Introduction to Research Methodology

Meaning of Research
Systematic investigation towards increasing the sum of knowledge (Chambers 20th Century Dictionary)

It refers to a systematic method consisting of enunciating the problem, formulating a hypothesis, collecting the facts ,analyzing the facts and reaching certain conclusions.

Objectives of research

To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve insights into it.
To portray the characteristics of a particular individual, situation or a group.


To determine the frequency with which something occurs or its association with something else.
To test a hypothesis of a casual relationship between variables.

Motivation in research

Desire Desire Desire Desire Desire

Motivation for Research :

to face challenge of solving the unsolved. to get intellectual joy to be of service to society to get respectability to get a research degree

Motivation for Research Methodology:
Qualitatively control research process Validate research results Compare research approaches Respect rules of good scientific practice

Types of research
Descriptive Vs Analytical  Applied Vs Fundamental  Quantitative Vs Qualitative  Conceptual Vs Empirical  Other types

Orientations for research






Research Vs Common Sense
Research is purely an academic activity Vs Inability of managers in the utilization of research findings.  Decisions and problem solving in the scientific way gives better result.  Commonsense is influenced by society and culture and give non-conscious ideologies vs. Researches corrects misbelieves, generate new concepts and broaden perspectives.

Wheel of Research
Improvement in theory and problem solving Interpretations and conclusions Observation and literature review

Problem Clarification

Data Analysis

Assumption And hypothesis Data Collection Research Design Concepts, constructs and models

Research Methods Vs Methodology

Research Methods :All the methods and techniques which are used by the researcher during the course of studying his/her research problem.
Research Methods

Methods for Collection of Data

Statistical techniques used for establishing relations

Methods for Evaluation of Results obtained

Research Methods Vs Methodology
Research Methodology: is a way of systematically solve the research problem.
It may be stated as a science of studying how research is done scientifically.  It involves not only the techniques and methods of research but also the logic behind it.  It helps in designing the research

Ethics and Morals In Research
Ethics ,morals and values have a deep influence research.  Ethical issues in researcher and respondent relationship  Moral responsibility of the researcher deals with social guidelines and constraints upon the techniques and measurement.