these steps are undertaken in the light of manpower planning and have to be oriented in the context of planning.

Manpower Planning Process

Organization Plans
Projecting Manpower Requirement Manpower Inventory

New Manpower Required

Action Plans

Understanding Job Analysis and Job Specifications

Projecting Manpower Requirement Job Analysis

Job Description

Job Specification

Job Analysis



What is the basic objective of the job What is the purpose of segment of the organisation to which the job is related What types of plans and objects are undertaken in this job What types of decisions are to be made by the incumbent on the job What is the authority of the job? How many subordinate will work under him?

Job Analysis Cont.


What are the requirements of personal attributes of incumbent in terms of education, training, experience, apprenticeship, physical strength, mental capabilities, social skills, etc.

Job Description & Job Specification Job Description Prescribes the nature of job to be performed, relationship with other jobs, purpose of the job, etc. This can be used not only for selection of personnel but also for their training, performance appraisal, job evaluation etc. Job Specification or man specification, referes to the summary of the personnel characterstics required for the job. It describes the type of person required in terms of educational qualifications,

Job Description
Title : Compensation Manager Code : HR/2310 Department : Human Resource Department Summary : Responsible for the design and administration of employee compensation programmes. Duties 1. Conduct job analysis. 2. Prepare job descriptions for current and projected positions. 3. Evaluate job descriptions and act as Chairman of Job Evaluation Committee 4. Insure that companys compensation rates are in tune with the companys philosophy 5. Relate salary to the performance of each employee. Conduct periodic salary surveys.

Job Description Cont..

6. 7. 8. 9.

Relate salary to the performance of each employee. Conduct periodic salary surveys. Develop and administer performance appraisal programme. Develop and oversee bonus and other employee benefit plans. Develop an integrated HR Information system.

Working Conditions Normal, Eight hours per day. Five days a week. Report to Director, Human Resource Department.

Job Specifications
Education : MBA in HR Specialisation, MHRM, PGDHRM or equivalent for a premier management institution in first class. Experience: At least 10 years in the filed of HR/ Administration/ Compensation out of which at lease 3-5 years in the field of compensation/ wages and salary administration. Key Skills: Analytical Abilities Convincing power for right decisions Rationality in Decision Making Good Communication and Leadership skills Team building and Result Oriented Approach

Manpower Inventory Manpower inventory is related to the identification of key personnel in the organization and cataloguing their characteristics without reference to the present positions held by them. It provides information about present and future personnel being available in the organization. Manpower Inventory is not simply counting of heads presently available but cataloguing of their present and future potentials and aptitudes.

Identification of Gap Between Available and Required Manpower This is the process of determining the actual needs of personnel and their availability. These will, however, be affected by the rate of loss of personnel. The additional requirement of personnel will be equal to manpower required and manpower available without considering loss of personnel. Loss of personnel includes degree of quits, discharges, mutually-agreed release, death, retirement, and transfer.

Tough times never last, but tough people do !

Concept of Directing 2. Motivation 3. Leadership 4. Communication

Directing Directing is related with instructing, guiding and inspiring human factor in the organization to achieve organization objectives.

Directing is the process of telling a person what to do and seeing that they do it to the best of their ability. It is through directing that managers get the work done through people. It consists of: -Dale

Directing Directing Consists of the following elements: 1. Motivation: Motivating personnel to achieve goals by providing incentives, good working environment, etc. 2. Leadership: Guiding, advising and helping subordinates in the proper methods of work 3. Communication: Issuing orders and instructions by a superior to his subordinates 4. Supervision: Supervising subordinates

Features of Direction Direction is the process of guiding, inspiring, supervising and commanding subordinates towards the accomplishment of goals. It has the following features: 1. Deals with people 2. Seek Performances 3. Provides a link 4. Dynamic and continuous

Importance of Direction
1. Initiates Action 2. Achieves Integration 3. Motivates People 4. Facilitates Changes

5. Attains Balance and Stability

Principles of Direction
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

7. 8.

Principle of Harmony of Objectives Unity of Command Principle of Direct Supervision Principle Appropriate Technique Two way Communication Maximum Individual Contribution Use of Motivation Techniques Principle of Follow up

Behavioural Model by Keith Davis

Autocratic Depends Upon Managerial Orientation Employee Orientation Employee Psychological Results Employee Needs Met Performance Results Power Authority Obedience Dependence on boss Subsistence Minimum Custodial Economic Resource Money Security Dependence on Organization Maintenance Passive cooperation Supportive Leadership Support Job Performance Participation

Higher-order Awakened drives


Motivation .. Performance is determined by two factors: 1. Level of ability to do certain work; and 2. Level of motivation This can be expressed as: Performance = Ability x Motivation

Motivation ..
Motivation is the process of stimulating people to action to accomplish desired goals. Motivation refers to the way in which urges, drives, desires, aspirations, strivings, needs, direct, control, or explain the behavior of human beings.

Motivation .. Motivation is the product of anticipated values from an action and the perceived probability that these values will be achieved by the action. Motivation= Valence x Expectancy

Importance of Motivation
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.


High Performance Level Low Employee Turnover and Absenteeism. Acceptance of Organizational Changes Accomplishment of work in time Improved Quality of work High Level of Satisfaction Mandatory to get the work done

Theories of Motivation

Maslows Need Hierarchy Theory


3. 4.


Physiological Needs Safety and Security Needs Social Needs Esteem Needs Self-Actualization Needs : This need might be phrased as the desire to become more and more what one is, to become everything that one is capable of becoming When the work is equal to a persons Intrinsic Value, He fulfills his Self Actualization need.

Theories of Motivation

Herzbergs Theory



-Maintenance or hygiene factors: These are not

intrinsic parts of a job, but they are related to conditions under which a job is performed. They produce no growth in a workers output; they only prevent losses in workers performance due to work restrictions. These maintenance factors are necessary to maintain a reasonable level of satisfaction in employees.

List of Maintenance or Hygiene factors

Company Policy and administration 2. Technical Supervision 3. Inter-personal relationship with supervisors 4. Inter-personal relationship with peers 5. Inter-personal relationship with subordinates, 6. Salary 7. Job security 8. Personal Life 9. Working Conditions 10. Status

Herzbergs Motivational Factors

These factors are capable of having positive effect on job satisfaction often resulting in an increase in ones total output. Herzberg includes six factors that motivate employees: 1. Achievement 2. Recognition 3. Advancement 4. Work itself 5. Possibility of growth 6. Responsibility

Herzbergs Explanation to theory

Herzberg divided employees in two categoriesmotivation seekers and maintenance seekers. Motivation seekers generally are individuals who are primarily motivated by satisfiers such as advancement, achievement and other factors associated with work itself. Maintenance seekers tend to be more concerned with factors surrounding the job such as supervision, working conditions pay etc.

McClellands Need Theory Need for Power (n/PWR) 2. Need for Affiliation (n/AFF) 3. Need for Achievement (n/ACH)

McGregors X and Y Theory

Employee attitude toward work Management view of direction

Theory X Assumptions
Employees dislike work and. will avoid it if at all possible. Employees must be directed, coerced, controlled, or threatened to get them to put forth adequate effort. Employees wish to avoid responsibility; they prefer to be directed and told what to do and how to do it. Authoritarian style of management

Theory Y Assumptions
Employees enjoy work and will actively seek it. Employees are self-motivated and self-directed toward achieving organizational goals. Employees seek responsibility; they wish to use their creativity, imagination, and ingenuity in performing their jobs. Participatory style of management

Employee view of direction

Management style

William Ouchis Z Theory

Japanese-style approach to management developed by William Ouchi

Advocates trusting employees and making them feel like an integral part of the organization. Based on the assumption that once a trusting relationship with workers is established, production will increase. Z theory includes the following factors:
1. Trust

2. Strong bond between Organization and Employees

3. Employee Involvement 4. No Formal Structure

5. Coordination of Human Beings

Argyriss Immaturity Maturity Theory:

Immaturity Passivity Dependence Capable of Behaving in a few ways Shallow interest Short-Term Perspective Subordinate Position Self-Awareness and Control Maturity Activity Independence Capable of behaving in many ways Deep Interest Long-Term Perspective Superordinate Position Lack of Self-awareness and Control

Vrooms Valence Expectancy Theory

The choice made by a person among alternative courses of action is lawfully related to psychological events occurring contemporaneously with the behaviour. Vrooms concept of force is basically equivalent to motivation and may be shown to be the algebraic sum of products of valences multiplied by expectations. Thus,

Motivation (Force)= Valence x Expectancy

Porter and Lawler Motivation Model

Value of Rewards Ability and traits Intrinsic Rewards Performance Accomplishment Perceived Equitable Rewards


Perceived EffortReward Probability

Role Perception

Extrinsic Rewards


Carrot and Stick Approach of Motivation

The carrot and Stick Approach comes from the old story that the best way to make a donkey move is to put a carrot out in front of him or jab him with a stick from behind. The carrot and is reward for moving and the stick is the punishment for not moving.

Contingency Approach of Motivation

Various theories suggest that there is no universal device applicable to everyone. What motivates people is situational. This is the basic theme of contingency approach of motivation. Following factors seem to be important in this respect: 1. Individual Personality 2. Organizational Climate 3. Available Incentives

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